Citation: Balan, D., P.M. Sureshan & V. Khanna (2012). A new species of centipede of the genus Cryptops Leach (Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae) from southern Western Ghats with a key to the species of Cryptops in India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(4): 2510–2514. Copyright: © Dhanya Balan, P.M. Sureshan & Vinod Khanna 2012. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgement: We are grateful to Dr. K. Venkataraman, Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata and C. Radhakrishnan, Officer-in-Charge, Western Ghat Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Calicut for providing facilities and encouragement. DB is grateful to Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India for awarding the Junior Research Fellowship and to Dr. John Lewis, UK, for the timely help and advice on matters of taxonomy, assistance with the literature and for useful comments on the manuscript. DB is also thankful to Dr. S. Shankar, Senior Scientist, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala for guidance on matters concerned with the studies in soil ecology. We are grateful to PCCF, Kerala Forest and Wildlife Department for the study permission and Staff, Malabar Wildlife Sanctuary for their encouragement and support during the study. Thanks are also due to Mr. P.K. Umesh, Mr. K.C. Harish and Mr. R.A. Aswanth for assistance rendered during the field trips. The Western Ghats in India, with its very diverse assemblage of flora and fauna is one of the hotspots of biodiversity (Myers et al. 2000). With a few exceptions, the invertebrate fauna of the Western Ghats has been inadequately studied both in terms of their diversity and conservation priorities (Kunte in press). Though an integral part of the soil ecosystems, the fauna of scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) of the Western Ghats is still little known except for the pioneering works by Attems (1930), Jangi & Dass (1984), Yadav (1993) and Sureshan et al. (2006). A perusal of the literature reveals the occurrence of 40 species of scolopendrid centipedes belonging to eight genera and two families in the Western Ghats. Like the families Plutoniumidae and Scolopocryptopidae and the order Geophilomorpha, the family Cryptopidae are blind centipedes, lacking ocelli. Cryptops Leach, 1815, is the largest genus of the family Cryptopidae, with 153 named species worldwide (Lewis 2002), in four subgenera i.e., C. (Cryptops) Leach, 1815; C. (Chromatonops) Verhoeff, 1906; C. (Haplocryptops) Verhoeff, 1934 and C. (Trigonocryptops) Verhoeff, 1906 (Bonato et al. 2011). The smaller size and fragile body, coupled with an abundance of species names, often founded on inadequate samples and with imprecise descriptions, make cryptopid centipedes a taxonomically difficult group and only seven species in two genera have so far been described from India. The Indian species of Cryptops are Cryptops (C.) feae Pocock, 1891, Cryptops (C.) doriae Pocock, 1891, Cryptops (C.) kempi Silvestri, 1924, Cryptops (C.) setosior Chamberlin, 1959 and Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) orientalis Jangi, 1955 (Khanna 2005, 2008).