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Physiology of seed yield in mungbean: Growth and dry matter production


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Growth rate of mungbean was very slow during the vegetative phase in all the four genotypes. A relatively smaller portion of total dry matter (TDM) was produced before flower initiation and the bulk of it after anthesis. The maximum crop growth rate (CGR) was observed due to maximum leaf area (LA) development during the pod filling stage in all the genotypes. LA and CGR contributed to the superior TDM production. It appeared that a high yielding mungbean genotype should possess larger LA, high TDM production ability, superior CGR at all the growth stages, high relative growth rate and net assimilation rate at the vegetative stage as superior yield components.
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... A plant with best LAI and NAR may have a greater biological yield. The ability to efficiently partition between vegetative and reproductive parts may result in high yield potential (Mondal et al., 2011c). For optimum yield in mungbean, the LAI should be ranged from 3.5 to 4.5 (Ali et al., 2021). ...
... Initially, the RGR and NAR values were high and decreasing with age until maturity. RGR decreased substantially in the majority of field crops as plant age increased (Mondal et al., 2011c;Malek et al., 2012;Mondal et al., 2015). The genotypes' RGR and NAR values peaked between 20 and 30 DAS and then began to decline, reaching their lowest points at maturity (60-70 DAS). ...
The experiment was conducted during February to May, 2019 at the research farm of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh-2202. The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth, reproductive characteristics, yield and yield components of four similar durated mungbean genotypes, namely BARI Mung-2, Binamoog-2, MB-29, and MB-43. At most of the growth stages, the mutant MB-29 showed superiority in terms of growth parameters such as total dry matter, leaf area index, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate whilst MB-43 showed the inferiority. Furthermore, MB-29 outperformed the other three genotypes in yield attributing features, resulting in a higher seed yield than the other three genotypes. In comparison, the MB-43 mutant showed the lowest value for the yield parameters. The seed yield correlated positively and significantly with leaf area, total dry matter, absolute growth rate, and number of pods plant-1. J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 47(1); 101-108: June 2023
... Mungbean is an excellent supplemental protein source for rice diet. Besides providing valuable protein in the diet, mungbean has the remarkable quality of helping the symbiotic root rhizobia to fix atmospheric nitrogen and hence to enrich soil (Mondal et al., 2011a). ...
... Important physiological attributes such as leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) can address various constraints of a variety for increasing its productivity (Mondal et al. 2011a). A plant with optimum LAI and NAR may produce higher biological yield. ...
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Experiment was conducted under subtropical condition to investigate the variations in some morphological features, growth, reproductive characters and its impact on seed yield using correlation coefficient in 15 promising mungbean mutants and cultivars. Correlation study revealed that among the traits investigated, leaf area was the most important source that determined total dry mass (TDM) yield, and reproductive characters like number of racemes, flowers and pods/plant were the most important sinks that determined seed yield. Contrarily, reproductive efficiency (RE, % pod set to opened flowers) did not show significant relationship with pod number, pod size and seed yield, indicating that selection of high yield based on RE may be misleading. Generally, high yielding genotypes had capacity to produce higher branches, total dry mass production, leaf area, crop growth rate and number of flowers per plant than the low yielding ones. This information may be used in future plant breeding programme.
... However, the cultivar PSL-9 reported the least branches number and pods plant -1 . Significant results among different cultivars of crop for number of pods plant -1 was also reported by Gupta et al. (2006) and Mondal et al. (2011). The number of seeds per pod has shown no significant difference among the mulches and varietal treatments. ...
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The experiment was conducted at College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Umiam, Meghalaya during the rabi season (November–April, 2022) to study the effect of organic mulching on growth, yield and water productivity of lentil varieties in mid-hills of Meghalaya. The experiment was carried out in split plot design with four mulch treatment under main plot (M0: Un-mulch/control, M1: Paddy straw mulch, M2: Maize stover mulch, M3: Weed mulch) and four varietal treatments under sub plot (V1: HUL-57, V2: PL-4, V3: PDL-1 and V4: PSL-9) which were replicated thrice. Results indicated that, plant height, number of branches plant-1, water productivity were highest under paddy straw mulch. Paddy straw mulch (43.57) which was on par with weed mulch (41.29) has reported significantly highest number of pods plant-1 over maize stover mulch (38.18) and un-mulch (36.21) treatments. Different mulches have reported economic yield advantage of 21.01% to 10.55% over the control. Water productivity has found significantly higher under paddy straw mulch (3.25 kg ha-1 mm-1) over the control treatment (2.57 kg ha-1 mm-1). Mulches also modified soil thermal regimes and effected plant growth and development. Soil temperature has shown increasing trend towards the end of crop season, since, air temperatures are increasing towards the end of growing season. Paddy straw mulch, weed mulch and maize stover mulch increased 2.31°C, 1.88°C, 0.27°C temperature, respectively, over the control during morning hours.
... However, the variety PSL-9 reported the least branches number and pods per plant. Significant results among different varieties of crop for number of pods per plant was also reported by Gupta et al., 2006;Mondal et al., 2011. The significant results were reported among mulch treatments for economic yield (Fig 5.21). ...
... A plant with optimum LAI may produce higher biological yield (Mondal et al., 2012). The dry matter accumulation may be the highest if the LAI attains its maximum value within the shortest possible time (Mondal et al., 2011). Some authors have reported that in lentil higher performance are achieved by the contribution of various yield components (Anzam et al., 2005;Kakde et al., 2005;Tabu and Sakar, 2008;Younis et al., 2008;Karadavut, 2009). ...
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The present experiment was conducted to evaluate some morpho-physiological features and its impact on seed yield of four lentil varieties viz., Binamasur-3, Binamasur-4, Binamasur-5 and BARI Masur-5 during the period from November 2014 to March 2015 at Ishurdi, Bangladesh under subtropical condition (24°8´ N 90°0´ E). The growth rate found very slow during the vegetative phase in all the genotypes due to a relatively smaller portion of dry matter production before flower initiation and bulk of it after anthesis. The maximum growth rate was observed at flowering stage (62-72 days after sowing) in all genotypes. Binamasur-5 showed maximum growth and dry mass accumulation at vegetative stage but minimum at reproductive stage in comparison to other genotypes. Plant height of Binamasur 5 found minimum but seed yield and harvest index and other yield attributes were produced height among the four genotypes. Besides maturity duration of Binamasur-5 is lower (96 days) than Binamasur-4 (97 days), BARI Masur-5 (98 days) and Binamasur-3 (100 days). Results indicate that genotype improvement efforts have achieved higher seed yield by higher growth rate at early growth stages and better assimilate partitioning to economic yield. The bushy plants are unlikely to yield improvement. The variety, Binamasur-5 had short plant stature with increase branches there by produce more pods/plant resulting higher seed yield. This information may be used in future plant breeding programme.
... The AGR was higher in organic manure applied plant due to higher TDM (Fig. 1A). AGR is positively correlated with LAI because of TDM production depends on LAI [22]. The AGR increased along with increase in LAI. ...
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Potatoes are one of the most common and important vegetable crops in the world and carrying different health benefits that make them all the more essential as a staple dietary item for much of the world’s population. The high nutrient content, ability to adapt to marginal environments, relative ease of cultivation and low cost and high productivity are attributes that make potatoes one of the principal and most important sources of food and income for developing countries. Considering the importance of organic manure for potato cultivation, the experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of four organic fertilizers on potato tuber production in sandy loam soil. The most popular and easily available two potato cultivars namely Cardinal and Diamant and four organic fertilizers viz., cowdung at the rate of 8 t ha-1, chicken manure at the rate of 8 t ha-1, Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Service (RDRS) developed organic fertilizer at the rate of 740 kg ha-1 and Northern organic fertilizer at the rate of 500 kg ha-1 along with a control. The results revealed that the plant height, number of leaves, leaves fresh weight, yield contributing characters and yield were significantly different and higher in organic fertilizers over control. The highest plant height, leaf number, leaf fresh weight, total dry matter, absolute growth rate, tuber growth rate, tubers plant-1 and larger tuber size were observed in chicken manure which resulted the highest tuber yield (29.71 t ha-1) followed by cowdung (28.67 t ha-1) with same statistical rank. The third highest tuber yield was recorded in RDRS organic fertilizer (26.42 t ha-1) and Northern organic fertilizer (26.00 t ha-1). Besides, the potato cultivar, cardinal gave the highest tuber yield (26.39 t ha-1) compare to diamont (24.57 t ha-1). Finally, the potato cultivar cardinal and organic fertilizers, chicken manure followed by cowdung are recommended for potato cultivation in Rangpur region due to the highest yield production as well as maximum benefit-cost ratio.
... AGR is positively correlated with LAI. 11 The AGR increased along with increase in LAI. At 60-70DAS, the AGR value was found to be maximum which mean that plants expanded it's assimilate for the growth of leaf area and feeding of fruits. ...
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An experiment was conducted at the pot yard of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh during the period from February to May 2017 to investigate the effect of foliar application of nitrogen and micronutrients on crop characters, yield attributes and yield of two mungbean genotypes. The experiment comprised four levels of nutrients foliar application like, i) T1 = Control; ii) T2 = Foliar application of urea at the rate of 1.5% four times from flowering start to pod development stage with an interval of 4 days; iii) T3 = T2 + 0.1% micronutrients (B, Mo, Zn, Mn, Ca, Fe, Cu) four times from flowering start to pod development stage with an interval of 4 days and iv); T4 = T3 + side dressing (soil application) of 1.5% N and 0.1% micronutrients solution four times from flowering start to pod development stage with an interval of 4 days. The genotypes were Binamoog-6 and Binamoog-7. Results revealed that morphological (plant height, branch and leaf number, leaf area plant-1), physiological (total dry mass plant-1, specific leaf weight, chlorophyll), yield attributes (number of pods plant-1, pod length, single pod weight, number of seeds pod-1 and 100-seed weight) and yield increased in foliar nutrients applied plants over control but the increment was greater in T2 and T3 than the T4 treatment. The highest plant height, branch and leaf number, leaf area, total dry mass, pod number, pod length, 100-seed weight and seed yield were recorded in T2 followed by T3 with same statistical rank (in most cases). The lowest morpho-physiological, yield attributes and yield were recorded in T1 (control) plants. Binamoog-7 was superior in most of plant parameters and yield compared to Binamoog-6.
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The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of mulches on soil nutrients and microclimate status, growth and bulb yield of onion cv. Taherpuri. The experiment was comprised of six mulches viz., i) Control (no mulch), ii) Black polythene sheet, iii) White polythene sheet, iv) Rice straw, v) Water hyacinth and vi) Saw dust. Application of different mulches improved soil microclimates, increased plant growth and bulb yield over control. Among the mulches, black polythene mulch showed superiority in growth and yield contributing characters compared to other mulches, resulting the highest bulb yield.
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An area of plant science that is still unexplored is how leaf area affects crop dry matter production due to aeration of seed in osmoticum. In view of this, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan in the summer of 2003 and repeated in 2004. The seeds of two mung bean cultivars (NM-92 and NM-98) were primed, some for 6 h and others for 12 h in using either distilled water (0MPa osmotic potential) or Polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG) solution having -0.2, -0.5 and -1.2 MPa osmotic potential. A control treatment (dried seeds) was also included in the experiment. The primed seed were dried back, till the weight become constant and were store for sowing at 25°C. Data was collected on mung bean leaf area, dry matter production and growth parameters at different growth stages. Seed moisture content at maturity stage was also determined. There was no significant difference in leaf area for the different cultivars and seed treatment duration also did not lead to a significant difference in leaf area. However, seed priming techniques significantly affected the measured parameters. Dried seed had developed lower leaf area and dry matter compared to primed seeds. An exponential linear model of leaf area and total dry matter revealed that dry matter production was linearly related to leaf area (r2 = 77.23). The linear relationship between the leaf area and dry matter hold true our hypothesis and thus we concluded that beside environmental and genetical factors, the dry matter production is a function of leaf area in aerated seed of mung bean crop in semi-arid areas like North western Pakistan.
Information on the variability and correlation between agronomic characters of mungbean accessions with their yield are important for supporting breeding program of the plant. A total of 350 mungbean accessions were evaluated at Muara Experimental Farm, Indonesian Center for Food Crops Research and Development, Bogor, during the dry season of 2005. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Each accession was planted in two rows of 5 m long. Plant spacing was 40 cm x 20 cm, two plants per hill. Correlation and path coefficient analyses were used to quantify the magnitude of the relationship between yield components and grain yield. The variability among the accessions was significant for most of the characters studied, especially for days to maturity, plant height, pods per plant, and seed size. Among the yield components, the number of pods per plant and plant height positively correlated with the grain yield, but the seed size negatively correlated with grain yield. The direct effects of the number of pods per plant and plant height on seed yield as indicated by path coefficient were the highest, while other causal effects were small or negative. Yield variation (1- R2) attributable to the nine yield component variables was slightly high (61.23%), which means that mungbean accessions with high grain yield should have sufficient plant height and high number of pods per plant. Therefore, these parameters (number of pods per plant and plant height) can be used as the selection criteria in mungbean breeding program. These criteria can be visualized during bulk selection on the early generation stage of F2 to F4, and subsequently on line development of individual plant (pedigree) of F5.
Five cross combinations of mungbean viz., NM 92 x NM 51, NM 92 x Pusa Baisakhi, NM 92 x NM 93, NM 92 x CV. 6601 and CV. 6601 x NM 92 in F3 and F4 generations were studied for genetic parameters and direct and indirect effects of different morphological traits on yield. Based on results of genetic parameters, populations of CV. 6601 x NM 92 and NM 92 x Pusa Baisakhi for pods per plant and NM 92 x CV. 6601 for 100 seed weight in F3 and NM 92 x CV. 6601, NM 92 x NM 93, and CV. 6601 x NM 92 in F4 showed additive type of genes as the said traits in these particular cross combinations contain high heritability values combined with high genetic advance. Population of NM 92 x Pusa Baisakhi, NM 92 x NM 51, NM 92 x NM 93 and NM 92 x CV. 6601 in F3 and NM 92 x CV. 6601, NM 92 x Pusa Baisakhi, CV. 6601 x NM 92 and NM 92 x NM 51 in F4 showed positive direct effects for branches per plant, pods per plant, 100 seed weight and seeds per pod. Present studies revealed that during selection, pods per plant may be used as selection criteria followed by 100 seed weight, seeds per pod and branches per plant, whereas selection of single stem plants should be discouraged and preference must be given to medium tall plants having profused branching habit alongwith more number of pods, seeds per pod and bold seed size.
Eight mungbean cultivars, selected from a cultivar collection on the basis of their grain yield, were grown in a replicated experiment. Morphological and physiological components contributing to grain yield were analysed. The principal yield limiting factor and the desirable yield component of each cultivar have been identified. The rate of dry matter accumulation was low in all cultivars. It is suggested that for a short duration crop like this, selection for rapid rate of dry matter increase would be advantageous. However, it should also be associated with a high partitioning efficiency (Harvest index). The top yielding cultivar had high biological yield and productive racemes.
The number of seeds per unit area is an important yield component in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; however, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of this yield component are not well understood. Field experiments were conducted at Lexington, KY (3 yr), and at Taian, China (1 yr), to investigate the relationship between net canopy photosynthesis and seeds per unit area using genotypes with differences in individual seed growth rates (SGR). At Lexington, shades (30 and 63% reduction in insolation) were placed over plots from growth stage R1 until maturity to create differences in canopy photosynthesis. Planting date (early and late) and row spacing (wide and narrow) were used at Taian to create differences in canopy photosynthesis
Growth analysis techniques were used to study components of dry matter accumulation in field soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] communities at Lafayette, Ind. in 1968 and 1969. An analysis was made of dry matter accumulation in leaf, supporting, pod wall, and seed fractions, as well as the total aboveground portion of the crop. General approach with the 1968 data was to select mathematical functions which describe the dry weight and leaf area vs. time relationships and then to calculate, for each day during the growing season, instantaneous values of relative growth rate (RGR), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), and the components of LAR. From the 1969 data, weekly mean RGR's and CGR's were calculated, using traditional growth analysis formulae. The RGR of each individual plant fraction steadily decreased, at a decreasing rate, as the season progressed, At any given time, the most recently initiated plant fraction had the greatest RGR. The CGR of each fraction rose to a peak and then declined. Growth rate of the leaf component peaked first, followed in sequence by supporting, pod wall, and seed components. Apparently due to late planting in 1968, there was a greater overlap of vegetative and seed growth than in 1969 when planting was earlier. Total aboveground RGR declined until early August, then rose to a secondary peak in mid‐August. At the same time, there also occurred a peak in total aboveground CGR. The increases in RGR and CGR during August are attributable to a concurrent increase in NAR. The increase in NAR is interpreted as a response of the photosynthetic apparatus to an increased demand for assimilates. The increased demand for assimilates was due to rapid growth of the seed fraction.
Growth analysis in mungbean
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Salam MA, AFM Moniruzzaman and SI Chowdhury 1987. Growth analysis in mungbean. Bangladesh J. Nuclear Agric. 3: 58-64
Growth analysis of blackgram genotypes
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Pandey RK, MC Saxena and VB Singh 1978. Growth analysis of blackgram genotypes. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 48: 466-473
Evaluation of lentil genotypes in relation to growth characteristics, assimilate distribution and yield potential
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Dutta RK and MMA Mondal 1998. Evaluation of lentil genotypes in relation to growth characteristics, assimilate distribution and yield potential. LENS Newsl. 25: 51-55
Variation in some physiological components of yield in induced mutants of mungbean In: Induced mutations- a tool in plant breeding IAEA-SM-251/5) Results showed that, MB-35 and MB-45 genotypes performed higher grain yield than
  • Rg Thakare
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Thakare, RG, SE Pawar, DC Jashua, R Mitra and CR Bhatia 1981. Variation in some physiological components of yield in induced mutants of mungbean. In: Induced mutations- a tool in plant breeding. pp. 213-226. IAEA-SM-251/5. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. (Manuscript received on 11 June, 2011; revised on 19 September, 2011) Results showed that, MB-35 and MB-45 genotypes performed higher grain yield than, MB-16