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The effects of strength training and endurance training order on running economy and performance

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This study examined the acute effect of strength and endurance training sequence on running economy (RE) at 70% and 90% ventilatory threshold (VT) and on running time to exhaustion (TTE) at 110% VT the following day. Fourteen trained and moderately trained male runners performed strength training prior to running sessions (SR) and running prior to strength training sessions (RS) with each mode of training session separated by 6 h. RE tests were conducted at baseline (Base-RE) and the day following each sequence to examine cost of running (CR), TTE, and lower extremity kinematics. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque was measured prior to and following each training session and the RE tests. Results showed that CR at 70% and 90% VT for SR-RE (0.76 ± 0.10 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mL·kg(-0.75)·m(-1)) was significantly greater than Base-RE (0.72 ± 0.10 and 0.70 ± 0.11 mL·kg(-0.75)·m(-1)) and RS-RE (0.73 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.09 mL·kg(-0.75)·m(-1)) (P < 0.05). TTE was significantly less for SR-RE (237.8 ± 67.4 s) and RS-RE (275.3 ± 68.0 s) compared with Base-RE (335.4 ± 92.1 s) (P < 0.01). The torque during the SR sequence was significantly reduced for every time point following the strength training session (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in torque following the running session (P > 0.05), although it was significantly reduced following the strength training session (P < 0.05) during the RS sequence. These findings show that running performance is impaired to a greater degree the day following the SR sequence compared with the RS sequence.
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ARTICLE
The effects of strength training and endurance training order on
running economy and performance
Kenji Doma and Glen Bede Deakin
Abstract: This study examined the acute effect of strength and endurance training sequence on running economy (RE) at 70%
and 90% ventilatory threshold (VT) and on running time to exhaustion (TTE) at 110% VT the following day. Fourteen trained and
moderately trained male runners performed strength training prior to running sessions (SR) and running prior to strength
training sessions (RS) with each mode of training session separated by 6 h. RE tests were conducted at baseline (Base-RE) and the
day following each sequence to examine cost of running (C
R
), TTE, and lower extremity kinematics. Maximal isometric knee extensor
torque was measured prior to and following each training session and the RE tests. Results showed that C
R
at 70% and 90% VT for SR-RE
(0.76 ± 0.10 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mL·kg
–0.75
·m
–1
) was significantly greater than Base-RE (0.72 ± 0.10 and 0.70 ± 0.11 mL·kg
–0.75
·m
–1
) and RS-RE
(0.73 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.09 mL·kg
–0.75
·m
–1
)(P< 0.05). TTE was significantly less for SR-RE (237.8 ± 67.4 s) and RS-RE (275.3 ± 68.0 s)
compared with Base-RE (335.4 ± 92.1 s) (P< 0.01). The torque during the SR sequence was significantly reduced for every time point
following the strength training session (P< 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in torque following the running
session (P> 0.05), although it was significantly reduced following the strength training session (P< 0.05) during the RS sequence. These
findings show that running performance is impaired to a greater degree the day following the SR sequence compared with the RS sequence.
Key words: concurrent training, running gait, maximal voluntary contraction, neuromuscular fatigue.
Résumé : Cette étude analyse l’effet a
`court terme d’un entraînement séquentiel a
`la force et a
`l’endurance sur l’économie de la
course (RE) réalisée a
`70 % et 90 % du seuil ventilatoire (VT) et sur le temps de course jusqu’a
`épuisement (TTE) a
`110%duVT
observé le lendemain. Quatorze sujets masculins bien entraînés et moyennement entraînés participent aux séances
d’entraînement a
`la force avant les séances de course (SR) et aux séances de course avant les séances de force (RS); dans chacune
des modalités, 6 h s’écoulent entre les séances d’entraînement. On évalue RE au début de l’expérimentation (Base-RE) et le jour suivant
chacune des séances; on calcule le coût de la course (C
R
), le TTE et on réalise la cinématique des membres inférieurs. On mesure le
moment de force isométrique maximal des extenseurs du genou avant et après chaque séance d’entraînement et les tests RE. D’après
les observations pour la séquence SR-RE, C
R
a
`70 % et 90 % VT (0,76 ± 0,10 et 0,77 ± 0,07 mL·kg
–0,75
·m
–1
) est significativement plus élevée
comparativement a
`Base-RE (0,72 ± 0,10 et 0,70 ± 0,11 mL·kg
–0,75
·m
–1
) et RS-RE (0,73 ± 0,09 et 0,72 ± 0,09 mL·kg
–0,75
·m
–1
)(P< 0,05). Le TTE
est significativement inférieur pour SR-RE (237,8 ± 67,4 s) et RS-RE (275,3 ± 68,0 s) comparativement a
`Base-RE (335,4 ± 92,1 s) (P< 0,01).
Le moment de force durant la séquence SR est significativement plus faible a
`chaque moment d’évaluation réalisée après la séance
d’entraînement a
`la force (P< 0,05). Toutefois, on n’observe aucune différence significative des moments de force générés après la
séance de course (P> 0,05), mais ces moments de force sont significativement plus faibles après la séance d’entraînement a
`la force
(P< 0,05) durant la séquence RS. D’après ces observations, la performance a
`la course le jour suivant l’entraînement dans la séquence
SR est diminuée comparativement a
`la séquence RS. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
Mots-clés : entraînement combiné, cinématique de la course, contraction maximale volontaire, fatigue neuromusculaire.
Introduction
Incorporating both strength and endurance training sessions in
the one training program, known as concurrent training (Hickson
1980), is common owing to its convenience. However, studies have
shown that concurrent training can induce suboptimal strength
and (or) endurance adaptations (Gergley 2009;Glowacki et al.
2004). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the
interference of strength development, including alterations of
neural recruitment (Dudley and Djamil 1985), fibre-type transfor-
mation (Dudley and Fleck 1987), and disturbance of protein syn-
thesis (Rennie and Tipton 2000). However, factors associated with
suboptimal endurance adaptation as a result of concurrent train-
ing have received little attention.
Given that strength training has been shown to impair muscle
force generation capacity from 24 to 48 h post training (Hakkinen
et al. 1988), strength training may interfere with the quality of
subsequent endurance training sessions. Indeed, studies have
shown that strength training impaired running economy (RE),
running time-to-exhaustion, and running time-trial performance
8h(Palmer and Sleivert 2001),6h(Doma and Deakin 2012), and
24h(Marcora and Bosio 2007) post training, respectively. Subse-
quently, concurrent training may cause difficulty in optimizing
endurance adaptation if strength training continually compro-
mises the ability to perform optimally during endurance training
sessions as a result of residual fatigue.
Chtara and colleagues (2005) examined the effect of strength
and endurance training sequence on endurance adaptation fol-
lowing a 12-week concurrent training program. The results
showed that the improvement in 4 km running time-trial perfor-
mance was greater for the group that performed endurance train-
ing prior to strength training than the group that performed
strength training prior to endurance training. The authors sug-
gested that residual fatigue resulting from strength training may
have affected the quality of later endurance sessions and, there-
Received 23 September 2012. Accepted 3 December 2012.
K. Doma and G.B. Deakin. Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Rehabilitation and Exercise Science Building DB043, Townsville, QLD 4811.
Corresponding author: Kenji Doma (e-mail: kenji.doma@my.jcu.edu.au).
651
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fore, attenuated optimal training stimuli for endurance adapta-
tion. While these findings indicate that endurance adaptation
may be influenced by the timing in which modes of exercises are
prescribed, the acute effects of strength and endurance training
sequence on running performance was not examined.
A study conducted by Deakin (2004) investigated the acute se-
quence effect of strength and endurance training on submaximal
cycling performance. In this study, strength and endurance exer-
cises were performed 3 h apart in randomized order with a sub-
maximal cycling performance test conducted 3 h following the
last training session of each exercise sequence. The results
showed that the physiological cost of cycling was greater 3 h after
the sequence of strength–endurance training than after the se-
quence of endurance–strength training. These findings suggest
that the strength–endurance sequence may have generated cu-
mulative effects of fatigue. However, Deakin (2004) examined
training sequence on endurance performance on the same day. Fur-
thermore, the recovery period between strength and endurance
training was only 3 h, with endurance performance measures lim-
ited to physiological cost of cycling prescribed at a single intensity on
the same day. It is unknown whether the sequence of strength and
endurance training sessions would have an impact on subsequent
endurance performance the following day when the recovery period
between each mode of training session is greater than 3 h. Such
investigation would better represent a typical concurrent training
day where one mode of training session is performed in the morning
and the other in the afternoon. Furthermore, examining the se-
quence of strength and endurance training sessions the following
day will shed light on the inter-day fatigue and recovery dynamics of
a typically prescribed concurrent training program.
To date, the investigation of strength and endurance training se-
quence, separated by 6 h, on submaximal (i.e., RE) and maximal (i.e.,
time to exhaustion) running performance the following day has not
been conducted as far as the authors are aware. Furthermore, the
impact of strength and endurance training sequence on running
kinematics has not been examined. Determining the sequence effect
of training on running performance the following day may shed light
on the recovery dynamics during daily concurrent training sessions.
The purpose of the current investigation was to systematically
examine the acute effects of strength and endurance training se-
quence on RE, running time to exhaustion (TTE), and lower extrem-
ity running kinematics the following day. It was hypothesized that
running performance will be impaired to a greater degree the fol-
lowing day when strength training precedes endurance training as
opposed to endurance training followed by strength training.
Methods
Subjects
Fourteen trained and moderately trained runners (mean ± standard
deviation: age, 23.3 ± 6.1 years; height, 1.8 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 74.6 ±
8.0 kg; maximal oxygen uptake (V
˙O
2max
), 62.0 ± 6.0 mL·kg
–1
·min
–1
) took
part in the study. The trained runners were middle to long dis-
tance runners (1500–10 000 m), and all had run a 10 000 m time
trial faster than 37 min during the last 6 months. The moderately
endurance trained runners were undertaking 3 to 4 moderate to
high intensity endurance training sessions per week and had var-
ious sporting backgrounds during the last 6 months. The partici-
pants did not undertake any lower extremity strength training
exercises for at least 2 months prior to the study. Each participant
completed an informed consent before taking part in any testing
procedures, which were approved by the Institutional Human
Research Ethics Committee and were run in accordance with the
Declaration of Helsinki.
Research design
The study was conducted across 5 weeks with the first week
consisting of a familiarization session and maximal oxygen con-
sumption (V
˙O
2max
) test. The familiarization session allowed par-
ticipants to familiarize themselves with the protocols and
equipment and to carry out a 6 repetition maximum (6RM) assess-
ment. The V
˙O
2max
test was a continuous incremental protocol that
has been used previously (Doma et al. 2012a). The 6RM assess-
ments were conducted as described previously (Baechle and Earle
2008) for incline leg press (Maxim MF701, Australia), leg exten-
sion, and leg curls (Avanti, B253 Olympic Bench, Australia). Dur-
ing the second week, the participants undertook 2 RE tests that
were separated by at least 2 days for familiarization purposes as
well as to provide a baseline for comparisons. The data collected
during the second RE test was used as baseline (Base-RE). During
the third week, 2 strength sessions were conducted as a washout
period to standardize possible early onset of neuromuscular ad-
aptations, since the use of the repeated bout effect (via the use of
a second strength training session) has been shown to reduce the
negative influence of a single strength training session on run-
ning performance (Burt et al. 2013). During the fourth and fifth
week, participants undertook a running session 6 h following a
strength session (SR sequence) and a strength session 6 h follow-
ing a running session (RS sequence) in randomized order, with
7 days of recovery in between the 2 sequences (Fig. 1). A RE test was
conducted 24 h following the strength session for the SR sequence
(SR-RE) and 24 h following the running session for the RS se-
quence (RS-RE). The running sessions that were performed either
prior to or following the strength sessions were treated as endur-
ance training sessions, which were separate from the RE tests and
were used to examine the acute sequence effect of strength and
endurance (i.e., running session) training on running perfor-
mance (i.e., RE test). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) tests
were conducted prior to and following the strength sessions, run-
ning sessions, and RE tests for the SR and RS sequences. Technical
and biological variations were controlled by calibrating all mea-
surement equipment, requiring subjects to maintain their train-
ing intensity and volume during the course of the study,
conducting the RE tests at the same time of day, subjects wearing
the same shoes for every test, refraining from high intensity phys-
ical activity for at least 24 h prior to testing, and refraining from
caffeine and food intake for at least 2 h prior to testing.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram demonstrating the progression of the sessions from the baseline running economy test (Base-RE), the strength session
(ST) and running session (END), and the running economy tests during the strength–running sequence (SR-RE) and running–strength sequence (RS-RE).
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Strength session
The exercises were performed in the order of incline leg press
with 6 sets of 6 repetitions and leg extension and leg curls with
4 sets of 6 repetitions for each exercise. The exercises were per-
formed in an order that would replicate a common procedure
during strength training sessions where larger muscle groups are
exercised first. A 3 min recovery period was provided between
each set and between each of the strength training exercises.
Running session
Prior to the running session, a progressive warm-up was con-
ducted on the treadmill, walking at 5 km·h
–1
and then jogging at
8, 10, and 12 km·h
–1
for 1 min, respectively. The running session
was a 3-stage discontinuous incremental protocol, which was con-
ducted on a treadmill and was similar to the RE test with the first
2 stages set at 70% and 90% of VT
2
for 10 min. However, the last stage
consisted of intervals with work-to-rest ratios of approximately 1:1 at
110% of VT
2
(Fig. 2). Specifically, there were 4 intervals with a rest
period of 1.5 min between the first, second, and third interval, and
2 min of rest between the third and fourth interval. There were also
2 min of rest between the 3 incremental stages.
Running economy test
The RE tests were conducted following a warm-up identical to
that of the running session. The RE protocols consisted of 3 incre-
mental stages running at 70%, 90%, and 110% of the second venti-
latory threshold (VT
2
), respectively (Doma et al. 2012a). The
participants ran for 10 min during the first 2 stages and then to
exhaustion during the last stage to determine TTE. There were
2 min of passive rest between each stage. The VT
2
for each subject
was determined from the V
˙O
2max
test by ascertaining the inflec-
tion point of ventilation (VE) with respect to carbon dioxide pro-
duction on a scatter diagram (Neder and Stein 2006). The VT
2
was
used because of its high reliability (Neder and Stein 2006). The
C
R
was used to indicate RE where V
˙O
2
is expressed in millilitres
per kilogram to the power of 0.75 per metre (mL·kg
–0.75
·m
–1
). This
particular expression for C
R
was selected, as it has been reported
to minimize between-subject variability (Doma et al. 2012a). The
C
R
was averaged during the last 5 min of the first 2 stages to
ensure that the subjects reached steady-state running, which was
defined as <10% change in V
˙O
2
per minute (Reeves et al. 2004).
Values for rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also collected
on the 9th minute of the first 2 stages and every minute during the
last stage (i.e., TTE). The RPE of the middle time points during the
shortest TTE of a given RE test was used for comparisons (e.g., if
the TTE for a given participant was 5 min for SR-RE, then the RPE
for the third minute of SR-RE was compared with the third minute
of Base-RE and RS-RE). The RPE collected during the 3 stages are
expressed as RPE 1, RPE 2, and RPE 3, respectively, for the subse-
quent sections of the paper.
Kinematic analyses
Running gait was captured at 9 min 30 s of the first 2 stages of
the Base-RE, SR-RE, and RS-RE tests. At least 10 strides of kinematic
data were recorded for each motion captured at 100 Hz using a
3-dimensional 8-camera optical motion analysis system (VICON
Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). Static calibrations for the optical
cameras were completed for each testing session and ensured an
image error of <0.15 pixels. The measuring volume covered 1.5 m ×
3m×2m(width, length, height). Body segments that were cap-
tured included the pelvis, thighs, shank, and feet using 16 retro-
reflective markers (14 mm diameter) that were placed by a single
well-trained investigator (Nexus Plug-in Gait Model, Oxford, UK).
Running gait parameters included ankle range of motion (A
ROM
),
maximum knee flexion during swing (KF
S
), maximum knee flexion
after foot strike (KF
AS
), and hip range of motion (H
ROM
) in the sagittal
plane. Raw kinematic data were filtered using Woltring filtering
routing. The mean-squared error was set to 20 mm
2
in accordance
with a detailed residual analysis (Winter 2008). Kinematic analysis
during the last stage was not conducted because of its lesser reliabil-
ity than the first 2 stages (Doma et al. 2012b).
Maximal voluntary contraction test
A custom-built dynamometer chair (James Cook University,
Australia) was used to conduct the maximal isometric contrac-
tions of the knee extensor muscles. There were 3 contractions
with each contraction held for 6 s and 1.5 min rest between each
contraction (Doma and Deakin 2012). Torque was measured by
positioning the knee joint at 110° with a force transducer secured
superior to the medial and lateral malleoli. The dynamometer chair
was calibrated by placing a known weight on the force transducer.
Torque was calculated by averaging the values over the 6 s contraction,
with the largest torque being reported among the 3 contractions.
Sample size
Following a pilot study on the reliability of the RE test and MVC
test used in the current study, the within-subject coefficients of
variation (CV) for C
R
, RPE, TTE, and torque production among
trained and moderately endurance trained men (n= 14) were 2.5%,
3.6%, 9.2%, and 8.3%, respectively (Doma et al. 2012a). According to
a nomogram for the estimation of measurement error with the
use of CV (statistical power of 90%) (Atkinson and Nevill, 2006), the
percentage worthwhile differences for the current sample size
(n= 14) for C
R
, RPE, TTE, and torque production were found to be
3%, 4.5%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. These percentage differences
are smaller than previous reports that have shown significant
differences in the oxygen cost of running (Palmer and Sleivert
2001), RPE (Doherty et al. 2004), TTE (Esposito et al. 2012), and
torque production (Palmer and Sleivert 2001) as a result of a par-
ticular intervention.
Statistical analysis
The measure of centrality and spread for all data are expressed
as mean ± standard deviation. A one-way analysis of variance
(ANOVA) with one between-subject factor, exercise order, was
used to determine differences in C
R
, RPE, and TTE between Base-
RE, SR-RE, and RS-RE. A 2-way ANOVA (time × sequence) with one
between-subject factor, exercise order, was then used to deter-
mine differences in torque production for within and between the
SR and RS sequences. Post hoc tests with Bonferroni’s pairwise
adjustments were then used to locate the difference. The level
Fig. 2. A schematic demonstrating the protocol of the running session with solid and dashed lines denoting running and rest, respectively.
Doma and Deakin 653
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was set at 0.05. All data were analysed using the Statistical Pack-
age for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 18, Chicago, Illinois).
Results
The C
R
was significantly greater for SR-RE (0.76 ± 0.10 and 0.77 ±
0.07 mL·kg
–0.75
·m
–1
) compared with Base-RE (0.72 ± 0.10 and 0.70 ±
0.11 mL·kg
–0.75
·m
–1
) and RS-RE (0.73 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ±
0.09 mL·kg
–0.75
·m
–1
) during stages 1 (P= 0.013, 0.047) and 2 (P= 0.014,
0.022), although no differences were found during stage 3 (P= 0.73)
(Fig. 3). RPE 2 and RPE 3 were significantly greater for SR-RE com-
pared with Base-RE (P= 0.002, 0.003), and RPE 2 and RPE 3 were
significantly greater for RS-RE compared with Base-RE (P= 0.017,
0.030) (Fig. 4). The TTE was significantly less during SR-RE (237.8 ±
67.4 s) and RS-RE (275.3 ± 68.0 s) compared with Base-RE (335.4 ±
92.1 s) (P= 0.003, 0.008) (Fig. 5). The H
ROM
was significantly less for
SR-RE compared with Base-RE during stages 1 and 2 (P= 0.044, 0.019),
and KF
S
was significantly less for SR-RE compared with Base-RE dur-
ing stage 2 (P= 0.026) (Fig. 6).
For the torque production, there was a significant effect of time
(P= 0.001); however, no significant interaction effect was found
for sequence (P> 0.05) (Fig. 7). Post hoc comparison showed that
torque was significantly reduced for every 5 time points measured
following the strength training session during the SR sequence
(P= 0.001). For the RS sequence, no differences were found follow-
ing the running session (P> 0.05); however, a significant reduc-
tion was measured for the 3 time points following the strength
trainings session (P= 0.003, 0.002, 0.001). For the other perfor-
mance variables no significant differences were found between
the RE tests and between the other time points for torque
(P> 0.05). Regarding cross randomization, no effect of exercise
order was found for any of the variables measured (P> 0.05).
Discussion
The current study showed that C
R
was significantly greater and
that H
ROM
and KF
S
was significantly lower during SR-RE compared
with Base-RE. However, TTE was significantly less and RPE was
significantly greater during both SR-RE and RS-RE compared to
Base-RE. These findings support the hypothesis that strength
training before endurance training will impair running perfor-
mance the following day to a greater degree compared to endur-
ance training before strength training.
The significant increase in C
R
during SR-RE with no differences
found during RS-RE compared with Base-RE demonstrates that
strength and endurance training sequence had an effect on run-
ning performance the following day. While Deakin (2004) exam-
ined strength and endurance training sequence on cycling
performance on the same day, it was reported that the physiolog-
ical cost of submaximal cycling was greater 3 h following
strength–cycling compared with cycling–strength sequences. In
light of the findings from the current study and that by Deakin
(2004), strength training may be the primary mode of exercise
contributing to the accumulation effect of fatigue responsible for
impaired endurance performance. Previous reports have shown
that the physiological cost of submaximal running (Palmer and
Sleivert 2001) and cycling (Deakin 2004) increased 8 and 3 h, re-
spectively, following strength training.
It has been reported that venous blood oxygen saturation de-
creases during isometric contraction of the forearm (Barcroft et al.
1963), suggesting that oxygen extraction increases with sustained
muscle contraction. Further, Yamada and colleagues (2008)
showed a significant relationship between reduction in muscle
activity and changes in muscle oxygenation during submaximal
isometric contractions. From these previous findings, it is assum-
able that C
R
in the current study may have increased because of
Fig. 3. The cost of running (C
R
) for baseline running economy (Base-
RE), running economy for the strength–running sequence (SR-RE),
and running economy for the running–strength sequence (RS-RE)
during Stages 1, 2, and 3. *, significantly greater than Base-RE at
P< 0.05; **, significantly greater than RS-RE at P< 0.05.
Fig. 4. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for the baseline
running economy (Base-RE), running economy for the
strength–running sequence (SR-RE), and for the running–strength
sequence (RS-RE) during Stages 1 (RPE 1), 2 (RPE 2), and 3 (RPE 3).
*, significantly greater than Base-RE at P< 0.05; **, significantly
greater than Base-RE at P< 0.01.
Fig. 5. The time-to-exhaustion (TTE) recorded for the baseline running
economy (Base-RE), running economy for the strength–running
sequence (SR-RE), and running economy for the running–strength
sequence (RS-RE). *, significantly less than Base-RE at P< 0.01.
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greater oxygen extraction from the muscles of the lower extrem-
ity compared with running in a non-fatigued state. Furthermore,
changes in oxygen metabolism may have occurred because of ineffi-
cient neural recruitment patterns, as indicated by alterations in
lower extremity kinematics due to pre-existent local muscle fatigue
from previous strength and endurance training sessions.
Given thata6hrecovery period was incorporated between
strength and endurance training in the current study, the endur-
ance training session may have been performed in a pre-
exhausted state due to residual fatigue from the preceding
strength training session. This is supported by the significant re-
duction in MVC prior to the running session during the SR se-
quence. However, MVC returned to baseline values 6 h following
the running session during the RS sequence, suggesting that pos-
sible residual effects of fatigue generated from the running ses-
sions may have been eliminated prior to the strength training
session. Consequently, an accumulation effect of fatigue appears not
to have occurred during the RS sequence over the 2-day testing pe-
riod. Indeed, studies have reported that strength training reduces
MVC from 24 to 48 h, with the reduction being attributed to deple-
tion of muscle glycogen (Green 1990), muscle soreness, and muscle
damage (Skurvydas et al. 2011). Alternatively, it has been shown that
MVC is not affected 24 h following 60 min of moderate to high
intensity endurance training (Bentley et al. 2000). Subsequently, en-
durance training performed following strength training may aug-
ment the physiological responses induced by strength training (e.g.,
muscle glycogen depletion, muscle soreness and muscle damage)
and thereby attenuate RE the following day.
The TTE was significantly reduced for both SR-RE and RS-RE,
demonstrating that running at maximum effort is impaired the
day following strength and endurance training regardless of
the sequence of the mode of training. However, no differences
were found in C
R
during stage 3 between Base-RE, SR-RE, and
RS-RE. These findings indicate that the participants’ physiological
state was similar at exhaustion despite differences in TTE. Subse-
quently, the rate of increase in fatigue may have been greater
during SR-RE and RS-RE than Base-RE and, therefore contributed
to terminating their running earlier. Interestingly, the difference
in TTE between SR-RE and RS-RE was 10%, which is in proximity to
the worthwhile differences (i.e., 11%) for TTE determined for the
RE protocol with the current sample size (n= 14). In addition, RPE
3 was significantly greater during SR-RE, although no significant
differences were found in RPE for this particular time point dur-
ing TTE. As a result, the subjects in the current study appeared to
perceive running to be harder midway through TTE during SR-RE
compared with RS-RE, indicating a sequence effect above VT
2
.
While a reduction in MVC may have contributed to an increase in
C
R
during SR-RE in the present study, no significant relationship was
found between the percentage differences in C
R
and MVC for the SR
and RS sequences. These findings confirm that of Chen et al. (2007)
where MVC remained reduced for 5 days following downhill run-
ning, although RE was impaired for only 2 days. Palmer and Sleivert
(2001) also found no effect on MVC 8 h following strength training,
yet RE was impaired. This lack of relationship between MVC and C
R
would be expected, as reports have shown that RE was impaired
following strenuous exercises with an increase in muscle soreness
and muscle damage (Chen et al. 2007), elevation in level of perceived
exertion, and alterations in running kinematics (Bonacci et al. 2010).
Subsequently, the physiological process contributing to the decre-
ment in RE appears to be complex, involving various mechanisms. In
addition, running is performed dynamically, requiring multiple
muscle groups to contract repetitively in short bursts while perform-
ing various contraction types (e.g., concentric, eccentric, and isomet-
ric contractions). Thus, it is difficult to directly relate running
performance measures to a single 6 s isometric contraction of one
muscle group. Nonetheless, given that the effect of strength and
endurance training sequence was similar between C
R
and MVC, the
impaired properties of the muscle may in part have contributed to
an increase in C
R
in the present study.
In addition to an increase in C
R
, significant reductions were found
in H
ROM
and KF
S
during SR-RE, although no significant differences
were found in the selected kinematic parameters during RS-RE, sug-
Fig. 6. The angular displacements of the hip range of motion (H
ROM
),
knee flexion during swing phase (KF
S
), knee flexion after foot strike
(KF
AS
), and ankle range of motion (A
ROM
) for the baseline running
economy test (Base-RE) and running economy tests for the strength–
running sequence (SR-RE) and the running–strength sequence (RS-RE)
during Stages 1 (a)and2(b). *, significantly less than Base-RE at P< 0.05.
Fig. 7. The torque production at time points prior to (1) and following
(2) the strength training session, prior to (3) and following (4) the
endurance training session, and prior to (5) and following (6) the
running economy test for the SR sequence, and prior to (1) and
following (2) the endurance training session, prior to (3) and following
(4) the strength training session, and prior to (5) and following (6) the
running economy test for the RS sequence. *, significantly less than
time point 1 at P< 0.05; †, significantly less than at time point 1 at
P< 0.01; ‡, significantly less than time point 3 at P< 0.01.
Doma and Deakin 655
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gesting that the sequence effect of strength and endurance training
was also present in running kinematics. The current study is the first
to examine the effect of strength and endurance training sequence
on running gait patterns, as far as the authors are aware. Subse-
quently, directly comparing the kinematic results from the current
study with those in the literature is at present difficult. However,
given that MVC was consistently reduced during the SR sequence,
neuromuscular fatigue may have caused inefficient motor unit re-
cruitment patterns thereby altering running kinematics. Various
studies have shown reductions in lower extremity joint range of
motion during running as a result of neuromuscular fatigue follow-
ing resistive-type exercises (Chen et al. 2007;Paschalis et al. 2007). It
has been postulated that lower extremity range of motion may be
compromised owing to delayed onset of muscle soreness, inefficient
neural recruitment patterns, and decreased ability to use the stretch-
shortening cycle (Chen et al. 2007;Braun and Dutto 2003). The reduc-
tion in KF
S
in the current study may have caused an increase in hip
flexor torque due to greater moment of inertia. These biomechanical
modifications reduce the efficiency of movement, thus increase the
energy expenditure required for running. Subsequently, alterations
in running kinematics may have contributed to the increased C
R
during SR-RE in the current study.
In summary, strength training performed prior to endurance
training causes greater attenuation in running performance as-
sessed 24 h later than does endurance training performed prior to
strength training. This sequence effect was also evident for alter-
ations in lower extremity running kinematics. This phenomenon
may occur owing to endurance exercises augmenting the dura-
tion of fatigue generated by preceding strength training sessions.
The current study showed that the SR sequence increased C
R
at
submaximal intensities with a concomitant reduction in MVC and
alterations in running kinematics. The increase in the physiological
cost of running as a result of performing strength and endurance
training would hinder performance during a running session and
impair optimum stimulus for training adaptation. From a practical
view, running sessions at submaximal intensities should be per-
formed the day after the RS sequence as opposed to the SR sequence.
However, given that TTE was significantly less during both SR-RE and
RS-RE, a recovery period of more than 1 day may be required follow-
ing strength and endurance training regardless of the sequence of
the mode of training when performing a high intensity running
session. While the current study demonstrated the sequence effect of
strength and endurance training on running performance the fol-
lowing day, future research could examine this phenomenon over
multiple days (e.g., 48 and 72 h post training) to enhance the under-
standing of fatigue and recovery dynamics as a result of concurrently
training each mode of training session.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Lucy Keast and Heidi Jenninson
for their assistance with data collection and to Marian Dohma for
her assistance with editing this manuscript.
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... In addition, several studies have reported that determinants of endurance performance (e.g. movement economy, time to exhaustion and time-trial performance) are impaired 24-72 h following a single lower body resistance training bout for both resistance-untrained and resistance-trained individuals [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. In a recent review [15], we referred to the concept of resistance training-induced sub-optimisation on endurance performance (RT-SEP). ...
... These findings also confirm the work of others in untrained individuals with greater attenuation of running performance measures at higher running intensities in conjunction with impaired measures of muscular contractility (e.g. knee extensor isometric torque, vertical jump) and increased DOMS during periods of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) [10,11,38,39]. It has been speculated that the acute effects of resistance training may have greater deleterious effects on endurance performance measures at higher intensities since fast twitch muscle fibres have greater susceptibility to muscle damage and glycogen depletion [40] and are also predominantly recruited when exercising above the AT [41]. ...
... There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that resistance and endurance training sequence acutely affects determinants of endurance performance. For example, we [11] examined the acute effects of resistance and endurance training sequence on running performance and muscle force generation capacity (MFGC). The participants in this study either performed resistance prior to running (R-E) or running prior to resistance training (E-R) on the same day separated by 6 h in random order with running performance and MFGC examined the following day. ...
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Whilst the “acute hypothesis” was originally coined to describe the detrimental effects of concurrent training on strength development, similar physiological processes may occur when endurance training adaptations are compromised. There is a growing body of research indicating that typical resistance exercises impair neuromuscular function and endurance performance during periods of resistance training-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that the attenuating effects of resistance training-induced muscle damage on endurance performance are influenced by exercise intensity, exercise mode, exercise sequence, recovery and contraction velocity of resistance training. By understanding the influence that training variables have on the level of resistance training-induced muscle damage and its subsequent attenuating effects on endurance performance, concurrent training programs could be prescribed in such a way that minimises fatigue between modes of training and optimises the quality of endurance training sessions. Therefore, this review will provide considerations for concurrent training prescription for endurance development based on scientific evidence. Furthermore, recommendations will be provided for future research by identifying training variables that may impact on endurance development as a result of concurrent training.
... Residual fatigue and substrate depletion can reduce the quality and performance of a subsequent training session [12]. Both endurance [13] and resistance exercise performance [14][15][16] can be impaired when preceded in the same session by the 'contrasting' exercise mode, compromising the work done, and potentially the adaptive training stimulus [17,18]. In support of this, prioritising resistance exercise before endurance exercise sessions has been shown in some studies to induce superior lower-body strength, muscle function, and neuromuscular adaptations [19][20][21]. ...
... The previous studies utilised running [23,43], whereas we employed cycling. Performing resistance exercise first has been shown to impair subsequent running performance more than the reverse order [13]. Furthermore, running is weight-bearing, and may induce greater physiological stress than cycling due to the greater eccentric loading involved [95]. ...
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Background The importance of concurrent exercise order for improving endurance and resistance adaptations remains unclear, particularly when sessions are performed a few hours apart. We investigated the effects of concurrent training (in alternate orders, separated by ~3 hours) on endurance and resistance training adaptations, compared to resistance-only training. Materials and methods Twenty-nine healthy, moderately-active men (mean ± SD; age 24.5 ± 4.7 y; body mass 74.9 ± 10.8 kg; height 179.7 ± 6.5 cm) performed either resistance-only training (RT, n = 9), or same-day concurrent training whereby high-intensity interval training was performed either 3 hours before (HIIT+RT, n = 10) or after resistance training (RT+HIIT, n = 10), for 3 d.wk⁻¹ over 9 weeks. Training-induced changes in leg press 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) strength, countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, body composition, peak oxygen uptake (), aerobic power (), and lactate threshold () were assessed before, and after both 5 and 9 weeks of training. Results After 9 weeks, all training groups increased leg press 1-RM (~24–28%) and total lean mass (~3-4%), with no clear differences between groups. Both concurrent groups elicited similar small-to-moderate improvements in all markers of aerobic fitness ( ~8–9%; ~16-20%; ~14-15%). RT improved CMJ displacement (mean ± SD, 5.3 ± 6.3%), velocity (2.2 ± 2.7%), force (absolute: 10.1 ± 10.1%), and power (absolute: 9.8 ± 7.6%; relative: 6.0 ± 6.6%). HIIT+RT elicited comparable improvements in CMJ velocity only (2.2 ± 2.7%). Compared to RT, RT+HIIT attenuated CMJ displacement (mean difference ± 90%CI, -5.1 ± 4.3%), force (absolute: -8.2 ± 7.1%) and power (absolute: -6.0 ± 4.7%). Only RT+HIIT reduced absolute fat mass (mean ± SD, -11.0 ± 11.7%). Conclusions In moderately-active males, concurrent training, regardless of the exercise order, presents a viable strategy to improve lower-body maximal strength and total lean mass comparably to resistance-only training, whilst also improving indices of aerobic fitness. However, improvements in CMJ displacement, force, and power were attenuated when RT was performed before HIIT, and as such, exercise order may be an important consideration when designing training programs in which the goal is to improve lower-body power.
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... However, running performance measures were reported only at 90% of anaerobic threshold (AT). Interestingly, Doma et al. [9] reported a significant increase in the physiological cost of running at 70% of AT during a RE test in thermo-neutral conditions 24 h following a bout of lower body resistance exercises, including incline leg press, leg extension and leg curls. It should also be noted that a high-intensity running session was also incorporated 6 h following the RT session on the same day, which appeared to have contributed to changes in RE measures. ...
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... The symptoms associated with EIMD include delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), elevated intramuscular proteins (e.g., creatine kinase), impaired muscular contractility and restricted range-of-motion [2]. Several studies have reported that symptoms of EIMD impair several types of performance measures essential for sport performance, such as jumping capabilities [3,4], running economy [5,6], sprint and agility [7,8] and cycling power output [9]. Furthermore, the quality of training could be compromised if performed during extended periods of EIMD, and ultimately induce suboptimal training adaptation, also referred to as resistance-training-induced sub-optimisation [10]. ...
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... Con respecto a ello, trabajos con un bajo involucramiento de HIIT tampoco encontraron una atenuación en el aumento de la fuerza o la transversalidad fibrilar (29, 134). Asimismo es posible que la secuencia utilizada (es decir, la resistencia antes de la fuerza) también haya minimizado los efectos de la fatiga entre los modos de entrenamiento, dado que la contractilidad muscular podría conservarse mejor incorporando primariamente el abordaje de resistencia (135). Aunque es de interés indicar, que esta información va en contraposición con los datos aportados por Eddens et al. (133), quienes cuantificaron una diferencia del 7% a favor del orden intra-sesión EF-ER. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
El entrenamiento interválico ha demostrado ser una terapia altamente efectiva para mejorar la salud. Dentro de esta modalidad, el entrenamiento interválico de esprints (SIT) se ha afianzado como una gran estrategia tiempo-eficacia para generar adaptaciones fisiológicas en cortos periodos. Sin embargo, el modelo clásico de SIT (4-6 × 30 s) ha sido cuestionado ya que se considera muy estresante y poco apto para poblaciones sedentarias. De esta forma, fue sugerido que intervalos más cortos podrían mejorar la tolerabilidad sin alteraciones en la adaptación biológica. Nuestro primer estudio se propuso comparar agudamente las respuestas mecánicas, fisiológicas y perceptuales de dos protocolos de SIT aplicando un volumen breve y usando esprints máximos (muy cortos vs. largos). Once sujetos adultos hombres entrenados realizaron mediante un diseño aleatorizado cruzado, dos sesiones equiparadas en el tiempo total: SIT5s (16×5 s con 24 s de recuperación) y SIT20s (4×20 s con 120 s de recuperación). El balance autonómico de la frecuencia cardiaca (FC) y el salto contramovimiento (CMJ) fueron evaluados pre- y post-sesiones. Durante el entrenamiento SIT5s mostró una mayor FC, consumo de oxigeno (VO2), y trabajo total (TT) (P<0.05). En contraste, el SIT20s mostró mayor lactato sanguíneo (La) y tasa de fatiga (TF) (P<0.05). No hubo diferencias en la percepción del ejercicio entre los entrenamientos (P>0.05). Una más rápida recuperación de la FC (RFC) y un superior CMJ fue observado luego del SIT5s (P<0.05). En conclusión, SIT5s manifestó ser más eficiente exhibiendo una mayor respuesta mecánica asociada a una considerable actividad cardiorrespiratoria. Basado en los resultados de esta primera investigación, se reclutó a 30 sujetos poco entrenados, con el propósito de comparar los efectos crónicos de tres programas de entrenamiento intenso con bajo volumen [entrenamiento de fuerza (GEF, n=8), entrenamiento interválico de esprints (GSIT, n=8), entrenamiento concurrente (GEC, n=8)], utilizando esfuerzos muy cortos máximos equiparados en el tiempo total. El GEF entrenó mediante el ejercicio de sentadilla, el GSIT por medio de un cicloergómetro, y el GEC combinó ambos modos. Los grupos experimentales junto al grupo de control (GCON, n=6), fueron evaluados antes y después en composición corporal, salto vertical, fuerza en el miembro inferior, rendimiento aérobico y anaeróbico, variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (VFC) y el estado redox. Durante los entrenamientos la intensidad fue monitorizada a través de parámetros de carga interna y externa. La actividad física (AF) incidental y la alimentación ingerida fue registrada durante el periodo de intervención. Cada sesión consistió por 6-12 series de 5 s con 24 s de recuperación, con una macropausa en el medio de 3 min. Los entrenamientos se realizaron cada 48-72 h, a lo largo de 2 semanas, totalizando 6 sesiones de ~12 min. El consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2max) incrementó significativamente en el GSIT y GEC (P<0.05). La fuerza del miembro inferior mejoró en GEF y GEC (P<0.05). El CMJ aumentó en GEF (P<0.05). El estado redox mejoró en todas las intervenciones (P<0.05). No fueron distinguidas diferencias en el TT, AF incidental, la ingesta dietética y el estrés psicológico entre los grupos (P>0.05). Por lo tanto, este segundo trabajo comprobó que los esfuerzos muy cortos pueden ser una interesante estrategia para mejorar la aptitud física y parámetros vinculados con la salud. El GEC fue la modalidad de ejercicio que promovió mayores adaptaciones fisiológicas.
... It is worth mentioning that 8 weeks of supplementation with these types of strength training failed to increase total body mass. During the CT, high-intensity endurance training sessions were performed early in the day [10,13,20]. In addition, give that many military tasks demand anaerobic or explosive (power) abilities, the anaerobic or plyometric training was added to this integrative training mode. ...
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Objective: Military populations require a range of physical capabilities to meet the demands of the military profession. It is not known whether a specific within-session balance of the core components of physical fitness provides more effective training adaptations. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of combinations of high-intensity endurance training, resistance training, anaerobic training and plyometric training. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy young cadets participated in an 8-week training program. Training was performed 6 days per week. Testing occurred before and after the 8-week training regimen. The pre- and post-training measures included the basic physiological and performance levels. Results: Physiological indices, such heart rate, heart rate variability, anaerobic power and maximal oxygen uptake, responded positively to training (P < 0.05). The components of physical fitness, such as muscle maximal strength and endurance, 600 all-out effort, 5000-m run time and 18-km military load carriage, were also significantly improved (P > 0.05). However, the jump capacity did not significantly increase. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that during short-term integrative training, the lower-limb muscle maximal power did not improve. Given that many military tasks demand explosive (power) abilities, a switch to integrative training may have far greater consequences for transferring the benefits of the training program to military human performance.
... This training sequence (i.e. endurance prior to strength training) has also been confirmed to minimize carry-over effects of fatigue between training modes, given that muscular contractility is better preserved by incorporating endurance training prior to strength training performed on the same day (Doma and Deakin 2013). ...
Article
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Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the combined effects of resistance and sprint training, with very short efforts (5 s), on aerobic and anaerobic performances, and cardiometabolic health-related parameters in young healthy adults. Methods Thirty young physically active individuals were randomly allocated into four groups: resistance training (RTG), sprint interval training (SITG), concurrent training (CTG), and control (CONG). Participants trained 3 days/week for 2 weeks in the high-intensity interventions that consisted of 6–12 “all out” efforts of 5 s separated by 24 s of recovery, totalizing ~ 13 min per session, with 48–72 h of recovery between sessions. Body composition, vertical jump, lower body strength, aerobic and anaerobic performances, heart rate variability (HRV), and redox status were evaluated before and after training. Total work (TW), rating of perceived exertion (CR-10 RPE) and mean HR (HRmean) were monitored during sessions. Incidental physical activity (PA), dietary intake and perceived stress were also controlled. Results Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) significantly increased in SITG and CTG (P < 0.05). Lower body strength improved in RTG and CTG (P < 0.05), while countermovement jump (CMJ) was improved in RTG (P = 0.04) only. Redox status improved after all interventions (P < 0.05). No differences were found in TW, PA, dietary intake, and psychological stress between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions RT and SIT protocols with very short “all out” efforts, either performed in isolation, or combined, demonstrated improvement in several physical fitness- and health-related parameters. However, CT was the most efficient exercise intervention with improvement observed in the majority of the parameters.
... Consequently, the choice of exercise order may be an important consideration for maximizing concurrent training adaptations. However, despite some evidence to support acute exercise order-dependent effects on strength [55,56] and endurance exercise performance [57], as well as neuromuscular [58,59] and molecular responses [19,20], more research is needed to determine if, and how, these findings translate to order-dependent training effects. Most training studies to date report comparable gains in dynamic and isometric strength [60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70], power [65], hypertrophy [60,62,65,67,68], aerobic power and capacity [60,62,64,67,68], endurance performance [67,69,70], speed and agility [69,70], irrespective of intrasession exercise order. ...
Chapter
Many studies suggest that performing both endurance and resistance training within the same training program (i.e., concurrent training) can lead to sub-optimal adaptations. However, there are also contrasting and equivocal findings, which may be related to methodological differences between studies. These methodological differences include training program design (e.g., exercise frequency, intensity, volume, order, and recovery duration), as well as other considerations such as participant training status, nutrition, the study design, and statistical analyses used in the research. This chapter will summarize research that has investigated the effects of these methodological considerations on the outcome of concurrent training studies, while also highlighting gaps in the literature and areas requiring further research.
Article
Research has shown that, concurrent strength and endurance training has been considered an effective method to improve running economy (RE) and performance in endurance running athletes. Strength training improves the RE 2% -8%, making the runner consume less O2 for the same submaximal running velocity. This improvement was due to neural adaptations without observable muscle hypertrophy. However, no improvements were found in relative VO2max, when strength training was performed in conjunction with aerobic training. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine various strength training programs that have attempted to improve RE. More specifically, the effect of a) resistance training programs, aiming to improve Maximal Force, such as heavy weight training, isometric training and vibration training with heavy weight, and b) explosive training, aiming to improve Maximal Power, such as low-middle intensity resistors with explosive repetitions, plyometric training or a combination of the two above, was investigated.Complex training was also investigated. The results showed that heavy weight training and explosive training are effective concurrent training methods aiming to improve RE. In particular, improved lower-limb coordination, muscle coactivation and increased muscle stiffness, which enhances the ability of the muscles to store and utilize elastic energy more efficiently, result in reduced energy expenditure. Similarly, other neuromuscular adaptations such as vertical jump (5J) and contact time correlated with the speed in the anaerobic threshold which was associated with improved RE and running performance. The different magnitude of improvement of the RE for each specific type of strength training, probably, due to the different characteristics of the exercise protocols and trainees. Therefore, more research is needed to determine which style of strength training is more beneficial than any other. Furthermore, future studies should examine movement-specific forms of resistance training.
Chapter
Current literature provides some evidence for comprised neuromuscular adaptations when endurance and strength training are performed concurrently although this has typically not been observed for cardiorespiratory adaptations. However, if appropriate progression and recovery between endurance and strength training is not accounted for, the residual effects of fatigue from previous strength training sessions may impair the quality of subsequent endurance training sessions. This chapter will present studies that have reported the attenuation of endurance performance as a result of strength training-induced fatigue, the possible training variables that may affect this phenomenon and possible recommendations to minimise the impact of strength training-induced fatigue on the quality of subsequent endurance training sessions.
Article
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It is well established that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has a detrimental effect on endurance exercise performed in the days that follow. However, it is unknown whether such effects remain after a repeated bout of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of repeated bouts of muscle-damaging exercise on sub-maximal running exercise. Nine male participants completed baseline measurements associated with a sub-maximal running bout at lactate turn point. These measurements were repeated 24-48 h after EIMD, comprising 100 squats (10 sets of 10 at 80 % body mass). Two weeks later, when symptoms from the first bout of EIMD had dissipated, all procedures performed at baseline were repeated. Results revealed significant increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase activity and decreases in peak knee extensor torque and vertical jump performance at 24-48 h after the initial bout of EIMD. However, after the repeated bout, symptoms of EIMD were reduced from baseline at 24-48 h. Significant increases in oxygen uptake [Formula: see text], minute ventilation [Formula: see text], blood lactate ([BLa]), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), stride frequency and decreases in stride length were observed during sub-maximal running at 24-48 h following the initial bout of EIMD. However, following the repeated bout of EIMD, [Formula: see text] [BLa], RPE and stride pattern responses during sub-maximal running remained unchanged from baseline at all time points. These findings confirm that a single resistance session protects skeletal muscle against the detrimental effects of EIMD on sub-maximal running endurance exercise.
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The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effect of eccentric exercise-induced (100 submaximal eccentric contractions at an angular velocity of 60° s⁻¹, with 20-s rest intervals) muscle damage on peripheral and central fatigue of quadriceps muscle in well-trained long-distance runners, sprint runners, volleyball players, and untrained subjects. We found that (i) indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (prolonged decrease in maximal voluntary contraction, isokinetic concentric torque, and electrically induced (20 Hz) torque) were most evident in untrained subjects, while there were no significant differences in changes of muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase 48 h after eccentric exercise between athletes and untrained subjects; (ii) low-frequency fatigue was greater in untrained subjects and volleyball players than in sprint runners and long-distance runners; (iii) in all subjects, electrically induced (100 Hz) torque decreased significantly by about 20%, while central activation ratio decreased significantly by about 8% in untrained subjects and sprint runners, and by about 3%-5% in long-distance runners and volleyball players. Thus, trained subjects showed greater resistance to exercise-induced muscle damage for most markers, and long-distance runners had no advantage over sprint runners or volleyball players.
Article
Abstract Strength training has been shown to cause acute detrimental effects on running performance. However, there is limited investigation on the effect of various strength training variables, whilst controlling eccentric contraction velocity, on running performance. The present study examined the effects of intensity and volume (i.e. whole body vs. lower body only) of strength training with slow eccentric contractions on running economy (RE) [i.e. below anaerobic threshold (AT)] and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) (i.e. above AT) 6 hours post. Fifteen trained and moderately endurance trained male runners undertook high-intensity whole body (HW), high-intensity lower body only (HL) and low-intensity whole body (LW) strength training sessions with slow eccentric contractions (i.e. 1:4 second concentric-to-eccentric contraction) in random order. Six hours following each strength training session, a RE test with TTE was conducted. The results showed that HW, HL and LW sessions had no effect on RE and that LW session had no effect on TTE (P≥0.05). However, HW and HL sessions significantly reduced TTE (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that a 6-hour recovery period following HW, HL and LW sessions may minimize attenuation in endurance training performance below AT, although caution should be taken for endurance training sessions above AT amongst trained and moderately endurance trained runners.
Article
While the reliability of running economy (RE) has been widely established, limited investigation has been carried out into the reliability of various performance variables during a RE test. Subsequently, the purpose of the current study was to examine the reliability of time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during a RE test among trained runners and moderately endurance-trained men. Absolute VO2 (mL/minute), VO2 relative to body mass (mL/kg/minute), oxygen cost of running (CR) defined as VO2 relative to body mass raised to the power of 0.75 per meter (ml kg (-0.75)/m), heart rate (HR), ventilation (V-E), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio and RPE were measured while treadmill running on two occasions at three discontinuous incremental speeds corresponding to 70%, 90%, and 110% of the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). The duration of the last increment was measured as TTE. The reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% ratio limits of agreement. The intraindividual variability was examined using the coefficient of variation (CV). There were no significant differences between the two RE trials for absolute VO2, relative VO2, CR, V-E, VCO2, respiratory exchange ratio and RPE (p >= 0.05) except for the differences in RPE during the first increment and the TTE (p < 0.05). The reliability was high for absolute VO2, relative VO2, CR, HR and TTE and was moderate for V-E and RPE. Small intraindividual variability was found for absolute VO2, relative VO2, CR, HR and RPE. The findings will enable sport scientists to incorporate a variety of performance variables when examining RE. Copyright (c) 2012, The Society of Chinese Scholars on Exercise Physiology and Fitness. Published by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Whilst various studies have examined lower extremity joint kinematics during running, there is limited investigation on joint kinematics at steady-state running and at intensities close to exhaustion. Subsequently, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reliability of kinematics in the lower extremity and thorax is affected by varying the running speeds during a running economy test. 14 trained and moderately trained runners undertook 2 running economy tests with each test incorporating 3 intensity stages: 70-, 90- and 110% of the second ventilatory threshold, respectively. The participants ran for 10 min during each of the first 2 stages and to exhaustion during the last stage. Kinematics of the ankle, knee, hip, pelvis and thorax were recorded using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), limits of agreement (LOA) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to calculate reliability. The ICC, LOA and CV of the lower extremity and thoracic kinematic variables ranged from 0.33-0.97, 1.03-1.39 and 2.0-18.6, respectively. Whilst the reliability did vary between the kinematic variables, the majority of results showed minimal within-subject variation and moderate to high reliability. In conclusion, examining thoracic and lower extremity kinematics is useful in determining whether running kinematics is altered with varying running intensities.
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acute passive stretching on cycling efficiency during an exercise of heavy intensity. After maximum aerobic power (V̇O(2max) ) assessment, nine active males (24 ± 5 years; stature 1.71 ± 0.09 m; body mass 69 ± 7 kg; mean ± standard deviation) performed tests at 85% of V̇O(2max) (Ẇ(85) ) until exhaustion, with and without pre-exercise stretching. During the tests, we determined the gas exchange, metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters. With stretching, no differences in V̇O(2max) occurred (3.64 ± 0.14 vs 3.66 ± 0.07 L/min for stretching and control, respectively). During Ẇ(85) , pre-exercise stretching (i) decreased time to exhaustion (t(lim) ) by 26% (P<0.05); (ii) increased average V̇O(2) by 4% (3.24 ± 0.07 and 3.12 ± 0.07 L/min in stretching and control, respectively; P<0.05); and (iii) reduced net mechanical efficiency (e(net) ) by 4% (0.185 ± 0.006 and 0.193 ± 0.006 in stretching and control, respectively; P<0.05). Although acute passive stretching did not have an effect on V̇O(2max) , t(lim) and e(net) during heavy constant load exercise were significantly affected. These results are suggestive of an impairment in cycling efficiency due to changes in muscle neural activation and viscoelastic characteristics induced by stretching.
Article
This study was conducted to assess the effects in trained cyclists of exhausting endurance cycle exercise (CE) on maximal isometric force production, surface electromyogram (EMG) and activation deficit (AD) of the knee extensors. Ten male subjects made four isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensor muscles immediately prior (pre), 10 min after (post) and 6 h after completion of CE. The CE consisted of 30 min of exercise on a stationary cycle ergometer at an intensity corresponding to 80% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) followed by four × 60-s periods at 120% of V˙O2max. Two MVC were performed with recording of surface EMG from the knee extensors, whilst an additional two MVC were completed with percutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (EMS; 25 pulses at 100 Hz with the maximal tolerable current) superimposed over the maximal voluntary contraction force (MVF) but without EMG (to avoid interference). The MVF, integrated EMG (iEMG), and AD [calculated as the difference between MVF and the electrically stimulated force (ESF) during the EMS contractions] were statistically analysed. The MVF was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post and 6-h post compared to pre-CE level. The iEMG was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post and 6 h post CE. The ESF was also reduced, whilst AD was significantly increased (P < 0.05) post and 6-h post CE compared to the pre CE. These results suggest that the level of exercise stress administered in this study was sufficient to impair the central and peripheral mechanisms of force generation in knee extensors for a period of 6-h. Athletes engaged in concurrent training (strength and endurance) should consider this effect in exercise programming.