Infective Endocarditis in a Dog and the Phylogenetic Relationship of the Associated "Bartonella rochalimae" Strain with Isolates from Dogs, Gray Foxes, and a Human

Napa County Health and Human Services, Public Health Division, 2344 Old Sonoma Rd., Bldg. G, Napa, California 94559, USA.
Journal of clinical microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 03/2009; 47(3):787-90. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01351-08
Source: PubMed


The first case of canine endocarditis caused by "Bartonella rochalimae" is reported. By PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, sequence, and phylogenetic analyses, Bartonella isolates from a dog with endocarditis, 22 gray foxes, and three dogs, described as B. clarridgeiae like, were confirmed to belong to the new species "B. rochalimae," suggesting canids as the natural reservoir.

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Available from: Mark D Kittleson
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    • "B. vulpes) in Portugal, suggesting that foxes may be a source of infection for dogs (Cardoso et al., 2013). Similarly, a high prevalence of Bartonella clarridgeiae-like infection was recorded in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in California (Henn et al., 2009), and B. henselae DNA isolated in California mountain lions (Puma concolor) was similar to organisms isolated in domestic cats and humans, supporting the hypothesis that mountain lions serve as enzootic reservoirs of cat-scratch disease (Girard et al., 2012). Other vector-borne pathogens (VBP) recently detected in wild carnivores worldwide include Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Hepatozoon canis, or Ehrlichia canis (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of R. massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and R. conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although carnivores may not be reservoir hosts for zoonotic Rickettsia, they can have an important role as mechanical dispersers of infected ticks.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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    • "Similarly, Bartonella bovis, for which cattle are the primary reservoir hosts, has been reported to cause endocarditis in older dairy cattle (Maillard et al., 2007). Pre-existing heart valve pathology, therapeutic suppression of the immune system or immune senescence with ageing appear to be common risk factors among animals and people for the development of Bartonella endocarditis (Fenollar et al., 2005; Houpikian and Raoult, 2005; Varanat et al., 2009; Henn et al., 2009; Fournier et al., 2010). In Fig. 1, endocarditis associated with B. henselae infection in a human patient is compared with the endocarditis in a dog, only in association with B. vinsonii subsp. "
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    ABSTRACT: In his homage to Lucretius ('Georgica'), Vergil is credited with stating: 'Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas' ('Fortunate is he who knows the causes of things'). Based on numerous commentaries and publications it is obvious that clinicians, diagnosticians and biomedical research scientists continue to struggle with disease causation, particularly in the assessment of the pathogenic role of 'stealth pathogens' that produce persistent infections in the host. Bartonella species, because of their evolutionary ability to induce persistent intravascular infections, present substantial challenges for researchers attempting to clarify the ability of these stealth bacteria to cause disease. By studying the comparative biological and pathological behaviour of microbes across mammalian genera, researchers might be able more rapidly to advance medical science and, subsequently, patient care by undertaking focused research efforts involving a single mammalian species or by attempting to recapitulate a complex disease in an rodent model. Therefore, in an effort to further assist in the establishment of disease causation by stealth pathogens, we use recent research observations involving the genus Bartonella to propose an additional postulate of comparative infectious disease causation to Koch's postulates.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of comparative pathology
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    • "The present study, although limited in size, demonstrates a difference in susceptibility among domestic dogs, cats, and guinea pigs to experimental infection with a human isolate of B. rochalimae. To date, isolates of this new Bartonella species have been cultured from mammals in the new world, including from a human who traveled to South America [9], and from gray foxes, raccoons, coyotes and domestic dogs in California [11] [12]. In addition , B. rochalimae has been cultured from a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from France 1 and a strain closely related to B. rochalimae was recently isolated from a rat in Taiwan [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bartonella rochalimae was first isolated from the blood of a human who traveled to Peru and was exposed to multiple insect bites. Foxes and dogs are likely natural reservoirs for this bacterium. We report the results of experimental inoculation of two dogs, five cats and six guinea pigs with the only human isolate of this new Bartonella species. Both dogs became bacteremic for 5-7 weeks, with a peak of 10(3)-10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/mL blood. Three cats had low bacteremia levels (< 200 CFU/mL) of 6-8 weeks' duration. One cat that remained seronegative had two bacterial colonies isolated at a single culture time point. A fifth cat never became bacteremic, but seroconverted. None of the guinea pigs became bacteremic, but five seroconverted. These results suggest that dogs could be a reservoir of this strain of B. rochalimae, in contrast to cats and guinea pigs.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Veterinary Research
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