For most of the past 2 centuries the entire Leiolepidinae Fitzinger, 1843. has been treated as consisting of just two genera.
These are: Leiolepis Cuvier, 1829 and Uromastyx Merrem, 1820.
Based on the molecular results of Pyron et al. (2013) and others, Uromastycinae Theobold, 1868 is herein recognized as a subfamily being separate from Leiolepidinae, now treated as only including the genus
Leiolepis. Ultimately both groups may warrant full family-level recognition.
Recently, Wilms et al. (2009) commenced the long-awaited dissection of Uromastyx with the resurrection of Saara Gray, 1845 to accommodate the three most divergent species (as a clade) within the genus Uromastyx
as popularly recognized.
Noting that many authors have recognized distinctive species groups and/or clades as a result of detailed studies, this paper formalizes these results by revising the taxonomy of the extant members of the subfamily
As a result, the genus Saara is divided into three genera, with Centrotrachelus Strauch, 1863 resurrected.
Centrotrachelus is divided into two genera, the other formally named Borgsaurus gen. nov..
Uromastyx is divided into four genera, utilizing the existing names Uromastyx Merrem, 1820 and Aporoscelis Boulenger, 1885 for two species groups, with two new genera formally named for the first time, these being
Euanedwardssaurus gen. nov. and Dicksmithsaurus gen. nov..
Euanedwardssaurus gen. nov. is divided three ways, the other subgenera being Newmansaurus subgen. nov. and Dallysaurus subgen. nov.. Dicksmithsaurus gen. nov. is also divided three ways, the other subgenera being Stokessaurus subgen. nov. and Mooresaurus subgen. nov..
Uromastyx is split two ways, with the monotypic subgenus Supremeuromastyx subgen. nov. erected to accommodate the most divergent taxon.
Noting that Saara, Centrotrachelus and Borgsaurus gen. nov diverged from the other genera and species in the Uromastycinae between 25 and 29 MYA, they are herein placed in the tribe Borgsauriini tribe nov.
Uromastyx, Aporoscelis, Euanedwardssaurus gen. nov. and Dicksmithsaurus gen. nov. are placed in a the tribe Uromastyxiini tribe nov..
Noting that the various subgenera defined herein are believed to have diverged from one another at between 6 and 15 MYA based on a calibration of the molecular results with relevant geological and climatic events
using various mathematic formulae, it is likely that some or all may eventually be recognized as full genera.
Keywords: Taxonomy; Lizards; Middle-east; Asia; Africa; Uromastycinae; Leiolepidinae; Leiolepis; Uromastyx; Saara; Centrotrachelus; new tribes; Borgsauriini; Uromastyxiini; new genera; Borgsaurus; Euanedwardssaurus; Dicksmithsaurus; new subgenera; Supremeuromastyx; Newmansaurus; Dallysaurus; Stokessaurus; Mooresaurus.