Joint effects of alcohol consumption and high-risk sexual behavior on HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men

aDepartment of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina bDepartment of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania cDepartment of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland dDivision of Infectious Diseases eDepartment of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina fDepartment of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland gLos Angeles Gay & Lesbian Center, Los Angeles, California hOgburn-Stouffer Center for Social Organization Research at the National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 5.55). 03/2013; 27(5):815-823. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835cff4b
Source: PubMed


OBJECTIVE:: To estimate the effects of alcohol consumption and number of unprotected receptive anal intercourse partners on HIV seroconversion while appropriately accounting for time-varying confounding. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort of 3725 HIV-seronegative men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1984 and 2008. METHODS:: Marginal structural models were used to estimate the joint effects of alcohol consumption and number of unprotected receptive anal intercourse partners on HIV seroconversion. RESULTS:: Baseline self-reported alcohol consumption was a median 8 drinks/week (quartiles: 2, 16), and 30% of participants reported multiple unprotected receptive anal intercourse partners in the prior 2 years. Five hundred and twenty-nine HIV seroconversions occurred over 35 870 person-years of follow-up. After accounting for several measured confounders using a joint marginal structural Cox proportional hazards model, the hazard ratio for seroconversion associated with moderate drinking (1-14 drinks/week) compared with abstention was 1.10 [95% confidence limits: 0.78, 1.54] and for heavy drinking (>14 drinks/week) was 1.61 (95% confidence limits: 1.12, 2.29) (P for trend <0.001). The hazard ratios for heavy drinking compared with abstention for participants with 0-1 or more than 1 unprotected receptive anal intercourse partner were 1.37 (95% confidence limits: 0.88, 2.16) and 1.96 (95% confidence limits: 1.03, 3.72), respectively (P for interaction = 0.42). CONCLUSION:: These findings suggest that alcohol interventions to reduce heavy drinking among men who have sex with men should be integrated into existing HIV prevention activities.

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    • "There have been theories developed over the past decades that explain a direct relationship between HIV risk and alcohol consumption from a behavioral psychological standpoint such as the alcohol myopia theory developed by Steele and Josephs (1990) and the alcohol expectancy theory (Fromme, D'Amico, & Katz, 1999; Mullens, Young, Dunne, & Norton, 2011; Weinhardt & Carey, 2000). While research has identified a positive relationship between alcohol use and HIV risk, a positive relationship is not consistently reported (Sander et al., 2013; Vosburgh, Mansergh, Sullivan, & Purcell, 2012; Woolf & Maisto, 2009). Though many studies have reported a relationship between alcohol misuse and sexually risky behaviors among MSM, the results are not conclusive. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol, the most widely used substance among men who have sex with men (85%), remains an important factor in HIV research among this high-risk population. However, research on alcohol use among Black and Latino men who have sex with men (BLMSM), a population disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, is limited and inconclusive. This study explored sociodemographic and HIV risk with daily heavy and low-risk drinking patterns among BLMSM. BLMSM (N = 188) aged 18 to 40 years were recruited through social media, local colleges, heteronormative clubs, private men's groups, gay establishments, and organized events in Los Angeles County. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. Fisher's exact tests revealed significant relationships between drinking patterns and condomless insertive anal intercourse (p = .001), race (p < .001), age (p = .02), and perception of alcohol-related HIV risk (p = .007). The Fisher's exact tests findings for age held true in the multiple regression model (p = .014). Findings suggest that BLMSM who engage in higher risk drinking also engage in alcohol-related HIV risk. Culturally competent interventions should consider including a combined focus to explore the synergy between risky drinking patterns and HIV risk among BLMSM.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · American journal of men's health
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    • "Alcohol and stimulant consumption may be used to increase sexual performance [56], but intoxication decreases risk perception of HIV transmission [57]. Studies conducted with HIV-infected MSM have found a positive association between sexual risk behavior and the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages [58,30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many countries are facing concentrated HIV epidemics among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is the main HIV transmission route among them and its understanding in the different cultures and how it relates to HIV transmission, re-infection and development of HIV antiretroviral resistance has important public health implications. Data on UAI among Brazilian MSM are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of UAI among HIV-infected MSM who had sex with seronegative or male partners with an unknown serostatus. A cross-sectional study nested in a cohort was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The one hundred and fifty five MSM included in the study answered an ACASI interview and provided biological samples. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables associated with UAI. Overall, UAI with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus male partner was reported by 40.6% (63/155) of MSM. Lifetime sexual abuse or domestic violence was reported by 35.9%, being more frequent among MSM who reported UAI compared to those who did not (P = 0.001). Use of stimulants before sex was reported by 20% of the MSM, being slightly higher among those who reported UAI (27.0% vs. 15.2%; P = 0.072). Commercial sex was frequent among all MSM (48.4%). After multivariate modeling, the report of sexual abuse or domestic violence (OR = 2.70; 95%CI: 1.08-7.01), commercial sex (OR = 2.28; 95%CI: 1.04- 5.10), the number of male sexual partners (p = 0.039) and exclusively receptive anal intercourse (OR = 0.21; 95%CI: 0.06-0.75) remained associated with UAI. CD4 levels, HIV viral load and antiretroviral therapy were not associated with UAI. The UAI prevalence found with negative or unknown HIV status partners points out that other interventions are needed as additional prevention tools to vulnerable MSM. The main factors associated with UAI were a lifetime history of violence, commercial sex and the number of male sexual partners. This clustering of different behavioral, health and social problems in this population reinforce the need of a comprehensive approach on treating and preventing HIV among MSM.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the association between alcohol use and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). A cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey was conducted among 3,880 MSM, recruited using time-location cluster sampling from cruising sites in three Indian states. Nearly three-fifths of the participants reported alcohol use. Among frequent users (40 % of the sample), defined as those who consumed alcohol daily or at least once a week, 66 % were aged 25 years and above, 53 % self-identified as kothi (feminine/receptive), and 63 % consistently used condoms with male paying partners. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that frequent users were more likely to be aged 25 years and above, less likely to self-identify as kothi, and less likely to consistently use condoms with male paying (AOR = 0.7; 95 % CI 0.5-0.9) and male regular (AOR = 0.7; 95 % CI 0.6-0.9) partners. HIV prevention interventions for MSM need to provide tailored information on alcohol use-related sexual risk, especially for MSM in sex work and MSM with male regular partners.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · AIDS and Behavior
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