Article

NetGirls: The Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Objective: The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between Internet exposure and body image concern in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the social networking site of Facebook. Method: A sample of 1,087 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) completed questionnaire measures of Internet consumption and body image concerns. Results: The overwhelming majority of girls (95.9%) had access to the Internet in their home. Time spent on the Internet was significantly related to internalization of the thin ideal, body surveillance, and drive for thinness. Further, 75% of the girls had a Facebook profile, and spent an average of 1.5 hours there daily. Facebook users scored significantly more highly on all body image concern measures than non-users. Discussion: It was concluded that the Internet represents a potent socio-cultural medium of relevance to the body image of adolescent girls.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Since the 1950s, the U.S. and other Western countries have seen a steady shift in the female beauty ideal towards an increasingly lower body weight, commonly referred to as the thin-ideal [1][2][3]. Studies suggest that social media contributes to negative weightrelated outcomes such as body dissatisfaction, dietary behavior, or disordered eating due to perpetuating an unattainable ideal of thinness [4][5][6]. In recent years, there has been an increased focus on the impact of visual SNSs, such as Instagram, on users' perception of their body and physical appearance [7,8]. ...
... In this study, we aim to examine how Instagram usage might be linked to the thin-and fit-ideal internalization. This is important since exposure to social media and idealized body types has been linked to various negative outcomes, such as negative evaluation of one's physical appearance, body image, body satisfaction, as well as self-objectification and disordered eating outcomes [5][6][7][42][43][44]. Studies examining these negative outcomes of following positive self-presentations of others on SNS have focused on which specific types of activities can help predict individual's distorted weight perceptions. ...
... Our findings showing that Instagram use is associated with perceiving lower weight of average females and males in society lay the groundwork to further understand the influence of social contexts and social comparisons on subjective thresholds of what constitutes "normal" weight and how people adjust perceptions of their weight and health status. Therefore, our results emphasize the need to perform further research into this area as perceptions of what constitutes average weight levels might contribute to health behaviors on an individual level or even affect the formation of dysfunctional beauty and body images [5,7,13,43]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Visual Social Networking Sites (SNSs) enable users to present themselves favorably to gain likes and the attention of others. Especially, Instagram is known for its focus on beauty, fitness, fashion, and dietary topics. Although a large body of research reports negative weight-related outcomes of SNS usage (e.g., body dissatisfaction, body image concerns), studies examining how SNS usage relates to these outcomes are scarce. Based on the visual normalization theory, we argue that SNS content facilitates normalization of so-called thin- and fit-ideals, thereby leading to biased perceptions of the average body weight in society. Therefore, this study tests whether Instagram use is associated with perceiving that the average person weighs less. Responses of 181 survey participants confirm that Instagram use is negatively related to average weight perception of both women and men. These findings contribute to the growing body of research on how SNS use relates to negative weight-related outcomes.
... A l'heure des réseaux sociaux, les garçons sont eux aussi concernés par des préoccupations d'image corporelle (Inchley et al., 2020). Les réseaux sociaux font désormais partie de l'environnement L'analyse qualitative a également permis de mettre en évidence que la relation entre l'utilisation aux réseaux sociaux et l'image corporelle n'est pas directe, mais qu'elle fait intervenir des étapes intermédiaires comme l'auto-objectification (Slater & Tiggemann, 2015), l'internalisation de l'idéal physique véhiculé sur les réseaux sociaux (Slater & Tiggemann, 2015;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013;Trekels et al., 2018), la surveillance de son propre corps (Vandenbosch & Eggermont, 2012), ou encore la comparaison sociale (Rodgers et al., 2020). ...
... Dans l'étude précédente, la relation père-adolescent ne jouait aucun rôle dans la réduction de cet effet. Sur la base d'un échantillon exclusif d'adolescentes, il a également été montré que la fréquence d'utilisation de Facebook et MySpace était corrélée avec des niveaux élevés de surveillance de son propre corps, de volonté d'être mince, et d'internalisation de l'idéal physique véhiculé par ces réseaux sociaux(Slater & Tiggemann, 2015;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). Des résultats similaires ont été retrouvés auprès d'un échantillon mixte entre la fréquence d'utilisation de quatre réseaux sociaux (i.e. ...
Thesis
Si l'association entre les expériences adverses durant l'enfance et l'apparition de problèmes de santé mentale est robuste dans la littérature scientifique, on sait peu de choses sur leur contribution à la persistance d’indicateurs ne reflétant pas un diagnostic de trouble mental comme les comportements suicidaires et la gêne fonctionnelle. En outre, tandis que les expériences stressantes précoces font typiquement référence aux expériences adverses dans un contexte familial, il est nécessaire d'étudier d’autres stresseurs centraux dans la vie quotidienne des jeunes, comme le harcèlement, et le cyber-harcèlement pour lequel l'utilisation des réseaux sociaux est indissociable mais encore méconnue. La présente thèse vise donc à examiner l'association entre les expériences adverses durant l'enfance et la persistance de la gêne fonctionnelle (étude 1) et des comportements suicidaires (étude 2) au début de l'âge adulte en étudiant conjointement la fréquence cumulée d’exposition aux adversités et leur opérationnalisation typique (types et nombre de types) ; à déterminer si le cyber-harcèlement survenue avant l'âge de 18 ans contribue au risque d'être harcelé à l'entrée à l’université (étude 3) ; à déterminer comment est mesurée l'utilisation des réseaux sociaux dans la littérature (étude 4) ; et si cette utilisation est associée à une image corporelle négative chez les adolescents (étude 5). Les données utilisées pour les études 1 à 3 sont issues d'une enquête en ligne conçue pour caractériser les besoins en santé mentale des étudiants de première année et menée dans deux universités, dans le cadre de la portion française du World Mental Health International College Student survey. De l’année 2017-2018 à 2020-2021, tous les étudiants entrants ont reçu un e-mail les invitant à participer à l'enquête de base. L'enquête comprenait des questions sur les caractéristiques sociodémographiques, la santé mentale, l'exposition aux adversités durant l'enfance (i.e. psychopathologie parentale, abus physique, abus sexuel, abus émotionnel, négligence) et le harcèlement par les pairs. Les participants ayant répondu à l'enquête de base ont été invités à participer à l'enquête de suivi 12 mois plus tard. Deux revues systématiques de la littérature ont été entreprises pour explorer les objectifs liés aux réseaux sociaux (études 4 et 5). Dans l’étude 1, lorsque le type d’adversités, le nombre de types et la fréquence cumulée d’exposition étaient entrés simultanément dans les modèles multivariés en ajustant pour les troubles mentaux dans les 12 derniers mois, seule la fréquence était associée à la persistance de la gêne fonctionnelle. En revanche, dans l’étude 2, aucune de ces trois opérationnalisations n'était associée à la persistance des comportements suicidaires. Dans l’étude 3, en contrôlant pour les troubles mentaux dans les 12 derniers mois et les autres expériences adverses, le cyber-harcèlement avant 18 ans (rapporté par 23.5% de l’échantillon) était associé à un risque accru de harcèlement à un an de suivi. Les études 4 et 5 ont révélé que la plupart des études mesuraient l'utilisation globale des réseaux sociaux sans préciser les sites utilisés ni les activités qui sous-tendent cette utilisation. L’étude 5 rapporte une association robuste entre l'utilisation des réseaux sociaux et l’image corporelle négative dans laquelle les problèmes de santé mentale pourraient être impliqués. Les résultats de ces cinq études soutiennent la nécessité d'accroître les efforts actuels de prévention des stresseurs précoces, depuis leur première occurrence jusqu'à la persistance d'éventuelles conséquences négatives liées à la santé mentale. Des études supplémentaires avec des méthodologies robustes sont néanmoins nécessaires pour mieux caractériser le contexte d’apparition de stresseurs tels que le cyber-harcèlement, phénomène particulièrement actuel dont la prévention nécessite une attention scientifique accrue.
... Even though males and females are both influenced by media, the ideal body standards differ, and so does the body image dissatisfaction between genders (Cohane and Pope, 2001). Whereas women in Western societies mainly focus on thinness (e.g., Bessenoff, 2006;Tiggemann and Slater, 2013;Lang et al., 2019), men commonly indicate a desire to develop and maintain muscularity (e.g., Scott and Donald, 2004;Frederick et al., 2007;Stratton et al., 2015;Flynn et al., 2020). Therefore, it is essential to address men and women differently when assessing the effects of media images of bodies (Flynn et al., 2020). ...
... Media exposure to desirable body shapes negatively influences one's body image (Holmstrom, 2004;Boursier and Gioia, 2022;Shen et al., 2022), eating behaviors (Stice and Shaw, 2002;Griffiths et al., 2018;Saunders and Eaton, 2018;Guo et al., 2022), mental health (Kim and Sundar, 2012;Marengo et al., 2018;McCrory et al., 2022), and body satisfaction (Groesz et al., 2002;Grabe et al., 2008;Ferguson, 2013;Burnette et al., 2017;Wilhelm et al., 2019;Vuong et al., 2021). This negative effect on body satisfaction was shown in mass media, like television (Heinberg and Thompson, 1995;Hefner et al., 2014;Te'eni-Harari and Eyal, 2015) or magazines (Cusumano and Thompson, 1997;Tiggemann, 2003), and over various social media platforms including Facebook (Tiggemann and Slater, 2013;Meier and Gray, 2014;Griffiths et al., 2018), Instagram (Kleemans et al., 2018;Marengo et al., 2018;Tiggemann et al., 2018), Pinterest (Lewallen and Behm-Morawitz, 2016;Simpson and Mazzeo, 2017), and Snapchat (Marengo et al., 2018;Saunders and Eaton, 2018). Thus, as a first step, we assume that idealized images of bodies in the media (thinness for women, muscularity for men) lead to greater dissatisfaction with one's body. ...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionThe study examines the influence on body dissatisfaction of viewed images of bodies transmitted over mass media and social media, as mediated by the internalization of body ideals through media and self-discrepancy (the difference between the perceived actual self and the perceived ideal self).Method In this study, the images of bodies individuals view in their everyday media diet are estimated using a newly developed pictorial scale for women (thinness) and men (muscularity). For participants, the perceived body image is formed through mass media (magazines, TV) and social media (Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, and Snapchat). The self-discrepancy theory is then used to explain the effect of images of bodies in the media on the internalization of these body ideals and body dissatisfaction.ResultsResults show that Facebook and YouTube shape body ideals perceived to be prevalent in the media, negatively influencing internalization and self-discrepancy. Self-discrepancy, in turn, increases body dissatisfaction. However, for males, the perceived body ideals in the media did not affect body dissatisfaction, internalization, or self-discrepancy.DiscussionThese results emphasize the importance of combining and comparing mass and social media and differentiating between female and male concerns regarding body image.
... The internalization of beauty ideals (i.e., when individuals cognitively "buy into" socially prescribed appearance ideals and engage in behaviors aimed to approximate and achieve them) has also been highlighted as a mediating variable in the association of BD with exposure to traditional and Internet media [9,[58][59][60]. In the context of SNSs, internalization of beauty ideals has been shown to be associated with SNS use [21,[60][61][62] and mediates the association between Facebook engagement or the time spent on this SNS and BD [55,63]. Accordingly, we hypothesize that women with SNS addiction symptoms might show higher levels of internalization of beauty standards, which can be related to higher BD (H2: SNS addiction → Internalization → BD). ...
... This study demonstrates that internalization of the thin ideal is another mediating variable whereby addictive SNS use influences BD. Specifically, women scoring higher for SNS addiction showed greater internalization of the thin ideal (i.e., path a2), in line with studies indicating that more SNS use is associated with greater assimilation of appearance ideals as personal standards, i.e., internalization [61,87,88]. As our results show (i.e., path b2), adopting these unrealistic ideals as personal standards is related to BD symptoms, given that women tend to compare themselves against unrealistic body images [89]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous studies testing for a direct relationship between social networking sites (SNS) addiction and body dissatisfaction (BD) have yielded inconsistent results. Here, we aimed to identify underlying processes that could mediate this relationship. Specifically, we studied the relationship between SNS addiction symptoms and BD through the awareness of appearance pressures and the internalization of beauty ideals, both individually and serially: SNS addiction → Awareness → BD; SNS addiction → Internalization → BD; SNS addiction → Awareness → Internalization → BD. Method A total of 368 female undergraduates with SNS accounts completed scales to assess SNS addiction symptoms (Social Network Addiction Questionnaire), BD (Body Shape Questionnaire), awareness, and internalization (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4; awareness and internalization scales). A theoretical serial mediation model was constructed to examine the proposed relationships. Body mass index was included as a covariate to control the influence of this important variable. Results The results indicated that both awareness and internalization independently mediated the relationship between SNS addiction symptoms and BD. Also, there was a significant serial mediation effect; women with more SNS addiction symptoms tended to be more aware of appearance pressure, which was associated with the internalization of beauty ideals. In turn, this internalization was positively related to BD symptoms. Conclusions These findings shed light on the indirect relationship between SNS addiction and BD, demonstrating independent and accumulative mediating effects of awareness and internalization.
... Interestingly, although it would appear from the ANOVA results that girls are more dissatisfied with their physical appearance than boys, the correlations show instead that boys are more influenced by social media (as observable in Table 3). This contradicts previous studies (e.g., [65][66][67]) in which it was shown that women are more motivated to use social media to compare themselves with others and are more influenced by it to adapt and improve their online self-image and self-presentation. It is likely that previous research focused only on the female population, and therefore may not accurately reflect SMA and gender differences; in fact, results from studies that include male samples have proven contradictory [68][69][70]. ...
... This is probably due to the fact that SMA is part of the more general IA, which is therefore a more significant source of influence, as confirmed by multiple regression. The association between internet use and body dissatisfaction observed in this study reflects the results of previous research [16,66,71]. However, again, these studies primarily involve female samples; there is little research that includes the male gender or involves exclusively male samples. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: Previous research on associations between Body Image Concerns (BIC) and technological addictions, such as Internet addiction (IA) and Social Media Addiction (SMA), has focused on female samples, neglecting the impact they may have on males and the risk factor associated with age. The present study analyzed the correlations between BIC, IA, and SMA and between internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods: A sample of 204 participants (118 females; mean age = 15.88 years) were divided into three age groups (early, middle, and late adolescence) and completed a battery of scales including (i) Body Image Concern Inventory, (ii) Bergen Instagram Addiction Scale, (iii) Internet Addiction Test, and (iv) Youth Self Report. Results: Significant associations between BIC and technology addictions (SMA and IA) appeared both in the total sample and in the subgroups related to gender and age; bivariate correlations between internalizing and externalizing problems and variables were significant for the total sample but only in some of the gender- and age-related subgroups. Discussion and conclusions: This research has shown how associations between BIC and behavioral technology addictions, especially associations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, may vary by the gender affiliation and developmental stage of the individual.
... However, research has largely reported adverse influences from adolescents' social media use, contributing to mental health difficulties including increased depression, anxiety, and self-harm behaviors, decreased socio-emotional wellbeing, low self-esteem and negative body image [7][8][9][10]. For girls, the combination of reaching puberty, their body changing, and the importance of approval from peers and romantic relationship formation can increase vulnerability to negative body image and research suggests social media may have a greater influence on their body dissatisfaction compared to boys' [2,11,12]. ...
... Consistent with previous research, the influence of social media on adolescent girls' body image was perceived as negative by the participants in this study [12,24,29,57,74]. Girls found it difficult to identify positive influences of social media on body image, with little to no discussion among participants, even when prompted during interviews. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adolescent girls appear more vulnerable to experiencing mental health difficulties from social media use than boys. The presence of sexualized images online is thought to contribute, through increasing body dissatisfaction among adolescent girls. Sexual objectification through images may reinforce to adolescent girls that their value is based on their appearance. This study explored how sexualized images typically found on social media might influence adolescent girls’ mental health, in positive and/or negative ways. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with girls aged 14–17 years (n = 24) in Perth, Western Australia. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants identified body image as a major concern, reporting negative appearance comparisons when viewing images on social media. Appearance comparisons were perceived to exacerbate adolescent girls’ appearance-based concerns. Comparisons also influenced adolescent girls’ efforts to change their appearance and seek validation on social media. The importance of awareness and education from a younger age about social media and its influence on body image was emphasized, as was the need for strategies to promote positive body image and counteract negative body image. Conclusion The findings of this study have important implications for professionals working with adolescent girls and for the development of health promotion programs addressing social media use and body image concerns.
... Although the amount of time spent on social media has been directly related to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating (Saiphoo & Vahedi, 2019;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013, it has also been demonstrated that photo-based activities (sharing and viewing photos, commenting or receiving comments on photos) or investment in one's appearance are particularly linked to body dissatisfaction and eating pathology (Holland & Tiggemann, 2016;Lee & Lee, 2021;Slater et al., 2017;Wick & Keel, 2020). Thus, to understand the implications of video chat usage, it may also be important to expand the focus beyond merely duration of use. ...
... As researchers have demonstrated that those who spend more time on video chatting platforms are more likely to report positive attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (Chen et al., 2021) and greater interest in beauty treatments (Pikoos et al., 2020), our results regarding self-objectification provide additional insight into factors related to concerns regarding appearance during video chatting. Past social media research demonstrates that those with higher levels of self-objectification report lower levels of appearance satisfaction after exposure to social media (Cohen et al., 2018;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). ...
Article
Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a transition to the utilization of video chatting services as the main form of communication for work, family, and friends. However, the repercussions of this change are not fully known, and issues regarding appearance satisfaction are particularly salient. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between video chatting and appearance satisfaction in a sample of men and women. Method: The current study utilizes cross-sectional data from 618 participants (Age: M = 33.2; 54.1% women) to evaluate whether average video chat usage predicts appearance satisfaction, and whether this association is dependent upon appearance comparison or self-objectification. Results: Results indicated that individuals who spent more time video chatting reported higher appearance satisfaction. Additionally, appearance comparison and self-objectification were not significant moderators, and the association between video chat usage and appearance satisfaction did not differ based on gender. Usage of the touch-up feature, gallery view, and amount of time spent looking at oneself were associated with appearance comparisons, while adjusting lighting and camera angles and amount of time spent looking at oneself were associated with self-objectification. Discussion: The results may indicate that while overall time spent video chatting may be associated with lower appearance concerns, examination of the usage of specific features on video chatting platforms may be important to assess in the future. Public significance: This study demonstrates that overall time spent video chatting may be associated with lower appearance concerns. The usage, however, of specific features on video chatting platforms, such as touch-up feature, gallery view, and amount of time spent looking at oneself were associated with appearance comparisons. Additionally, adjusting lighting and camera angles, and amount of time spent looking at oneself are associated with self-objectification.
... The rapid growth of social media has been shown to be associated with a number of psychiatric disorders, including EDs [28,29]. A correlation between Facebook usage and body image concerns in adolescent girls has been reported previously [30]. However, our analysis revealed no significant correlation between interest in Facebook and ED risk. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Eating disorders (EDs) emerge most often in adolescent girls. While the basic neural and psychiatric mechanisms of ED development remain unknown, their incidence has increased with sociocultural modernization. To determine what aspects of modern culture are related to EDs, we examined the relationship between predisposition to EDs and interest in several modern cultural factors among young female university students in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 196 female students aged 18–29 years in a university in Bangladesh. Their predisposition to EDs was examined using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and their interest in modern culture was evaluated by grading interest in fashionable clothes, Indian TV shows/serials, luxury food and social network activities, and by examining involvement in cultural activities such as playing, dancing, parties and singing. The relationship between predisposition to EDs and interest in modern culture was then examined. The relation between EAT-26 score and body mass index (BMI) was also examined. Results The EAT-26 revealed that 37% of the participants were at risk of developing an ED. Correlation analyses showed that a high EAT-26 score was correlated with a high interest in fashionable clothes and Indian TV shows/serials, but not with a high interest in luxury food or social network activities, or involvement in cultural activities, such as playing, dancing, parties and singing. Further, EAT-26 questions in the dieting category and oral control category, but not the bulimia and food preoccupation category, were correlated with interest in cultural factors. EAT-26 score showed no significant correlation with BMI. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that the risk of EDs is related to an interest in several facets of modern culture. Monitoring the cultural interests of adolescent females, who are continually exposed to modern culture and highly susceptible to EDs, will contribute to the prevention of EDs.
... Néanmoins L'analyse qualitative a également permis de mettre en évidence que la relation entre l'utilisation aux réseaux sociaux et l'image corporelle n'est pas directe, mais qu'elle fait intervenir des étapes intermédiaires comme l'auto-objectification (Slater & Tiggemann, 2015), l'internalisation de l'idéal physique véhiculé sur les réseaux sociaux (Slater & Tiggemann, 2015;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013;Trekels et al., 2018), la surveillance de son propre corps (Vandenbosch & Eggermont, 2012), ou encore la comparaison sociale (Rodgers, Mclean, et al., 128 2020 ...
Thesis
La conceptualisation des expériences adverses à la fin du XXème siècle a permis de développer de manière importante les études portant sur ce sujet. Ces travaux ont permis d’établir un périmètre, restreint aux expériences intra-familiales, rendant possible l’étude systématique de ces expositions dans des protocoles épidémiologiques. Au cours des années, le périmètre conceptuel de ces expériences s’est élargi à des sphères de vie extrafamiliales, posant la question de l’inclusion du harcèlement par les pairs au sein de ce périmètre. L’inclusion des expériences adverses a également permis de se questionner sur leur opérationnalisation. Au- delà de la simple mesure du type et du nombre de types d’expériences adverses, la mesure d’une fréquence cumulée d’exposition est une potentielle piste d’amélioration. De plus, la littérature supporte l’association entre les expériences adverses et les problèmes de santé mentale comme la dépression, l’anxiété ou encore les comportements suicidaires. Cependant, peu d’études se sont intéressées à l’association de ces expériences avec la persistance des problèmes de santé mentale. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’investiguer l’impact chez le jeune adulte de l’exposition à différentes expériences adverses durant l’enfance. Premièrement il s’agit d’étudier les associations entre les expériences adverses et la persistance des comportements suicidaires (étude 1) et de la gêne fonctionnelle (étude 2). Pour ces deux études, les expériences adverses sont incluses sous trois facettes différentes : le type d’expériences adverses, le nombre de types et la fréquence cumulée d’exposition. Deuxièmement, la persistance du harcèlement est investiguée (étude 3). Pour finir, le dernier objectif est de faire une réactualisation des connaissances à propos des réseaux sociaux avec une revue de la littérature sur la mesure de l’utilisation des réseaux sociaux (étude 4) et sur l’association entre l’utilisation des réseaux sociaux et la gêne fonctionnelle (étude 5). Pour répondre à ces objectifs, les trois premières études ont utilisé les données issues de la partie française du projet international World Mental Health International College Student Survey, une enquête en ligne réalisée auprès d’étudiants de première année à l’université avec un suivi annuel. Les étudiants ont notamment été interrogés sur des données sociodémographiques, sur des données de santé mentale, sur leur exposition aux expériences adverses avant 18 ans et le harcèlement. Dans la première étude, une absence d’association significative entre les trois facettes des expériences adverses et la persistance des comportements suicidaires est rapportée, alors que la seconde souligne une association modeste mais significative entre la gêne fonctionnelle et la fréquence cumulée d’exposition. Dans la troisième étude, il a été mis en évidence qu’une situation de cyber-harcèlement vécue durant l’enfance était associée à une plus grande probabilité d’être victime de harcèlement à l’université. La quatrième étude a mis en évidence que la mesure de l’utilisation des réseaux sociaux était complexe, hétérogène dans la littérature, et avec une absence d’échelle de mesure spécifique de l’utilisation. La cinquième étude a souligné un lien robuste entre l’utilisation des réseaux sociaux et une mauvaise image corporelle chez les adolescents, dans lequel la santé mentale pourrait être impliquée de manière indirecte. Cette thèse supporte la nécessité de mettre en place des campagnes de prévention adaptée pour limiter les expériences adverses durant l’enfance et leurs répercussions sur la santé mentale. De plus, l’utilisation des réseaux sociaux peut être associée à des conséquences négatives, comme la mauvaise image corporelle, qui engendrent des problèmes de santé mentale. Des efforts supplémentaires doivent donc être réalisés en termes de sensibilisation auprès des adolescents concernant leur utilisation des réseaux sociaux.
... Радови Сајдмана и Милера наглашавају три латентне димензије које релевантно доприносе развоју незадовољства сопственим телом: свесност савршенства мршавости, усвајање узора мршавости и опажени притисак задовољавања тог узора. Имајући у виду значај који се физичком изгледу даје у западној култури, жене могу стећи погрешну слику о себи и веровати да њихова вредност зависи од поседовања идеалног тела, што показују студије Тигемана и Слејтера (Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). Стога незадовољство сопственим телом може бити важан проблем, који може узроковати ризичне психолошке потешкоће, као што су депресија, анксиозност, ниско самопоштовање и поремећај у исхрани. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Work represents an understanding of the effects of extra strength training to improve swimming performance swimmers between 14 to 18 years. The aim was to determine the effects of extra strength training which performed on dry. In the group of swimmers aged from 14 to 18 years belong swimmers cadet and junior categories. Extra strength training swimmers at this age provides an opportunity, to improve the development of motor skills, improvement of explosive force, speed and speed endurance, which in the final outcome has improvement of the swimming results. Method: To collect previous research, we searched the electronic database: PubMed, Google Scholar, SCIndeks, KOBSON. Searched the research in the period from 2005 to 2015 years. To accepted study for the final analysis, it was necessary to satisfy two criteria: that the respondents are between 14 to 18 years and that the respondents are in the active swimming training. Results and Discussion: Effects of applied study lasted from four weeks to 12 weeks at a time interval from 30 to 45 minutes, two to five times a week, and indicated the significant improvement of swimming ability, strength, sprint performances, time of swimming, as well as the specific motor tasks. Conclusion: A small number of available studies provides an opportunity for researchers to further work in this area. Pedagogical sporty importance is the effect of extra strength training on dry in swimmers from 14 to 18 years, which needs to be included in the strategic planning of development of swimming performances in order to improve the results of the swimming.
... 6 This age group is also considered to be at greater risk for body image dissatisfaction due to an ideal of beauty, associated with thin or athletic bodies, which cannot always be achieved. 7,8 Therefore, they live with the paradox of a risk of obesity and the challenge of achieving the desired body. This is often done through inappropriate methods such as restrictive diets, binge eating episodes, and purging behaviors, which can lead to severe eating disorders. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introdução: A Educação por Pares é uma importante estratégia para promoção de saúde em adolescentes pois permite a troca de conhecimentos entre pessoas do mesmo perfil. A realização de uma fase exploratória para projetos desta natureza é fundamental para produzir conhecimento da realidade a ser pesquisada e ter uma compreensão da problemática dos grupos com os quais se trabalhará. Objetivo: descrever a fase exploratória de um estudo de intervenção por meio da educação por pares visando conhecer as concepções de adolescentes sobre o comer e alimentar-se, exercita-se e a relação com o corpo e a família. Métodos: Realizaram-se cinco grupos focais, com 8 a 12 participantes em cada, com alunos do ensino fundamental de uma escola particular do município do Rio de Janeiro. Utilizou-se, como referencial técnico, a Análise de Conteúdo Temática, fundamentada na perspectiva interpretativista. Resultados: O debate entre os jovens apontou falta de confiança, privacidade e liberdade; exagero das cobranças e frustração por não conseguirem corresponder. O desejo de emagrecer, diminuir barriga, ganhar massa muscular e ter maior estatura foi enfático. Reconheceram sofrer pressões para atingir um padrão corporal. Costumavam comer arroz, feijão, alguma proteína, batata, evitavam o refrigerante e cediam às “besteiras”. A atividade física pareceu não fazer parte da rotina, mas problemas de saúde motivavam esta pratica. Conclusão: Por meio da escuta prévia dos sujeitos a uma intervenção, a complexidade do objeto de estudo se revela. Embora uma abordagem completa das questões tenha sido difícil, foi possível desenvolver estratégias educativas mais próximas da realidade e problemas dos adolescentes a partir desta fase exploratoria.
... Sejalan dengan itu Stojcic et al (2020) menjelaskan bahwa ketidakpuasan terhadap body image dipengaruhi oleh teman sebaya, orangtua dan media. Tiggemann & Slater (2013), menemukan pada remaja perempuan berusia 13-15 tahun, kekhawatiran terhadap body image meningkat karena penggunaan internet dan facebook. Hal-hal tersebut mempengaruhi body image melalui standar sosial tentang penampilan dan perbandingan penampilan yang berlebihan. ...
... Research shows that more time spent on Facebook and/or Myspace are associated with body dissatisfaction, weight loss, internalization of thin ideal, body monitoring, self-objectification and increased dieting level. This result is found among preadolescent girls (Tiggemann & Slater, 2014), female high school students (Tiggemann & Slater, 2013;Vandenbosch & Eggermont, 2012) and female undergraduates (Cohen & Blaszczynski, 2015;. Moreover, certain types of activity on social media in particular are likely to make the phenomenon worse (Meier & Gray, 2014). ...
... Sejumlah penelitian telah menunjukkan adanya pengaruh negatif dari penggunaan sosial media terutama dalam kaitannya dengan ketidakpuasan akan bentuk tubuh dan arahan menuju ke kekurusan terutama pada perempuan muda, objektifikasi diri (self-objectification), pengawasan bentuk tubuh (body surveillance), perhatian berlebih pada citra tubuh (body image concern), mood negatif, dan berbagai isu terkait kebiasaan makan [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] . Objektifikasi diri sendiri adalah derajat seseorang menginternalisasikan perspektif orang ketiga pada dirinya dan menjadi acuan untuk merubah dirinya menjadi bentuk tubuh yang ingin dilihat oleh orang lain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Latar Belakang: Penggunaan sosial media dapat membawa dampak negative kaitannya dengan ketidakpuasan akan bentuk tubuh dan arahan menuju ke kekurusan (drive to thinness) terutama pada perempuan muda, perhatian belebih pada citra tubuh (body image concern), dan berbagai isu terkait kebiasaan makan yang salah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan kebiasaan memposting swafoto pada SNS dengan kejadian eating disorder pada sejumlah negara serta faktor-faktor yang mungkin mempengaruhi. Metode: Sistematik review dilakukan pada paper dari Medline, Sciencedirect, Embase, dan Google Scholar dengan kata kunci “Selfie” dan “eating disorder”. Pencarian dibatasi pada kelompok populasi remaja hingga dewasa awal dan pada penggunaan Social Networking Sites. Ulasan: Kondisi eating disorder sering tidak disadari oleh individu, terutama pada kelompok remaja dan dewasa muda. Data terkait prevalensi eating disorder di Indonesia juga sangat terbatas, padahal, penggunaan media social di kalangan remaja dan dewasa muda Indonesia semakin meningkat seiring dengan mudahnya akses internet dan perkembangan chanel media sosial. Dari review sistematik yang dilakukan, hanya satu studi yang mendapatkan keterkaitan antara postingan selfie dengan eating disorder, yaitu bulimia. Namun, hampir semua memiliki kesimpulan bahwa penggunaan sosial media berkaitan dengan rendahnya kepercayaan diri, ketidakpuasan terhadap bentuk tubuh, citra diri negative, serta berkaitan dengan karakteristik restriksi pola makan berlebihan. Kesimpulan: Telaah sistematik ini dapat menjadi acuan untuk pengembangan penelitian kedepan dengan memperhatikan fenomena sosial, penggunaan sosial media dan kaitannya dengan eating disorder maupun status gizi remaja dan dewasa awal.
... Research has shown that screen time (ST) was associated with body mass index (BMI; Dumith et al., 2012) and internalization of thin-ideal (Dohnt & Tiggemann, 2006;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). The study carried out by Keel et al. (2020) revealed that perceived weight and changes in ST exposure showed an upward trend in a sample of 90 undergraduate students. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Research has shown that social factors like peer networks and screen time exposure have a critical role in personal perceptions of weight. This study examined the relationships between television, computer/video games exposure, unstructured socializing (UnS), perceived resilience (PR), self-perceived overweight (SPO), and misperceptions of overweight (MO) in early adulthood. Method Data were obtained from Add Health, a public use sample of 2033 men and 2336 women 18– 26 years old (M = 21.81 years; SD = 1.80). Binary logistic regression was used for all data analyses. Hesmer-Lemeshow and Wald test statistics were reported to compare binary logit models. Nagelkerke pseudo-R2 was computed for effect sizes. Results The results showed that TV had a positive effect on SPO and MO. Gender-specific patterns were found in SPO and MO that women were more likely to overestimate their weight than men, and men were more likely to have MO compared to women. The results yielded that the effect of PR on SPO is significant at .001 level. The moderator effect of PR was statistically significant only for the relationship between computer/video games exposure and SPO. Conclusion Reducing TV exposure might be a protective factor to prevent weight misperceptions. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of low, moderate, and high levels of leisure-based ST and gender-specific resilience strength programs on weight misperceptions.
... Las dos redes conque más usuarios se cuentan Facebook e Instagram son las más utilizadas por los jóvenes, lo cual es importante mencionar ya que estudios previos han asociado un alto uso de Facebook con una menor autoestima (Kalpidou, Costin y Morris, 2011), así como una mayor soledad (Song et al., 2014). Y un alto uso de Instagram es relacionado con problemas de imagen corporal (Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). ¿En qué red social tiene cuenta (marque varias si es necesario)? ...
Article
Full-text available
La mayoría de los usuarios de internet utilizan redes sociales, muchos de ellos son niños y jóvenes que tienen cuentas en varias plataformas, aunque el propósito de las redes sociales fue el de socializar y compartir, actualmente hay una gran cantidad de usuarios que la utilizan para informarse, aunque muchos ellos son conscientes de que no toda la información es verás o verificable. La siguiente investigación analiza la influencia de las redes sociales en los jóvenes y las diferentes maneras que sus usuarios, prosumidores, pueden modificar su comportamiento a partir de la información que en estas se divulga; para reforzar la hipóstasis se realizó una encuesta a los estudiantes de la Universidad Metropolitana sede Machala y conocer su punto de vista sobre el tema, de cuan creíble es la información de las redes sociales y como se ven influenciados por la información que consumen, en donde se evidencia que utilizan las redes sociales como medio de información más que de socialización, finalmente se realizan recomendaciones a usuarios y educadores para contrarrestar el consumo de información sin sustento científico.
... Highly popular social media practices among youth involve different forms of self-presentation, for example through the taking and sharing of selfies (Mills et al., 2018), which has been shown to increase anxiety and enhance feelings of physical unattractiveness among young women (Tiggemann et al., 2020). Also, social media consumption can fuel a tendency to compare oneself socially when exposed to celebrity and peer images, alongside an increased body dissatisfaction and negative mood (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Tiggemann & Zaccardo, 2015;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). Consuming images of female influencers may also reinforce the intention to engage in specific health behaviors, such as dieting, associated to a personal negative body image (Jin et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: To date, there is much controversy in the literature on the impacts of social media use on young women's health and wellbeing. Alongside the massive popularity of platforms like Instagram and TikTok, the social media culture has become a key mediator of social discourses on health, femininities, bodies, and identities. In contemporary Western societies, the individual pursuit of health is highly valued, related to contemporary forms of governance that emphasize self-regulation, individual responsibility, and individual choice. Furthermore, postfeminist discourses strongly encourage women to engage in constant work on their body, health, and identity. In this context, it is imperative to understand how the contemporary social media culture relates to young women's health, body, and sense of self. Aims: The overall aim of this study is to understand the role of a new social media culture on narrative constructions of a sense of self among young women in late adolescence, aged 18-20 years old, and, particularly the ways in which such narrative identities relate to experiences and practices involving health and wellbeing. Methods: In this 3-year research we adopt a social constructionist approach in critical health psychology focused on socio-culturally situated practices and meanings involved in the construction of human experience. We adopt a qualitative research approach-consisting of in-depth interviews, focus groups and photo elicitation techniques-with people self-identifying as women. Data analysis will employ both narrative and reflexive thematic analysis. Ethics and dissemination: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Lausanne. Findings will be published in scientific journals, presented at meetings, and will serve for public health and educational purposes. Content in form of flyers and posts will be designed to communicate findings to participants via current social media platforms.
... The perceived socio -cultural pressure includes a pressure from the media, social networks and surrounding environment for becoming thin (36). The adolescent girls who spend more time in social networks experience more concerns about their body image and body weight (37). Using social networks leads to body dissatisfaction, negative comparisons and poor performance in the school (38). ...
... Проведено проучване в социалното медийно пространство докладва, че 95% от изследваните момичета отчитат яростната атака от установените негативни критерии за красота в публикации в социалните медиикоментари, снимки, видеа, като повечето от тях (72%) ги виждат поне веднъж седмично, изразявайки желание социалните мрежи всъщност да бъдат Yearbook of Psychology 2021, Vol. 12 Online ISSN 2683-0426 149 пространство, което да дава възможност за позитивно изразяване и приемане на тялото (62%) (Tiggemann, M., & Slater, A., 2013). В друго изследване 41% от момичетата в тинейджърска възраст признават, че използват социалните мрежи, за да "изглеждат по-готини". ...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a theoretical overview, based mainly on research, aimed at outlining the psychological characteristics of adolescence as a prerequisite for higher risk of developing eating disorders. The negative impact of social networks in which adolescents spend much of their free time is considered, and this is an opportunity to engage in unhealthy behavior, especially to internalize the body image, which is a predictor of the development of eating disorders. Периодът на юношеството е характерен с продължителното и не леко търсене на въпроса, който е от фундаментално значение за юношата-"Кой съм аз?", като именно това е моментът, в който започва изграждането на личната идентичност. Формирането на личната идентичност до голяма степен зависи от свободните избори и индивидуални решения, които юношата е необходимо да осъществи при изпълняване на различни активности. Ако не съумее да интегрира и балансира тези аспекти, и не е достатъчно способен да осъществи самостоятелно своите избори, тогава може да настъпи обърканост спрямо собствената личност, както и спрямо социалните роли, пред които е изправен да изпълнява (Янкулова, Йо., 2016, с. 141).
... Frequent internet use for non-work-related purposes has been associated with negative psychological wellbeing (Huang, 2010). Excessive use of digital platforms and social media can produce isolation and cause anxiety (Tarafdar et al., 2019;Cao & Sun, 2018;Karr-Wisniewski & Lu, 2010;Chatzopoulou et al., 2020), body image concerns and dissatisfaction (Tiggemann & Slater, 2013;Ahadzadeh et al., 2017;Chatzopoulou et al., 2020), negative moods (Fardouly & Vartanian, 2015), poor academic performance , as well as information and communication overloads Zhang et al., 2016). Information overload occurs when individuals are required to deal with an excessive amount of information that is beyond their capacity to accommodate or process. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic forced most individuals to work from home. Simultaneously, there has been an uptake of digital platform use for personal purposes. The excessive use of technology for both work and personal activities may cause technostress. Despite the growing interest in technostress, there is a paucity of research on the effects of work and personal technology use in tandem, particularly during a crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a sample of 306 employees, this paper addresses this research gap. The findings highlight how both work and personal digital platforms induce technostress during the enforced remote work period, which in turn increases psychological strains such as technology exhaustion and decreases subjective wellbeing. Study results also show that employees with previous remote working experience could better negotiate technostress, whereas those with high resilience experience decreased wellbeing in the presence of technostress-induced technology exhaustion in the enforced remote work context.
... Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated greater activation in the brain's reward circuitry (e.g., the nucleus accumbens) when adolescents view photos that receive high numbers of "likes," especially when these were their own photos (Sherman et al., 2016;, suggesting that quantifiable approval of one's online self-presentation may be especially rewarding. Among adolescent girls in Australia, number of friends on social media has been shown to positively correlate with body image concerns (Tiggemann & Slater, 2013) and dieting (Tiggemann & Slater, 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social media is part of life for adolescents in the United States. Research on social media has increased, as scholars attempt to understand how social media could help and harm adolescents’ well-being. Prior research suggests social media affects users’ body image, with individuals sharing images of themselves at their most attractive while experiencing preoccupation over how their appearance will be perceived by others. The effects of social media on body image heighten during adolescence, a developmental stage where individuals prioritize physical attractiveness over domains of self-worth. We describe developmental features of adolescence, and how they intersect with social media, with implications for body image and disordered eating. Next, we introduce relevant theoretical frameworks for considering social media’s effect on body image. Then, we examine how features of social media affect adolescents’ body image and disordered eating. Finally, we explore social media platforms devoted to body image concerns and disordered eating.
... Social media have become increasingly pervasive over the past decade and have been associated with heightened body image concerns among young women [17,18]. Instagram is an image-based social media platform. ...
Article
Full-text available
Body dissatisfaction is among the most common mental health challenges experienced by women and has been identified as a risk factor for disordered eating. Research has found that exposure to social media images depicting thin, muscular bodies, often dubbed ‘fitspiration’, may contribute to body dissatisfaction. Image-centred social media platforms, such as Instagram, have rising popularity among adolescents and young adults. However, little is known about the content of images produced by different fitness-related sources, such as those from fitness brands compared with individual users, and how fitness content on social media is evolving over time. This study sought to determine whether Instagram content varied between female fitness influencers and brands and how this content changed between 2019 and 2021. A longitudinal content analysis was conducted on a sample of 400 Instagram images using a coding scheme developed specifically for this project. The scheme coded images for fit ideal body depiction, fitness focus, objectification, and sexualisation. Chi-square tests indicated that female fitness influencer content was more sexualised and portrayed more of the fit ideal, while fitness brands produced more Instagram content with a fitness focus. There were no significant overall longitudinal changes for any of the four key variables. However, when looking at longitudinal changes by account type, fitness-focused influencer content increased while fitness-focused brand content decreased over time. These findings highlight discernible differences in content produced by different Instagram account types. It points future research towards the consideration of potential moderating factors, such as account type, when exploring the impact of social media images on body image and mental health.
... The shift in popularity from these forms of media to a more convenient online social media (Bair et al., 2012;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013) gave way for an opportunity to conduct research regarding the effects of social media on decreased social well-being caused by online social comparison and negative associations with body image concerns, self-esteem issues, eating disorder symptoms, and overall psycho-social well-being (Frison & Eggermont, 2015;Santarossa & Woodruff, 2017;Woodruff et al., 2019). Overall, the evidence examining social media and its problematic effects across variables is still emerging and differs from the aforementioned media of print and television. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect that social media usage may have on social physique anxiety, and self-presentation in exercise. Specifically, the main research questions answered were whether overall social media usage (total time per week spent across individual social media platforms), online usage tendencies (observer or contributor), age cohort (18-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39), and/or physical activity levels (active or inactive), influenced perceptions of social physique anxiety and self-presentation in exercise among women. A total of 214 women between 18-39 years of age were recruited. A final usable sample of 155 women was retained who tracked their online social media usage tendencies for one week using a screen-time app (MyPhoneTime) and completed online surveys which measured social physique anxiety, self-presentation in exercise. Participants provided social media screen-time data tracking which indicated time and type of social media platforms used. Overall, Instagram was the most used platform for those 18-29 years old, while Facebook was the most used platform for those 30-39 years old, and Twitter was the least used platform across all age groups. Further breakdowns revealed Facebook was most used by those 30-34 years old, Instagram and Twitter were most used by those 25-29 years old, and TikTok and Snapchat were most used by those 18-24 years old. The findings revealed that there were no significant relationships between overall social media usage time, social physique anxiety, impression motivation, and impression construction dimensions of self-presentation in exercise. However, increased Twitter usage was related to increased scores in the impression motivation dimension of self-presentation. In addition, those who were more physically active also had increased impression motivation scores for self-presentation. This was most prevalent with those 18-24 years old.
... Moreover, negative body image was significantly associated with screen time in the boys participating the present study. Previous findings in other countries have frequently documented the relationship between screen time and body dissatisfaction in youth (24,25); however, body image and screen time have been addressed as an outcome and an independent variable, respectively. The use of the Internet, especially using social media and social networks mainly focusing on individuals' appearance, can adversely affect an individual's perception of his/her physical appearance by providing increased opportunity for social comparison (26). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Body image is known as an important factor affecting different aspects of adolescents' health; however, its relationship with lifestyle, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Iranian adolescents has not been addressed in a conceptual model. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the network associations among body image, lifestyle, BMI, and HRQoL in adolescent boys and girls. Methods: The present study examined 760 adolescents (15 - 18 years) from Tehran. Adolescents reported their weight and height, according to which the participants' BMIs were calculated. The adolescents' body image, lifestyle, and HRQoL were assessed using a set of questionnaires, including the Body Image Scale for Youth (BISY), Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ), Eating Habits Checklist, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM). Results: The participants' mean age and BMI were 16.5 ± 1.0 years and 22.4 ± 4.6 kg/m2, respectively. More than one-third of boys (39.9%) and less than a quarter of girls (22.6%) were overweight/obese. In the final model, body image was significantly and directly associated with physical activity, disordered eating, eating habits, and HRQoL in both genders (P < 0.05). Moreover, body image was directly correlated with screen time in boys (P = 0.012) and BMI in girls (P = 0.001). Body image was indirectly correlated with BMI by the mediating role of disordered eating in girls. Moreover, body image was indirectly associated with HRQoL by the mediating role of physical activity and eating habits in both genders and screen time only in boys. Conclusions: The network associations among body image, lifestyle, BMI, and HRQoL revealed a gender-specific pattern among the study population. Body image was a significant determinant of lifestyle and HRQoL in both genders and excessive weight in girls. The present findings would contribute to designing and implementing relevant health promotion interventions.
... Overall, according to the literature (Choma et al., 2010;Duarte & Pinto-Gouveia, 2017;Grieve, 2007;Lowery et al., 2005), our findings confirm that body shame negatively influences self-esteem. However, within the objectified body consciousness framework (McKinley & Hyde, 1996), a small number of studies have focused on body shame in general samples, or among females (Gioia et al., 2020;Manago et al., 2015;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013Wang et al., 2019a). Nonetheless, body shame is a risky, key component of body image and satisfaction (Noll & Fredrickson, 1998) that increasingly affects male adolescents (Gioia et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: According to the objectification framework, media pressure toward body models promotes the internalization of beauty ideals that negatively influence individuals' body image and self-esteem. Historically, women have been the main target of sociocultural pressures. However, research has recently suggested that self-objectification is a male phenomenon as well, which can be inscribed in men's body experiences. Nevertheless, fewer studies have specifically focused on the male experience and general consequences of body-objectification are yet to be extensively analyzed regarding males' body image features. The current cross-sectional study explores the consequences of body-objectification on male body esteem, specifically testing the predictive role of exercising/dietary habits, body-objectification features, and SNS-related practices on male body esteem. Method: A total of 238 male participants (mean age = 24.28 years, SD = 4.32) have been involved in an online survey. Three hierarchical analyses were performed to test the influence of objectified body consciousness and social networking-related experiences (i.e. Instagram intensity use, photo manipulation, selfie feedback investment) on young men's body esteem with specific reference to the weight, appearance, and attribution features of the Body Esteem Scale. Results: Findings highlighted that body shame played an interesting key role, influencing negatively all the body esteem dimensions, thus highlighting that attention needs to be deserved on this feature of OBC regarding males' experience. On the contrary, appearance control-related dimensions positively influenced body esteem. Overall, findings confirmed that objectification theory can adequately mark a pathway by which media imagery is internalized also by men and may negatively affect their body esteem. Conclusions: Despite some limitations, this study may contribute to enlarging our knowledge on male body image and self-objectification experience and support literature shattering the stereotype that body dissatisfaction is a "female-exclusive" issue. Likewise, beyond some questioning positions, these findings also encourage further exploration of a healthier "control dimension", including body appearance-related activities and beliefs.
Article
Background ‘Fat Talk’, or the act of negatively discussing one’s own or another person’s body, is linked to body image constructs, body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and disordered eating. The spaces in which young women talk about the body are changing, as social media use escalates. Understanding the interplay between social media use, body image and fat talk, in different contexts, is needed. Method Focus group interviews were used to explore how young women (aged 15–19) experience fat talk while using social media and the possible effect on body image constructs. Using purposive convenience sampling, young women who regularly used social media and were living in an inner city of England were recruited. Thematic analysis was used for analysis and six themes were identified, both a priori and inductively, to explore the interplay between them. Findings Over 35 women were successfully recruited into the study, with 18 of these finally participating in focus group interviews. Among participants, social media use was linked to increased self-evaluation of the body, engagement in social comparative behaviour and negative self-talk about the body. Although fat talk was reportedly common and widespread, it was unacceptable in the online space. However, body talk, other than size or shape, was permissible. Conclusion Fat talk can be divisive; however, if it becomes unacceptable in the online space, negative self-talk may increase. If fat talk is replaced by an all-encompassing ‘body talk’, then this too may exacerbate existing pressures on young people and their mental health and well-being. Understanding the relationship between social media, body dissatisfaction and body talk may provide new opportunities for health education to promote a more constructive prevention discourse of the body, including body talk, in or around the online space.
Article
Objective: The aim: The paper attempts to investigate the impact of social networks and digital media on mental health and psychological well-being. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: The data collection was carried out using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar databases. Research papers were identified according to the search terms "cyberspace", "cyberpsychology", "digital media", "virtual reality", "social networks", "mental health", "psychological well-being", "beauty", "beauty standards". The authors used integrative anthropological approach, interpretive research paradigm, and multidisciplinary analysis. Conclusion: Conclusion: The digital world is a relatively recent phenomenon, therefore, the potential relationship between its use and mental health and psychological well-being has not yet been adequately explored. Most of the research has been conducted over the last decades; and until now the scientific community has not been able to fully interpret the obtained results and come to final conclusions. As Timpano and Beard rightly pointed out, the future research should be focused on types and motivations for the use of social networks; identify potential mechanisms linking the social media use and mental health symptoms; reveal an impact of social networks on declines in face-to-face social interactions; understand the link of social networks with maladaptive coping strategies and health behaviors. The relationship between social networks, digital media use and psychological functioning is not straightforward and depends on many factors. However, we should not forget that there is nothing new under the sun. The same people act in both digital and physical spaces. And the psychological problems that are revealed in the digital universe are the same that "accompany" the actors of the digital communication process in the real, physical world. Anyway, we cannot avoid cyberspace, so we have to learn how to interact within this challenging world.
Article
This paper adds to the limited number of studies about physical autonomy and practice shifts among fitness instructors who responded to the change brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic and moved their professional activity online. I conceptualize physical autonomy as the ability of moving unrestrained and unhindered. I apply the online–offline ethnography to explore the interdependencies between digital media/technologies and the embodied practices of fitness instructors in online workouts. I also pay attention to fitness instructors’ perception of their physical autonomy in the world of online training during the pandemic. This article shows that instructors’ capacity for action has become more and more dependent on new technology.
Article
While the relationships between media and eating disorders and disordered eating patterns incollege-aged women have been extensively studied (e.g., Bissel, 2004; Grabe & Hyde 2009;Harper & Tiggeman, 2008; Yamamiya, Cash, Melnyk, Posavac, & Posavac, 2005), fewerstudies have been conducted with female athletes. More specifically, limited studies havefocused on the relationship between social media and eating behaviors of athletesparticipating in aesthetic sporting events, even though the highest rates of disordered eatingpatterns occur in sports where female athletes are scored on judges’ opinions (Hausenblas &Carron, 1999; Smolak, Murnen, & Ruble, 2000; Sundgot-Borgen, 1994), and where leanness,thinness, and aesthetic skills and aspects are emphasized (Byrne & McLean, 2002; DiBartolo& Shaffer, 2002). Thus, the current study sought to understand the links among collegegymnasts’ perceptions of body image, disordered eating behaviors, and perceptions ofathletes’ body images presented on social media. Furthermore, the study also explored howcriticism presented on social media relates to disordered eating symptomatology. The studywas conducted via an online survey system by 72 18-25-year-old females who were currentlycompeting or recently competed in club or collegiate gymnastics. Results found significantcorrelations between the severity of critical comments about physical appearance, emotionalreaction to criticism about physical appearance, and disordered eating behavior in instanceswhere the comments were not made on social media, but no correlation was found betweenseverity, emotional reaction, and disordered eating behaviors for comments made on socialmedia.
Technical Report
Full-text available
El objetivo del Proyecto Casandra es conocer la relación entre el uso de las Tecnologías de la Información, la Comunicación y el Ocio (TICOs) y diferentes aspectos psico-sociales de jóvenes y adolescentes. METODOLOGÍA Para ello un grupo de 4513 adolescentes de 11 a 15 años (media 12,59; DT 0.78) de la Comunidad Valenciana ha respondido a cuestiones sobre su conducta digital, redes sociales y videojuegos principalmente, así como clima familiar, ajuste escolar y salud mental. RESULTADOS A partir de los 11 años, 9 de cada 10 adolescentes tiene móvil. Para el 7% el uso del móvil le supone un problema de control que conlleva dificultades en las relaciones y ansiedad si no tiene acceso al móvil. En el presente estudio se analiza el consumo de contenidos violentos y de pornografía en Internet. Uso de videojuegos y redes sociales y su relación con el ajuste escolar, clima familiar y salud mental.
Preprint
Full-text available
This study showed that the use of social networking sites would deepen individuals' unhealthy restrictions on their own diet, and the use of social networking sites will further deepen individuals' restrictive diet through their tendency to pursue appearance perfection. However, increased self-focus by individuals may discourage appearance perfectionists from adopting unhealthy eating control behaviors.
Chapter
For teens today, the time they spend with digital technologies represents more than a 40-h work week. In light of the prominent role that technologies take in their lives, this chapter is a review of research on the role of digital technologies in shaping adolescents’ body image. Grounded in sociocultural and social comparison theories, we review evidence on social media, selfies, image retouching, fitspiration, and body-related online forums. We also highlight an important future direction in this research literature: the examination of how digital technologies shape and sustain positive body image. Also, in this review, we foreground the developmental considerations of the adolescent audience and the affordances of digital technologies, ultimately providing a conceptual map of the research by examining the intersections between developmental considerations and technological affordances.
Chapter
With the proliferation of social technologies in today's digital world, adolescents need to adapt to ever-shifting social, cultural, and technological environments. We describe the impact of these technologies on the development of adolescents and the mental health processes relevant to these technologies. We not only explore mental disorders and risky behaviors (e.g., depression, anxiety, fear of missing out, self-harm, etc.) but also the positive dimensions of social media on mental health, including social connectedness, resilience, and access to supportive online relationships. We connect these psychological processes to core elements and affordances of social media, to describe patterns of usage across different platforms. We conclude with future research challenges and recommendations for interventions utilizing these findings such as advice for pediatricians guiding their patient families to collaborations with user-centered computing industry experts which can further co-create technological solutions centering on the needs of adolescent wellbeing.
Article
The purpose of this project is to determine the health information-seeking behaviors of Black women who use self-modification devices advertised on Instagram, and how they identify and negotiate risk factors related to these products. Forty-two interviews with Black women reveal that in seeking health risk information related to the devices, the women initially explored social media comments about the devices, replied with questions to the commenters, sent direct messages to people who indicated they bought the devices, and searched hashtags. They further clarified information beyond social media by searching Google, browsing websites like WebMD and Healthline, and reviewing accessible peer-reviewed sources. The health risk information was further confirmed with word-of-mouth firsthand experience or by testing the product on their own. Participants developed their own modification barometers to gauge what health impacts they were willing to accept in order to get the desired physical outcome. Advertisers or promoters can provide explicit and accurate details about the health risks of products, to provide transparency and valuable health information to consumers as they navigate their own modification barometers.
Article
Full-text available
Emerging research has raised concerns about the growing prevalence of photo-editing behaviour and how this may negatively interact with body-related concerns among females. This review aimed to systematically examine the current evidence relating to the associations between photo-editing behaviour and female body concerns, including body image, body dissatisfaction and body modification. Six databases were searched for studies investigating associations between photo-editing and body concerns in female social media users. Empirical studies published in English were included if they quantitatively measured the association between photo-editing and at least one of the body-related outcomes, and included female participants. A narrative synthesis of the 22 studies meeting these specific criteria was completed. This review revealed mixed findings in relation to the associations between photo-editing and body concerns. The findings indicate there may be a more complex relationship between both concepts that is influenced by alternative factors. The findings also revealed considerable heterogeneity in measurement approaches for both photo-editing behaviour and body-related outcomes. Future research should focus on developing a gold-standard approach to the measurement of various body-related concerns and conducting in-depth analyses in order to further understand the complex relationship between photo-editing and female social media users’ body concerns.
Article
Background: Disordered eating is common among late adolescents and young adults who pursue an idealised body image. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of disordered eating between males and females and its associated factors among college and university students in Sarawak. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 20 public and private colleges and universities in Sarawak, from September 2017 to March 2020. Respondents completed self-administered questionnaires both in the English and Malay language. Data about sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, eating attitude, body dissatisfaction, perceived sociocultural pressure, self-esteem, drive for muscularity and perfectionism were collected. Results: A total of 776 respondents (male: 30.9%; female: 69.1%) aged 19 to 25 years old took part in the study. The overall prevalence of disordered eating was 25.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.9; 28.7) with females (28.6%, 95% CI 24.6; 32.9) higher than males (15.6%, 95% CI 10.5; 21.9). Multivariate analysis showed for both male and female models, perceived sociocultural pressure (male: β = 1.125, p < 0.01; female: β = 1.052, p = 0.003), drive for muscularity (male: β = 1.033, p = 0.017; female: β = 1.032, p < 0.01) and perfectionism (male: β = 1.098, p = 0.02; female:β = 1.119, p < 0.01) were predictors for disordered eating. Conclusion: The prevalence of disordered eating among college and university students in Sarawak was high. The findings suggest that although there were gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating, its associated factors were the same. The findings of this study will be useful for designing and implementing disordered eating prevention and intervention programme.
Article
Full-text available
Background It is recommended that children and adolescents spend ≥ 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, ≤ 2 h per day of recreational screen time, and 9–11 h of sleep per night for school-aged children or 8–10 h per night for adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of compliance with physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations with the frequencies of breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. Methods Data from a cross-sectional and province-wide survey of students in grades 7–12 in Ontario (Canada) were used for this analysis (n = 12,759 students; 15.2 ± 1.8 years; 56% females). Movement behaviours and eating habits were self-reported. Multivariable ordered logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnoracial background, subjective socioeconomic status, and body mass index z-score. Results Compliance with all three recommendations was associated with more frequent breakfast consumption (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 2.17–3.55) and fruit and vegetable intake (OR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.41–3.62) compared with compliance with none of the recommendations. Compliance with the different combinations of recommendations was also associated with more frequent breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable intake, with some exceptions. There was a dose–response gradient between the number of recommendations met (3 > 2 > 1) and more frequent breakfast consumption (p < 0.001) and fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001), with compliance with all three recommendations being the best combination. Conclusions These findings suggest that compliance with the physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations is associated with more frequent breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents.
Article
Social media use is pervasive among youth and is associated with body image disturbance and self-objectification. The present study investigated whether a 3-day social media fast in a sample for whom social media is especially salient, female adolescent dancers, can mitigate such negative effects. Through an online survey, 65 pre-teen and teen girls, aged 10–19, completed measures of self-objectification (body surveillance and body shame), self-esteem and self-compassion both prior to and following three days of abstaining from all social media. During the fast, girls reflected on their experiences in group messages on the messaging app, WhatsApp. Overall, the fast had positive effects on participants, for whom body surveillance and body shame was significantly reduced after the fast. Self-compassion significantly mediated the change in both body surveillance and body shame, and self-esteem was a significant mediator of improvements in body shame. The content of girls’ group messages revealed a number of themes, such as more positive mental states during the fast. Future research should continue to examine the potential of brief social media fasts as a means to alleviate appearance pressures adolescent girls face on these platforms in daily life.
Article
Social media applications like TikTok and Instagram enable social comparisons and users' emotional experiences in everyday life, with negative consequences for their mental well-being. However, there is a discrepancy in that users' social appearance has altered as a result of their use of these social media applications. The current study intends to bridge this research gap by looking into how social appearances on TikTok and Instagram develop emotions of inferiority. For validity, a Social Appearance Anxiety Scale was used, with N=352 respondents in the sample. The statistics show that there is a substantial link between social appearance and inferiority complex. Social media users create and replicate videos for a short period of time, incorporating content that builds the dreamy image that has a major impact on their mental health and that of their followers. The findings confirm a strong relationship (R²=0.520) between social appearance and inferiority complex, proving the importance of social media appearance in terms of inferiority feelings. Keywords: Self-representation, Social appearance, Inferiority complex, Instagram use, TikTok use.
Article
Full-text available
New media is an Internet based media using sophisticated computers and mobile phones. One of them is Instagram having more than 800 million users from across the world. In Instagram there are quite a lot of new phenomena appearing and one of the phenomena in Indonesia is an account for beautiful students such as ‘UNPAD GEULIS’ in which such an account has more than 87,000 followers. This research aims to understand how ‘UNPAD GEULIS’ constructs concept of beauty through its Instagram account. The researchers also wanted to find out what kind of beauty standard used for selecting pictures to be uploaded on the account. This is a qualitative research which used a structured interview with the account owner of ‘UNPAD GEULIS’ to get the data needed. The result has shown that ‘UNPAD GEULIS’ indirectly constructs the concept of beauty by uploading pictures through 5 steps such as the recommendation, good Instagram feeds, beauty standard, achievements, and request of permission.
Article
Background: In recent years, the rates of young people presenting with self-harming have increased dramatically, with self-harm being a predictor of suicide. Despite evidence suggesting that self-harm is common in young people and that hospital admissions are increasing, research exploring the reasons behind young people’s motivations is not easily accessed. Systematic reviews have explored this from a range of perspectives, but none have drawn all this literature together. Methods: A systematic review of systematic reviews was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Seven databases were searched using a peer reviewed search strategy, with a focus on the factors of child and adolescent self-harming. All English language articles, published between 2008 and 2021, were considered, and screened against inclusion criteria. References of included articles were also searched for eligible articles. Results: Twenty-two systematic reviews were included after screening against eligibility criteria. Narrative synthesis identified eight themes for motivation or reasons for self-harming: identity and subcultures, peer influences, educational stressors, mental ill health, cognitive and neuropsychological factors, trauma and attachment, internet influences and social media. Conclusion: Reasons for self-harming in adolescents are complex and multifactorial. Many studies focus on single causes or associations with self-harm rather than open-mindedly exploring a range of factors or the interactions between them. This leaves gaps in the research where hypothetical reasons for self-harm have not been systematically explored. The themes identified here could help in the clinical assessment process and guide future research in this area, including the development of potential differentiated prevention and treatment approaches.
Article
Purpose The study aimed to analyse the nutritional quality of self-proposed or prescribed weight-loss diets shared by female Korean adolescents through a social media platform and identified potential dietary problems. Design/methodology/approach A total of 317 weight-loss diets, shared by 107 female adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 in April 2019, were collected from three Kakao Open Chat rooms of which the main topic was “weight-loss diet”. The weight-loss diets were converted to daily energy and nutrient intake. Findings Approximately two-thirds of the subjects were normal or underweight, and more than half of them were limiting energy intake to less than half of the recommended daily amounts. The average daily intake of energy and most nutrients did not meet the standard intake levels. Approximately 20% of the subjects were breakfast skippers, while 8 and 5% were dinner and lunch skippers, respectively. Notably, meal skippers tended to fast longer and have an uneven distribution of daily energy intake per meal. The percentages of energy contribution from macronutrients, particularly carbohydrates, also deviated more from the acceptable range in the meal skippers. The weight-loss diets of the subjects with particularly low daily energy intake were categorised into simplified, unbalanced and nutrient-poor, energy-dense meals. Overall, the nutritional quality of the self-proposed or prescribed weight-loss diets was poor. More effective and proactive educational interventions in school environments should be developed to promote positive eating behaviours in adolescents and free them from their obsession with body image. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first attempt to analyse the nutritional quality of female adolescents' self-proposed or prescribed weight-loss diets.
Chapter
Past research has demonstrated a linkage between social media usage and disordered eating habits and body dissatisfaction. Trends relating to eating disorders develop around specific hashtags in communities in social networking sites such as Tumblr. One of these trends is #meanspiration, a tag that is used to request and give mean messages from/to social media users to inspire them to lose weight. In this study, images and texts of Meanspiration posts are automatically analyzed based on colorfulness, the images’ emotional measures pleasure, arousal and dominance, whereas the textual information of the posts is evaluated based on sentiments, emotions and readability. These characteristics are used in a classification task to distinguish Meanspiration from regular content on Tumblr with 81% accuracy.KeywordsSocial MediaImage AnalysisText AnalysisEmotion AnalysisMeanspirationTumblr
Article
Background In recent years the rates of young people presenting with self-harming have increased dramatically, with self-harm being a predictor of suicide. Despite evidence suggesting that self-harm is common in young people and that hospital admissions are increasing, research exploring the reasons behind young people’s motivations is not easily accessed. Systematic reviews have explored this from a range of perspectives, but none have drawn all this literature together. Methods A systematic review of systematic reviews was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Seven databases were searched using a peer reviewed search strategy, with a focus on the factors of child and adolescent self-harming. All English language articles, published between 2008 and 2021, were considered, and screened against inclusion criteria. References of included articles were also searched for eligible articles. Results Twenty-two systematic reviews were included after screening against eligibility criteria. Narrative synthesis identified eight themes for motivation or reasons for self-harming: identity and subcultures, peer influences, educational stressors, mental ill health, cognitive and neuropsychological factors, trauma and attachment, internet influences and social media. Conclusion Reasons for self-harming in adolescents are complex and multifactorial. Many studies focus on single causes or associations with self-harm rather than open-mindedly exploring a range of factors or the interactions between them. This leaves gaps in the research where hypothetical reasons for self-harm have not been systematically explored. The themes identified here could help in the clinical assessment process and guide future research in this area including the development of potential differentiated prevention and treatment approaches.
Chapter
Like everything else in the world, technology brings us advantages and disadvantages, but nowadays, with the ever faster advancement of technology, we make countless questions, such as: How can we control the bad effects of technological advances? Or even, if we are going to control the technology or, on the contrary, the technology that will control us daily in the near future, with the aim of not only benefiting the end-user but a company or an institution that has an interest and is behind of this action? Therefore, this article discusses the paradigms involved in the development of 6G telecommunications networks, which are in the stage of scientific research and definition of technological parameters. Aspects arising from the proposed architecture for 6G networks are evaluated, both in the context of technological and ethical challenges, mainly due to the use of IoB (Internet of Bodies) devices, that is, devices incorporated into the human body. The methodology used is exploratory and intends to discuss ideas and formulate hypotheses. It is considered necessary to borrow knowledge from anthropology, psychology, and the cognitive sciences, to assess the ethical issues arising from 6G technology, and so on. Therefore, in this context, the results obtained were qualitative, through scientific research in relevant and modern articles, which discuss this theme, extracted from high impact and relevant scientific databases. Comments are made by way of conclusion.Keywords6GInternet of ThingsSmart citiesMobile Networks
Chapter
Full-text available
This study investigates the relationships among social appearance anxiety, the fear of missing out (FOMO), and cyberloafing. The study further investigates the impact of social appearance anxiety and FOMO on cyberloafing. The research model is tested by employing a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach based on data collected from 396 higher education students. The results suggest that social appearance anxiety has a significant impact on FOMO and that FOMO has a significant impact on cyberloafing. However, the mediation analysis results suggest that FOMO full mediates the relationship between social appearance anxiety and cyberloafing.
Chapter
Full-text available
The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight sub-scales measuring: 1) Drive for Thinness, 2) Bulimia, 3) Body Dissatisfaction, 4) Ineffectiveness, 5) Perfectionism, 6) Interpersonal Distrust, 7) Interoceptive Awareness and 8) Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N = 113) are differentiated from female comparison (FC) subjects (N = 577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminate validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews research pertaining to mass media as a causal risk factor for negative body image and disordered eating in females. The specific purpose is to clarify the impact of mass media by applying seven criteria that extend those of Kraemer et al. (1997) and Stice (2002). Although media effects clearly meet a majority of the criteria, this analysis indicates that, currently, engagement with mass media is probably best considered a variable risk factor that might well be later shown to be a causal risk factor. Recommendations are made for further research, with an emphasis on longitudinal investigations, studies of media literacy as a form of prevention, and clarification of psychosocial processes that moderate and mediate media effects.
Article
Full-text available
The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight sub-scales measuring: 1) Drive for Thinness, 2) Bulimia, 3) Body Dissatisfaction, 4) Ineffectiveness, 5) Perfectionism, 6) Interpersonal Distrust, 7) Interoceptive Awareness and 8) Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N = 113) are differentiated from female comparison (FC) subjects (N = 577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminate validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
With over 800 million active users, Facebook is changing the way hundreds of millions of people relate to one another and share information. A rapidly growing body of research has accompanied the meteoric rise of Facebook as social scientists assess the impact of Facebook on social life. In addition, researchers have recognized the utility of Facebook as a novel tool to observe behavior in a naturalistic setting, test hypotheses, and recruit participants. However, research on Facebook emanates from a wide variety of disciplines, with results being published in a broad range of journals and conference proceedings, making it difficult to keep track of various findings. And because Facebook is a relatively recent phenomenon, uncertainty still exists about the most effective ways to do Facebook research. To address these issues, the authors conducted a comprehensive literature search, identifying 412 relevant articles, which were sorted into 5 categories: descriptive analysis of users, motivations for using Facebook, identity presentation, the role of Facebook in social interactions, and privacy and information disclosure. The literature review serves as the foundation from which to assess current findings and offer recommendations to the field for future research on Facebook and online social networks more broadly. © The Author(s) 2012.
Article
Full-text available
Studies suggest that adolescent girls are going online in droves and that theWeb sites of teen magazines are among their top destinations. This qualitative analysis of the Web sites of CosmoGIRL!, Teen People, Seventeen, and Teen magazines identified three major themes: Beauty is a requirement, beauty can be achieved only through the purchase of products, and we can help you find the right products. The use of youth-targeted language, combined with offers of expert advice in the management of beauty problems, suggests that these sites wish to present themselves as friends rather than marketers of beauty products. Like their print counterparts, the sites may play an important role-in a private, personalized, and interactive setting-in reinforcing the messages concerning the centrality of female beauty inWestern societies.
Article
Full-text available
Since its launch in February 2004, Facebook has become one of the most popular websites in the world, as well as a widely discussed media phenomenon. Unsurprisingly, the Facebook revolution has inspired a wealth of psychological study, which is growing exponentially. In this article, we review the recent empirical research into some of the key psychological themes concerning Facebook use. The review is organized according to common questions about Facebook culture and use being posed by academics and social commentators alike. These questions are grouped under three major themes, namely: (a) antecedents of Facebook use; (b) how individuals and corporations use Facebook; and (c) psychological outcomes or effects of Facebook use. To this end, we review over 100 recent publications (mostly empirical, peer-reviewed journal articles). We conclude by providing some suggestions for future psychological research in this rapidly expanding area of popular media culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that exposure to mass media depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. This meta-analysis examined experimental and correlational studies testing the links between media exposure to women's body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, and eating behaviors and beliefs with a sample of 77 studies that yielded 141 effect sizes. The mean effect sizes were small to moderate (ds = -.28, -.39, and -.30, respectively). Effects for some outcome variables were moderated by publication year and study design. The findings support the notion that exposure to media images depicting the thin-ideal body is related to body image concerns for women.
Article
The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) was developed to assess women's recognition and acceptance of societally sanctioned standards of appearance. In Study 1, factor analyses revealed two clearcut factors: awareness/acknowledgment of a societal emphasis on appearance and an internalization/acceptance of these standards. These findings were cross-validated in Study 2, resulting in a six-item Awareness subscale (alpha = .71) and an eight-item Internalization subscale (alpha = .88). Study 3 obtained good convergence between both scales and multiple indices of body image and eating disturbance. Regression analyses indicated that both factors accounted for unique variance associated with body image and eating dysfunction, however, internalization of standards was a stronger predictor of disturbance. The SATAQ should prove useful for researchers and clinicians interested in body image and eating disorders. © 1995 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight subscales measuring: Drive for Thinness, Bilimia, Body Dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, Interoceptive Awareness and Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N=113) are differentiated from femal comparison (FC) subjects (N=577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminant validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between several aspects of television viewing, in particular total exposure, selective viewing of specific genres, and motives for viewing, with body attitudes among adolescents. Participants were 1,452 secondary school students who completed questionnaire measures of eating disorder attitudes and symptomatology, internalization of appearance ideals, appearance schemas, and uses of television. Participants also provided a detailed account of their television watching in the previous week, from which measures of total exposure and viewing of specific genres were generated. It was found that total television time was not related to any body image variable for either boys or girls. However, the time spent watching soap operas was related to drive for thinness in both genders. This relationship was mediated by internalization and appearance schemas. The time spent watching soap operas and music videos was also related to drive for muscularity in boys. Three major components of television usage were identified: entertainment, social learning, and escape from negative affect. The latter two uses had substantial correlations with negative outcomes for both genders. The similar pattern of correlations observed for boys and girls suggests that similar processes are operating in the two genders. It was concluded that television watching does have an impact on young people's sense of body image but that the critical aspects are the type of material and motivations for watching, not the total amount of television watched.
Article
Adolescents are currently the defining users of the Internet. They spend more time online than adults do, and they use the Internet for social interaction more often than adults do. This article discusses the state of the literature on the consequences of online communication technologies (e.g., instant messaging) for adolescents' social connectedness and well-being. Whereas several studies in the 1990s suggested that Internet use is detrimental, recent studies tend to report opposite effects. We first explain why the results of more recent studies diverge from those of earlier studies. Then, we discuss a viable hypothesis to explain the recent findings: the Internet-enhanced self-disclosure hypothesis. Finally, we discuss some contingent factors that may deserve special attention in future research.
Article
This study is one of the largest and most comprehensive publicly available sources of information on the amount and nature of media use among American youth: (1) It includes a large national sample of more than 2,000 young people from across the country; (2) It covers children from ages 8 to 18, to track changes from childhood through the transitional "tween" period, and on into the teenage years; (3) It explores a comprehensive array of media, including TV, computers, video games, music, print, cell phones, and movies; (4) It is one of the only studies to measure and account for media multitasking--the time young people spend using more than one medium concurrently; and (5) It gathers highly detailed information about young people's media behavior, including responses to an extensive written questionnaire completed by the entire sample, plus results from a subsample of approximately 700 respondents who also maintained week-long diaries recording their media use in half-hour increments. Finally, because this is the third wave of the Kaiser Family Foundation's studies of children's media use, it not only provides a detailed look at current media use patterns among young people, but also documents changes in children's media habits since the first two waves of the study, in 1999 and 2004. It is hoped that the data provided here will offer a reliable foundation for policymakers trying to craft national media policies, parents trying to do their best to stay on top of their children's media habits, and educators, advocates and public health groups that are concerned with the impact of media on youth, and want to leverage the educational and informational potential of media in young people's lives. Appended are: (1) Tables; (2) Changes in Question Wording and Structure Over Time; (3) Toplines; and (4) Sample of Media Use Diary.
Article
Body image issues are at the core of major eating disorders. They are also important phenomena in and of themselves. Kevin Thompson and his colleagues provide an overview of a wide variety of body image issues, ranging from reconstructive surgery to eating disorders. The book will be a valuable resource for even the most established researchers in the field, as it is filled with data, information about assessment tools, and a thorough treatment of virtually all major theoretical perspectives on the development of body image and their implications for treatment and prevention. At the same time, the authors' decision to include numerous experiential anecdotes makes the book easily accessible to those just entering the field who are trying to understand the nature of these phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the ‘new’ and as yet unstudied medium of the Internet. A sample of 156 Australian female high school students (mean age = 14.9years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image. Internet appearance exposure and magazine reading, but not television exposure, were found to be correlated with greater internalization of thin ideals, appearance comparison, weight dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness. Regression analyses indicated that the effects of magazines and Internet exposure were mediated by internalization and appearance comparison. It was concluded that the Internet represents a powerful sociocultural influence on young women’s lives. KeywordsInternet exposure-Body image-Internalization of thin ideals-Tripartite influence model-Media exposure-Adolescents
Article
Social networking sites are popular among and consistently used by adolescents. These sites present benefits as well as risks to adolescent health. Recently, pediatric providers have also considered the benefits and risks of using social networking sites in their own practices.
Article
The current study provides a comprehensive analysis of the content of advertisements on Web sites targeted at adolescents, with a particular focus on the female beauty ideal. Advertisements (N = 631) from 14 Web sites popular with adolescents were analyzed with respect to product advertised, characteristics of people presented, and emphasis on appearance and the thin beauty ideal. Although a wide variety of products were featured, advertisements for cosmetics and beauty products were the most frequent. Further, many of the products advertised (e.g., dating services, weight loss products, gambling games) might be considered inappropriate for the intended audience (i.e., teenagers) of the Web site. People who were a part of advertisements were generally female, young, thin, and attractive. Advertisements for games, weight loss products, and cosmetic and beauty products strongly focused on appearance and laid emphasis on the thin ideal. Like advertisements in mainstream media, advertising on the Internet perpetuates the stereotypical ideal of feminine beauty. Adolescents using the Internet are likely to be exposed to numerous advertisements that reinforce the importance of beauty and thinness, which could have a detrimental impact on how they feel about their bodies.
Article
Objectified body consciousness (OBC)—the tendency to view oneself as an object to be looked at and evaluated by others—has received recent attention as a possible vulnerability factor for depression and disordered eating. Although OBC generally is discussed in developmental terms, extant research has examined primarily the experiences of undergraduates and adults. Our goal in this study was to develop an age-appropriate measure to allow study of OBC development during preadolescence and adolescence. We modeled the OBC-Youth after McKinley and Hyde’s (1996) OBC-Classic to measure three components of OBC: body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs. The 14-item scale contains modified vocabulary and syntax to make it appropriate for use with preadolescent and adolescent youth. Results indicate that the OBC-Youth scale is a reliable, valid measure of OBC. Initial findings about the correlates of OBC in preadolescence are discussed.
Article
The relationship between social comparison and body dissatisfaction was examined using meta-analysis. Several demographic and methodological variables were examined as potential moderators. Data from 156 studies (189 effect sizes) showed that social comparison was related to higher levels of body dissatisfaction. The effect for social comparison and body dissatisfaction was stronger for women than men and inversely related to age. This effect was stronger when social comparison was directly measured rather than inferred. No differences emerged for the presence of eating psychopathology, study design, or object of comparison. Results confirm theory and research suggesting that comparing oneself unfavorably to another on the basis of appearance may lead to dissatisfaction with one's own appearance. Moderator variables refine our understanding of the social comparison-body dissatisfaction relationship. These constructs and their relationship should be explored further in future studies.
Article
The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) was developed to assess women's recognition and acceptance of societally sanctioned standards of appearance. In Study 1, factor analyses revealed two clearcut factors: awareness/acknowledgment of a societal emphasis on appearance and an internalization/acceptance of these standards. These findings were cross-validated in Study 2, resulting in a six-item Awareness subscale (alpha = .71) and an eight-item Internalization subscale (alpha = .88). Study 3 obtained good convergence between both scales and multiple indices of body image and eating disturbance. Regression analyses indicated that both factors accounted for unique variance associated with body image and eating dysfunction, however, internalization of standards was a stronger predictor of disturbance. The SATAQ should prove useful for researchers and clinicians interested in body image and eating disorders.
Children of the digital revolution. Canberra: Australian Government
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Social Trends June 11: Children of the digital revolution. Canberra: Australian Government, 2011.
Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire
  • Heinberg