ArticleLiterature Review

Control of bovine ringworm by vaccination in Norway

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Abstract

Bovine ringworm caused by Trichophyton verrucosum is a notifiable disease in Norway. New infected herds are reported to the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. To limit spread of the disease, restrictions are imposed on holdings including access to common pastures and sale of live animals. Bovine ringworm has been endemic in the Norwegian dairy population for decades. Since 1980 a vaccine (Bovilis Ringvac LTF-130, Merck Animal Health) has been available. The vaccine contains an attenuated strain of T. verrucosum and stimulates humoral and cellular immune responses conferring protection. Efficacy and safety of the vaccine have been evaluated in experimental and field studies. Vaccination campaigns in densely populated counties have contributed to a substantial decrease in number of ringworm outbreaks. The annual incidence of new infected herds decreased from 1.7% in 1980 to 0.043% in 2004. Few herds remained with restrictions and a "mopping up" project was established to offer assistance specifically to these holdings. A milestone was achieved in 2009; no new herds with cases of clinical ringworm caused by T. verrucosum were reported to the authorities. By end of 2012, there are only two herds with restrictions. Vaccination during the last 30 years has been a key control measure in the effort to prevent disease outbreaks and eradicate bovine ringworm in Norway.

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... Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites can cause dermatitis [1]. A fungal infection of the keratinized layer of the epidermis and hair follicles is referred to as ringworm or dermatophytosis [2][3][4]. Since Trichophyton verrucosum is the most common agent isolated from bovine dermatophytoses, cattle ringworm is also referred to as trichophytosis [2]. This disease, which is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world [1,5], mostly affects young and immunosuppressed animals [6]. ...
... A fungal infection of the keratinized layer of the epidermis and hair follicles is referred to as ringworm or dermatophytosis [2][3][4]. Since Trichophyton verrucosum is the most common agent isolated from bovine dermatophytoses, cattle ringworm is also referred to as trichophytosis [2]. This disease, which is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world [1,5], mostly affects young and immunosuppressed animals [6]. ...
... Dermatophytosis caused by T. verrucosum is a zoonotic skin disease that affects several animal species [9]. Host response to this disease, which is reported to be observed mostly in young animals, is mediated by innate and acquired immunities, and host protection requires the induction of a cell-mediated immune response [2]. ...
Article
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Background and aim: Antimicrobial peptides are polypeptides that are a component of innate immunity and exhibit antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate serum beta-defensin-1 levels in cattle diagnosed with trichophytosis, which is a zoonotic skin disease that affects several animal species. Materials and methods: A total of 23 young cattle, aged 2-4 months, of different breeds and sexes were selected. Of these, 16 cattle were clinically diagnosed with trichophytosis and seven were healthy. Results: The mean serum beta-defensin-1 levels of the infected animals were lower than those of control animals, yet the difference between the two groups was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: No significant alterations occurred in serum beta-defensin-1 levels of cattle with trichophytosis.
... The incidence of zoonotic dermatomycoses transmitted to humans from livestock decreased significantly in developed 1 3 countries with the intensification of agriculture, introduction of preventive measures (e.g., vaccination in cattle) and advances in treatment options (Borman et al. 2007;Lund et al. 2014). In contrast, zoonotic infections transmitted from pets remain an important public health concern worldwide (Hubka et al. 2018d). ...
... It has a worldwide distribution and causes economic losses in the food (negative impacts on milk and meat production), hide and skin industries (Bond 2010;Chermette et al. 2008). The incidence of infections in cattle has decreased in many regions in response to vaccination programmes or changes in agricultural systems, and the rate of infections in humans has decreased proportionally (Seebacher et al. 2008;Lund et al. 2014). By contrast, a lack of prophylaxis accounts for the high infection rates observed in countries such as Italy (Moretti et al. 2013). ...
... Distribution and ecology: Trichopyhton verrusocum is a zoophilic species typically found in cattle and other ruminants (Fig. 22), but it can easily spread to humans and animals, including horses, donkeys, camels, rabbits, dogs, cats, pigs, and even birds (Ali- Shtayeh et al. 1988;Dvořák et al. 1965;Georg 1960;Chermette et al. 2008;Khosravi and Mahmoudi 2003). The species is distributed worldwide, but the incidence of infections in cattle and man has been decreased in many regions by specific preventive measures, especially by vaccination programmes or changes in agricultural systems, such as reduction of the number of cattle in breeding units, and infections in humans have decreased proportionally (Lund et al. 2014;Seebacher et al. 2008). Human patients usually develop aggressive inflammatory skin lesions usually located on extremities and head (Fig. 22), which may be accompanied by constitutional symptoms, such as fever and lymphadenopathy (Courtellemont et al. 2017;Silver et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Species of the Trichophyton benhamiae complex are predominantly zoophilic pathogens with a worldwide distribution. These pathogens have recently become important due to their epidemic spread in pets and pet owners. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variability has been revealed in these emerging pathogens, but the species limits and host spectra have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we used an approach combining phylogenetic analysis based on four loci, population-genetic data, phenotypic and physiological analysis, mating type gene characterization and ecological data to resolve the taxonomy of these pathogens. This approach supported the inclusion of nine taxa in the complex, including three new species and one new variety. Trichophyton benhamiae var. luteum var. nov. (“yellow phenotype” strains) is currently a major cause of zoonotic tinea corporis and capitis in Europe (mostly transmitted from guinea pigs). The isolates of the “white phenotype” do not form a monophyletic group and are segregated into three taxa, T. benhamiae var. benhamiae (mostly North America; dogs), T. europaeum sp. nov. (mostly Europe; guinea pigs), and T. japonicum sp. nov. (predominant in East Asia but also found in Europe; rabbits and guinea pigs). The new species T. africanum sp. nov. is proposed for the “African” race of T. benhamiae. The introduction to new geographic areas and host jump followed by extinction of one mating type gene have played important roles in the evolution of these pathogens. Due to considerable phenotypic similarity of many dermatophytes and phenomena such as incomplete lineage sorting or occasional hybridization and introgression, we demonstrate the need to follow polyphasic approach in species delimitation. Neutrally evolving and noncoding DNA regions showed significantly higher discriminatory power compared to conventional protein-coding loci. Diagnostic options for species identification in practice based on molecular markers, phenotype and MALDI-TOF spectra are presented. A microsatellite typing scheme developed in this study is a powerful tool for the epidemiological surveillance of these emerging pathogens.
... commonly isolated from skin lesions (Lund et al., 2014;Radostits et al., 2006). Bovine ringworm is endemic in many countries worldwide. ...
... Commercially available vaccines are preparations of either live attenuated T. verrucosum or inactivated strains of the fungus, including spores and fragments of mycelium. However, they have short storability and can revert to virulent forms; therefore, they may constitute some danger of infection to individuals with immunological defects (Aamodt et al., 1982;Lund et al., 2014;Polyakov & Ivanova, 2005;Seyfarth et al., 2011;Wawrzkiewicz & Wawrzkiewicz, 1992;Zahran, Attia Abdeen, & Zahran, 2013). Tests on the activity of the vaccine have been carried out on guinea pigs and calves in strictly controlled conditions and on cattle in field conditions to assess not only its prophylactic but also therapeutic value (Lund et al., 2014;Rybnikář, Obořilová, & Hedbávný, 2008;Wawrzkiewicz & Wawrzkiewicz, 1992). ...
... However, they have short storability and can revert to virulent forms; therefore, they may constitute some danger of infection to individuals with immunological defects (Aamodt et al., 1982;Lund et al., 2014;Polyakov & Ivanova, 2005;Seyfarth et al., 2011;Wawrzkiewicz & Wawrzkiewicz, 1992;Zahran, Attia Abdeen, & Zahran, 2013). Tests on the activity of the vaccine have been carried out on guinea pigs and calves in strictly controlled conditions and on cattle in field conditions to assess not only its prophylactic but also therapeutic value (Lund et al., 2014;Rybnikář, Obořilová, & Hedbávný, 2008;Wawrzkiewicz & Wawrzkiewicz, 1992). ...
Article
Vaccines against trichophytosis introduced over 60 years ago contributed to a significant reduction in the prevalence of dermatophyte infections on cattle farms. Currently, vaccination is not obligatory but commonly used and recommended by veterinarians, which is associated with the renaissance of dermatophyte infections in farm animals. Importantly, vaccine administration may cause clinical lesions imitating a virulent form of dermatophytosis. Correct determination of a possible correlation of superficial changes with the vaccine strain plays a key role in taking therapeutic measures. In this study, the usefulness of genotyping methods (MP‐PCR and AFLP) in identification of the source of dermatophyte infection in cases correlated with vaccine administration is examined. The results revealed that dermatophytes isolated from skin lesions in calves temporarily associated with vaccine administration had an identical electrophoretic profile with the vaccine strain and differed from the reference strain of Trichophyton verrucosum CBS365.53. In conclusion, genotyping methods are a useful tool for rapid and reliable identification of the vaccine source of superficial lesions in calves. Their high resolution, speed of execution, and low costs are undoubted advantages in the implementation for routine use in similar cases of dermatophyte infections.
... Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi with the ability to digest keratinized substrates, i.e., skin, hair, and nails. They are considered the major etiological agents of cutaneous superficial mycoses, often called ringworm [1][2][3][4][5]. These diseases are highly transmissible and clinically varied from mild to severe, depending on the host's immune status, strain virulence, and other environmental factors [1,6]. ...
... Interestingly, in our study, the mycological analysis showed the co-existence of two different species of dermatophytes in the same clinical lesion in both symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle infection. One of them was the widely described cattle pathogen, Trichophyton verrucosum (member of the Trichophyton benhamiae complex) [5,10,32]. Bovine ringworm caused by T. verrucosum is endemic in many countries worldwide, with a relatively high frequency of T. verrucosum isolation in Greece (1.8%) [7], France (1.53%) [12], Poland (1%) [3], and Slovenia (0.9%) [39], compared to Italy (0.04%) [8], the United States (0.03%) [35], the Czech Republic (0.01%) [40], and Germany (0%) [41]. In Europe, the incidence is correlated with traditional outdoor breeding, which allows free wandering and gathering of animals [3,12]. ...
Article
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Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi with the ability to digest and grow on keratinized substrates. The ongoing improvements in fungal detection techniques give new scope for clinical implementations in laboratories and veterinary clinics, including the monitoring of the disease and carrier status. The technologically advanced methods for dermatophyte detection include molecular methods based on PCR. In this context, the aim of this study was to carry out tests on the occurrence of dermatophytes in cattle herds using qPCR methods and a comparative analysis with conventional methods. Each sample collected from ringworm cases and from asymptomatic cattle was divided into three parts and subjected to the real-time PCR technique, direct light microscopy analysis, and culture-based methods. The use of the real-time PCR technique with pan-dermatophyte primers detected the presence of dermatophytes in the sample with a 10.84% (45% vs. 34.17%) higher efficiency than direct analysis with light microscopy. Moreover, a dermatophyte culture was obtained from all samples with a positive qPCR result. In conclusion, it seems that this method can be used with success to detect dermatophytes and monitor cowsheds in ringworm cases and carriers in cattle.
... The incidence of infections in cattle was decreased in many regions by specific fighting measures, especially by vaccination programs or changes in the agricultural systems, such as reduction of the number of cattle in breeding units; the infections in humans decreases proportionally (Seebacher et al. 2008;Lund et al. 2014). Lack of prophylaxis with T. verrucosum vaccination accounts for the high infection rates in Italy (Moretti et al. 2013); in contrast cattle ringworm due to T. verrucosum was eradicated in Norway (Lund et al. 2014). ...
... The incidence of infections in cattle was decreased in many regions by specific fighting measures, especially by vaccination programs or changes in the agricultural systems, such as reduction of the number of cattle in breeding units; the infections in humans decreases proportionally (Seebacher et al. 2008;Lund et al. 2014). Lack of prophylaxis with T. verrucosum vaccination accounts for the high infection rates in Italy (Moretti et al. 2013); in contrast cattle ringworm due to T. verrucosum was eradicated in Norway (Lund et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
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Zoophilic dermatophytes are frequently responsible for superficial mycoses in mammals worldwide. They comprise approximately ten specialized parasitic fungi belonging to genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. Due to contagious nature of the disease, the majority of species possess potential to cause outbreaks at least in their principal host(s) and at the same time have the capability to infect a wide spectrum of mammals, including humans. The purpose of this chapter is to trace the current changes in the epidemiology of animal-infecting dermatophytes that show large geographic differences and dynamically alter over time. Emphasis is given not only to the most important and widespread dermatophyte species representing global issue for both animal and human medicine (Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. verrucosum) but also to newly emerging pathogens such as T. benhamiae, an agent of epidemic dermatophytosis in Europe frequently affecting guinea pigs and their breeders or owners. The methods for identification and molecular typing of dermatophytes are summarized due to their importance for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance. Strategies for management and prevention of outbreaks are also presented.
... Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi with the ability to digest keratinized substrates, that is skin, hair and nails (Khurana et al., 2021). They are considered the major aetiological agents of cutaneous superficial mycoses, often called ringworm (Łagowski et al., 2020;Lund et al., 2014). These diseases are highly transmissible and clinically varied from mild to severe, depending on the host's immune status, strain virulence and other environmental factors (Gnat et al., 2020;Gnatet al. 2019;Martinez-Rossi et al., 2021). ...
Article
Aims: Indoor air quality in stables, cowsheds or henhouses has recently become in interest due to the potential risks of zoonotic infections. Cowsheds are commonly known to have high fungal loads, particularly if insufficient attention is paid to the monitoring and control of the indoor microclimate around three elements, that is heating, ventilation and lighting. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations and spectrum of dermatophyte propagules in the indoor air of cowsheds. Methods and results: Air samples were collected on five farms, and the dermatophyte species were identified using MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The quantitative analysis of the fungal pollutants showed an average of 0.084 dermatophyte propagules (CFU) per m3 of flowing air in spring and 0.0239 CFU/m3 in the summer. Dermatophyte species were identified in case of 64.6% of the obtained colonies. Trichophyton verrucosum as dominant species was isolated on all five farms. In turn, Nannizzia gypsea was isolated on four farms and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as Paraphyton cookei were isolated on two farms. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that indoor aerosol appears to be one of the underestimated risks of dermatophyte infections. Moreover, the risk of zoonotic infections is posed by airborne zoophilic dermatophytes, especially T. verrucosum, whose prevalence of infections has been increasing in recent years. Significance and impact of the study: The ability of dermatophytes to infect animals and humans is thought to be a consequence of not only their adaptation to new ecological niches but also occurring as an aerosol component, which we demonstrate for the first time in this study. The microclimate of the cowshed may be an underestimated reservoir of zoophilic dermatophytes, which pose a zoonotic threat to farmers, animal breeders and veterinarians.
... Rein veterinärmedizinische Publikationen mit klinischem oder epidemiologischem Schwerpunkt sind dagegen weniger stark vertreten und beschränken sich vornehmlich auf den Bereich der Vakzination (5, 8) sowie die Erfahrungen Norwegens bei der Bekämpfung der Trichophytie. Dort stellt die Trichophytie des Rindes eine anzeigepflichtige Tierseuche dar und eine systematische Bekämpfung hat praktisch zur Ausrottung geführt(7). Andere Länder mit entsprechenden Restriktionen sind den Autoren nicht bekannt und werden, beispielsweise von der OIE, nicht genannt. ...
Article
Objective: Bovine ringworm (tinea) is generally described as a disease occurring regularly in cattle. Actual data are rare, whereas the disease is regularly reported in case reports. To eradicate bovine ringworm, perception as well as measures, including hygiene and disinfection, are required. Material and methods: In a course for continuing education, 378 practicing veterinarians were asked in a questionnaire to state their view on bovine ringworm. Results: The majority of the participants stated that ringworm was not satisfactorily perceived as an animal health problem and that the zoonotic potential was underestimated. A majority of participants agreed to diagnose ringworm on farms regularly and stated that they were involved in treating the disease. The participating veterinarians felt, however, that perception of ringworm by the farms themselves was inadequate. Vaccination was generally judged as being helpful. Conclusions: Generally, practising veterinarians feel that bovine ringworm is being perceived as less important by farms than by themselves. It is to be concluded that more information and offers regarding the treatment for ringworm could contribute to more effective engagement in the disease.
... T. verrucosum is reported to be the major dermatophyte species forming Trichophytosis primarily in the cattle and in other ruminants (Chermette et al., 2008). It was reported that in around 20 days following the vaccination, a fine immunization was achieved in the ruminants and this immunity continued for some years (Veternik and Zadnik, 1995;Rybnikar et al 1996;Gökçe et al 1999;Lund et al 2014). Although there are several vaccination studies on Trichophytosis in the cattle, no studies regarding the protection from and treatment of Trichophytosis in Anatolian buffaloes exist. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to compare the treatment effectiveness of two different fungal vaccines on Anatolian buffaloes with trichophytosis. 40 Anatolian buffaloes with ranging ages from 4 months to 4 years were divided into two groups after being clinically and microbiologically diagnosed as trichophytosis. 10 cc of intra muscular (IM) Trichoben (Bioveta) was applied to Group I (n=20) while 10 cc of IM LTF 130 (Stavropolskaya Biofabrika) was applied to Group II (n=20). In group I, improvement started after the vaccine was applied twice in every 14 days, and in group II, the improvement started after the vaccine was applied 4 times in every 14 days. Following the vaccine application in group I, the lesions on the skin disappeared and hairing started on the 40th day, however, in group II this happened on the 65th day. While both vaccines cured this disease in Anatolian buffaloes with trichophytosis, the improvement in group I happened faster than group II. As a result, we think that vaccination will be beneficial for the treatment of Anatolian buffaloes with Trichophytosis.
... The infection is often misdiagnosed as bacterial infection [3] which leads to inappropriate treatment with antibiotics [4]. The low rate of infection in Central and Northern Europe reflects effective livestock vaccination [5]. In contrast, in Southern Europe and in the countries of the Middle East T. verrucosum and Microsporum canis are the most common dermatophytes causing skin lesions [6]. ...
Article
A 3-year-old boy presented with multiple lesions of tinea corporis with dermatophytids, and subsequent inflammatory lesions with alopecia on the scalp. At the beginning, topical clobetasone butyrate was prescribed. The infection was diagnosed as dermatophytosis on the basis of positive direct microscopy and fungal culture.The etiological agent was isolated from all sampled sites and identified as Trichophyton verrucosum. Clonal nature of the infection was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The child lived in close vicinity of cattle. He was successfully treated with itraconazole.
... A live vaccine of Trichophyton verrucosum was used to control cattle dermatophytosis [57], while an attenuated strain of Trichophyton verrucosum was reported by [58]. In case of herd the use of attenuated vaccine led to decrease of new infected herds from 1.7% in 1980 to 0.043% in 2004 [59]. ...
... A live vaccine of Trichophyton verrucosum was used to control cattle dermatophytosis [57], while an attenuated strain of Trichophyton verrucosum was reported by [58]. In case of herd the use of attenuated vaccine led to decrease of new infected herds from 1.7% in 1980 to 0.043% in 2004 [59]. ...
... This program was established in 1992 by the dairy-and breeding organizations, in collaboration with the animal health authorities. Ringworm due to Trichophyton verrucosum has nearly been eliminated due to an eradication program that combined vaccination and zoosanitary measures (84). Cost-benefit analyses of previous national control programs in the dairy cow and goat sectors have proven that the efforts paid off (85,86). ...
Article
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Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cause important health problems in all cattle husbandry systems. It contributes substantially to the use of antimicrobial substances and compromises animal welfare and the sustainability of the cattle industry. The existing preventive measures of BRD focus at the individual animal or herd level and include vaccination, mass treatment with antimicrobials and improvement of the animal’s environment and general health status. Despite progress in our understanding of disease mechanism and technological development, the current preventive measures are not sufficientlyeffective.Thus,thereisaneedforalternative,sustainablestrategiestocombat the disease. Some of the primary infectious agents in the BRD complex are viruses that are easily transmitted between herds such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV). This conceptual analysis presents arguments for combattingBRDthroughimprovedexternalbiosecurityinthecattleherds.Asanexample of a population-based approach to the control of BRD, the Norwegian BRSV/BCoV control-program is presented. The program is voluntary and launched by the national cattle industry. The core principle is classification of herds based on antibody testing andsubsequentpreventionofvirus-introductionthroughimprovedbiosecuritymeasures. Measures include external herd biosecurity barriers and regulations in the organization of animal trade to reduce direct and indirect transmission of virus. Improved biosecurity in a large proportion of herds will lead to a considerable effect at the population level. Positive herds are believed to gain freedom by time if new introduction is avoided. Vaccination is not used as part of the program. Dissemination of information to producers and veterinarians is essential. We believe that reducing the incidence of BRD in cattle is essential and will lead to reduced antimicrobial usage while at the same time improving animal health, welfare and production. Alternative approaches to the traditional control measures are needed.
... Currently, Norway and Sweden have reported corresponding sputum vaccines to control this disease [27,28]. However, in China, there is no approved vaccine to prevent the disease. ...
Article
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Background: Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region is an important cattle breeding area in China, and cattle breeding bases are located in this area. In Ningxia, dermatophytes have not been paid attention to, so dermatophytosis is becoming more and more serious. For effective control measures, it is important to determine the disease prevalence and isolate and identify the pathogenic microorganism. Results: The study showed the prevalence of dermatophytes was 15.35% (74/482). The prevalence in calf was higher than adult cattle (p < 0.05). The morbidity was the highest in winter compared with autumn (p < 0.0001), summer (p < 0.05) and spring (p < 0.0001). The prevalence in Guyuan was the highest compared with Yinchuan (p < 0.05) and Shizuishan (p < 0.05). The incidence of lesions on the face, head, neck, trunk and whole body was 20.43, 38.71, 20.43, 10.75 and 9.68%, respectively. From all samples, the isolation rate of Trichophyton was highest (61.1%). The phylogenetic tree constructed showed that the 11 pathogenic fungi were on the same branch as Trichophyton verrucosum. Conclusions: This study reports, for the first time, the presence of Trichophyton verrucosum in cattle in Ningxia and showed that the incidence of dermatophytosis is related to different regions, ages and seasons. A better knowledge of the prevalence of dermatophytosis of cattle may allow the adoption of more efficient control measures and prophylaxis.
... Gleichzeitig müssen die Stall-und Gerätedesinfektion erfolgen beispielsweise mittels 1 %igem Chlorkalk. Die Impfung der Tiere mit einer Lebendvakzine ist eine weitere Möglichkeit und dient sowohl der Prophylaxe als auch der Krankheitsverkürzung. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Prävalenz der Kälberflechte bei flächendeckender Immunisierung gesenkt werden kann [4]. Die Tinea corporis profunda ist bei beruflichem Kontakt zu Rindern, beispielsweise bei Landwirten, eine anzeigepflichtige Berufserkrankung nach Nr. 3102 der Berufskrankheitenverordnung ("Von Tieren auf Menschen übertragbare Erkrankungen"). ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Die Kälberflechte ist eine durch Tiere übertragene Pilzinfektion, die berufsbedingt auftreten und nach Nr. 3102 BKV (Berufskrankheiten-Verordnung) als Berufskrankheit anerkannt werden kann. Die durch Trichophyton verrucosum ausgelöste Zoonose zeichnet sich häufig durch einen schweren klinischen Verlauf aus, der nicht selten als bakterielle Infektion fehlgedeutet und primär antibiotisch behandelt wird. Die Gewinnung und mykologische Untersuchung von Schuppenmaterial ist diagnostisch entscheidend; auch eine Biopsie kann wegweisend sein. Die orale Therapie erfolgt leitliniengemäß mit Terbinafin. Zudem ist zum Schutz vor Reinfektionen auf besondere Hygienemaßnahmen in Ställen zu achten.
... However, dermatophytosis in animals is commonly considered to be a self-limiting disease and its course of duration usually varies from 4 to 12 weeks (Radostits et al. 2007;Łagowski et al. 2020c). Moreover the commercially available vaccines are preparations of either live attenuated or inactivated cells of the fungus, including spores and fragments of mycelium (Lund et al. 2014;Łagowski et al. 2020d). The host range of dermatophytes connects the species of the animal and the pathogen, which is consistent with the diverse and specific keratinolytic activity of the fungus . ...
Article
Fungal infections are still underappreciated and their prevalence is underestimated, which renders them a serious public health problem. Realistic discussions about their distribution, symptoms, and control can improve management and diagnosis and contribute to refinement of preventive actions using currently available tools. This article represents an overview of dermatophytes and endemic fungi that cause infections in humans and animals. In addition, the impact of climate change on the fungal spread is discussed. The endemic fungal infections characterized in this article include coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, lobomycosis, emergomycosis, and sporotrichosis. Moreover, the geographic distribution of these fungi, which are known to be climate sensitive and/or limited to endemic tropical and subtropical areas, is highlighted. In turn, dermatophytes cause superficial fungal infections of skin, hairs, and nails, which are the most prevalent mycoses worldwide with a high economic burden. Therefore, the possibility of causing zoonoses and reverse zoonoses by dermatophytes is highly important. In conclusion, the article illustrates the current issues of the epidemiology and distribution of fungal diseases, emphasizing the lack of public programs for prevention and control of these types of infection.
... Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of hair and keratinised layers of the epidermis and is caused by keratinophilic dermatophytes, such as Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton (29). It is an endemic infection in many countries throughout the world affecting companion animals (dogs and cats), domestic animals (calves), and laboratory animals (rabbits) as well as humans (17,26). Companion animals (dogs and cats) can act as carriers of Microsporum, which cannot invade healthy skin of these animals. ...
Article
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Introduction Dermatophytosis is a common skin disease in cats and dogs caused by Microsporum and Trichophyton fungi. Species identification and knowledge of their antifungal susceptibility are therapeutically and epidemiologically important. This study assessed the prevalence of feline and canine dermatophytosis in Iran, identified the aetiological agents molecularly and tested their antifungal susceptibility. Material and Methods A total of 308 companion animals (134 dogs and 174 cats) with skin lesions were examined from March 2015 to March 2018. Hair and skin samples were examined by microscopy with 20% KOH and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Fungal isolates were confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) r-DNA region. The antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes was tested by broth microdilution assay using standard drugs. Results Dermatophytes were found in 130 (42.2%) samples, 62 of them feline and 68 canine. Based on sequencing of all strains, M. canis (78.5%, P<0.05), M. gypseum (10.7%), and T. mentagrophytes (10.7%) were the dermatophytes isolated. The non-dermatophyte species Nannizziopsis vriesii was also isolated from two feline dermatomycosis cases. Dogs and cats younger than one year (61.5%) showed a statistically significantly higher prevalence of infection (P<0.05). Caspofungin produced the lowest geometric mean MIC at 0.0018 μg/mL, followed by ketoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin, clotrimazole and fluconazole, in a 0.038–1.53 μg/mL range. Conclusion This is the first molecular study to identify the causes of pet dermatophytosis in north-western Iran. ITS-PCR was shown to be a useful and reliable method for the identification of closely related species of dermatophytes in clinical and epidemiological settings. The lowest MIC of caspofungin indicated that this drug was the most potent in vitro .
... It is a wellknown agent of dermatophytosis in cattle and of zoonotic infections, especially in agricultural workers (13,14). But with the introduction of new agricultural procedures and vaccination of cattle, it has been almost eradicated in many regions (15,16). While the number of dermatophytoses due to T. verrucosum in Europe decreased significantly in the last decades, the interest of clinicians has been aroused by the emergence of infections due to T. benhamiae, whose number has increased significantly, especially in various European countries but also in Japan (17)(18)(19)(20). ...
Article
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Pathogens from the Trichophyton benhamiae complex are one of the most important causes of animal mycoses with significant zoonotic potential. In light of the recently revised taxonomy of this complex, we retrospectively identified 38 Trichophyton isolates that could not be resolved into any of the existing species. These strains were isolated from Iranian and Czech patients during molecular epidemiological surveys on dermatophytosis and were predominantly associated with highly inflammatory tinea corporis cases, suggesting possible zoonotic etiology. Subsequent phylogenetic (4 markers), population genetic (10 markers), and phenotypic analyses supported recognition of two novel species. The first species, Trichophyton persicum sp. nov., was identified in 36 cases of human dermatophytosis and one case of feline dermatophytosis, mainly in Southern and Western Iran. The second species, Trichophyton spiraliforme sp. nov., is only known from a single case of tinea corporis in a Czech patient who probably contracted the infection from a dog. Although the zoonotic sources of infections summarized in this study are very likely, little is known about the host spectrum of these pathogens. Awareness of these new pathogens among clinicians should refine our knowledge about their poorly explored geographic distribution. IMPORTANCE In this study, we describe two novel agents of dermatophytosis and summarize the clinical manifestation of infections. These new pathogens were discovered thanks to long-term molecular epidemiological studies conducted in Czechia and Iran. Zoonotic origins of the human infections are highly probable, but the animal hosts of these pathogens are poorly known. Further research is needed to refine our knowledge about these new dermatophytes.
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Dermatophytosis is a frequently encountered dermatological problem in domestic and pet animals which negatively affects animal health and production. This study investigated the prevalence of dermatophytosis in different animals and carried antifungal susceptibility testing in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand. A total of 157 clinical samples were collected from the animals irrespective of sex and age during a time period of 3 years from December 2016 to December 2019. Direct microscopy, fungal culture, isolation, identification, and antifungal susceptibility testing were carried out. Direct microscopy and in vitro culture were equally efficient in diagnosis of dermatophytosis. The prevalence of dermatophytes ranged between 45 and 53.3% and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most abundant species (38%) followed by Microsporum canis (21.5%). All the species observed were isolated from goats and dogs except T. tonsurans and M. nanum, respectively. All the isolated dermatophytes were urease test positive except T. rubrum and T. verrucosum. The hair perforation test was negative for M. audouinii, along with T. rubrum and T. verrucosum, whereas only M. canis was positive for rice grain test. Only T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum, and T. tonsurans were able to show optimum growth at 37 °C. Maximum inhibition of fungal growth was exhibited by clotrimazole and least by fluconazole.
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In approaching the development of a veterinary vaccine, researchers must choose from a bewildering array of options that can be combined to enhance benefit. The choice and combination of options is not just driven by efficacy, but also consideration of the cost, practicality, and challenges faced in licensing the product. In this review we set out the different choices faced by veterinary vaccine developers, highlight some issues, and propose some pressing needs to be addressed.
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The first description of dermatophytosis was recorded by Celsus, a Roman encyclopaedist who described a suppurative infection of scalp (‘porrigo’ or ‘kerion of Celsus’) in De Re Medicina (30 A.D.). Throughout the middle ages, several descriptions of dermatophytosis were produced where it is described as ‘tinea’. The keratin-destroying moths which made circular holes in the woollen garments are known as Tinea. Due to similarity in the structure of circular lesion of dermatophytosis on the smooth skin with the circular hole made by moth, Cassius Felix introduced the term ‘tinea’ to describe the lesions. In 1806, Alibert used the term ‘favus’ to describe the honey-like exudate in some scalp infections. However, the fungal aetiology of tinea was first detected by Robert Remak, a Polish physician who first observed the presence of hyphae in the crusts of favus. This detection is also a landmark in medical history because this is the first description of a microbe causing a human disease. He himself did not publish his work, but he permitted the reference of his observations in a dissertation by Xavier Hube in 1837. Remak gave all the credits of his discovery to his mentor Schoenlein who first published the fungal etiological report of favus in 1839. He observed the infectious nature of the favus by autoinoculation into his own hands and also successfully isolated the fungus later (1945) and named Achorion schoenleinii (Trichophyton schoenleinii) in honour of his mentor. In 1844, Gruby described the etiologic agent of tinea endothrix, later became known as Trichophyton tonsurans. The genus Trichophyton was created and described by Malmsten (1845) with its representative species T. tonsurans. Charles Robin identified T. mentagrophytes in 1847 and T. equinum was identified by Matruchot and Dassonville in 1898. Raymond Jacques Adrien Sabouraud (France) first compiled the description of Trichophyton in his book (Les Teignes) in 1910 which was based on his observation in artificial culture. The sexual state of dermatophyte was described by Nannizzi (1927). Emmons (1934) first reported the classification of dermatophytes based on vegetative structures and conidia. Gentles (1958) established the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin.
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In recent times increasing occurrence of dermatophytosis, especially among the school children in eastern India was evidenced along with increased tendency of keeping companion animals such as dogs and cats. This study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of dermatophytes with antifungal susceptibility among the companion animals. A total of 1501 healthy companion animals comprising 1209 dogs and 292 cats belonged to individual owners in and around Kolkata (West Bengal, India) were examined for the evidence of dermatophytosis during 2011-2013. The collected samples were subjected to direct examination by standard KOH mount technique. The samples were inoculated into both Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide and dermatophyte test medium (DTM). Each of the fungal isolate was identified based upon its colony characteristics and hyphal and conidial cells it produced. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was tested by broth micro dilution assay using fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin and amphotericin-B antifungals. Among the 1209 samples from dogs and 292 samples from cats, 253 (20.93%) and 109 (37.33%) samples were positive for dermatophytes by direct examination. Three identified species of dermatophytes with predominant occurrence were Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Ketoconazole (0.06-0.5 μgm/ml), itraconazole (0.03-0.5 μgm/ml) and amphotericin-B (0.03-0.5 μgm/ml) showed lowest MIC values against M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum, respectively. This is the first systemic report of dermatophytes in healthy companion animals with large numbers of samples in India.
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Zoophilic dermatophytes can cause highly inflammatory cutaneous infections. Cattle represent the largest reservoir for the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton verrucosum. Effective vaccination programmes have contributed to a low rate of livestock infection in central and northern Europe, and T. verrucosum infection is relatively more common in southern Europe and in Arabic countries. Transmission to humans typically results from direct contact with infected livestock. It may also be transmitted from person to person. We report two cases of T. verrucosum skin infections in Irish farmers. In both cases, effective treatment was delayed due to misdiagnosis of the condition as a bacterial infection in the primary care setting. Both cases responded rapidly to treatment with oral terbinafine. Culture of T. verrucosum can take 3 weeks or longer to grow, therefore a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary, and skin scrapings for potassium hydroxide microscopy and culture are essential for accurate diagnosis. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.
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The literature on immunoprophylaxis as control method for ringworm in cattle is reviewed. Scientific papers on immune response to dermatophyte antigens and vaccination against ringworm were obtained from personal files and computerized search in 4 relevant databases. Vaccines with antigens of Trichophyton verrucosum stimulate a humoral and cellular immune response. In animals vaccinated with inactivated vaccines, some protection is observed after challenge. However, the protective immunity is inadequate in most cases. Vaccination with live vaccines elicits an immune response that prevents the development of clinical disease. The protective immunity is based mainly on the cellular branch of the immune system. The efficacy and safety of live dermatophyte vaccines have been demonstrated in both challenge experiments and field trials from different countries. Effective control of ringworm in cattle has been achieved in regions implementing systematic vaccination.
Article
In this study, the protective properties of two vaccines against bovine ringworm were examined. Only the live vaccine protected the calves against challenge. All the non-vaccinated calves and the calves vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine developed typical ringworm lesions.
Article
The immunological response of calves vaccinated against herpes is explained and the epizootic effectiveness of the Soviet vaccine ltf 130 applied in Bulgaria is assessed. The antigenic relation of the vaccine's strain with the agent causing herpes in Bulgaria was revealed by parallel investigation on serum RCB of calves suffering from herpes and of calves vaccinated with ltf 130. The immunological response was assessed by proving the existence of complement binding antibodies. It was found that vaccinated calves react by producing complement binding antibodies up to the 45th day post immunization. During the 1976-1978 year period 62 121 calves and heifers were treated for medicative purposes and 653 666 calves and heifers--for prophylactic purposes. From all vaccine treated animals 95.4-98.8% recovered. No cases of herpes were observed in animals vaccinated prophylactically.
Article
Protective properties of a live, freeze-dried vaccine against ringworm, produced by Bioveta, Ivanovice na Hané, Czechoslovakia, were tested in a group of 422 calves. Vaccinated and control calves were challenged by epicutane-ous inoculation of a virulent culture of Trichophy-ton verrucosum. Between 4.4 and 9.5% of calves challenged between days 14 and 25 after re-vaccination showed only mild clinical signs of ringworm and 99–100% were fully protected from day 28, the immunity persisting for at least one year. All control calves showed signs of ringworm after challenge. In most cases, extensive mycotic lesions, also penetrating into deep skin layers, were observed. Protective properties of the Czechoslovak vaccine and a USSR vaccine were high and comparable. Zusammenfassung. An 422 Kälbern wurde der protektive Wert einer lyophilisierten Lebend-vakzine gegen Rinder-Trichophytie geprüft (Hersteller: Bioveta, Ivanovice na Hané, Tsche-choslowakei). Sowohl die vakzinierten Kälber wie auch die Kontrollgruppe wurden danach mit einem virulenten Trichophyton verrucosum-Stamm epikutan inokuliert. Sämtliche Kontrollkälber erkrankten an Kälberflechte; in den meisten Fällen wurden dabei deutliche mykotische Läsionen beobachtet, die auch bis in tiefere Hautschichten reichten. In der geimpften Gruppe zeigten 4.4–9.5% der Kälber bei Infektion 14 und 25 d nach Revakzination nur milde klinische Kälber-flechten-Symptome; bei Infektion 28 d nach Revakzination waren 99–100% der Tiere voll-kommen geschützt. Der durch die tschechoslowa-kische Vakzine bedingte Immunschutz war hochgradig, hielt mindestens ein Jahr vor und erwies sich als dem mit einer USSR-Vakzine erreichbaren vergleichbar.
Article
Immunisation against dermatomycoses in cattle was introduced in Gausdal, Norway, in 1979. A programme was implemented in which a six-year period of mandatory vaccination of all cattle was followed by vaccination on a voluntary basis. The prevalence of infected herds fell from 70 per cent in 1979 to 0 per cent in 1987. During the last five years, no newly infected herds have been registered in Gausdal. Proper disinfection of premises, the isolation of infected animals and other hygienic measures contributed to the successful result.
Article
A live-trichophyton vaccine against ringworm in cattle which was based on an attenuated strain of Trichophyton verrucosum was tested in controlled challenge-exposure experiments and in field trials. On the basis of data involving approximately 400,000 vaccinated animals over a 5-year period, it was concluded that trichophytosis in cattle can be controlled by immunoprophylaxis. Side effects associated with the vaccination occur infrequently.
Article
The preventive action of ringworm vaccine LTF 130 was studied in calves. A number of these calves were found to develop ringworm despite vaccination when they came into contact with infected animals during the build-up of immunity. The incidence of ringworm was reduced when the animals were vaccinated at an early age or when the dosage was increased on vaccination later in life.
Article
From 1979 to 1981 about 200,000 cattle in Norway were vaccinated with a live vaccine against ringworm caused by Trichophyton verrucosum. The vaccination was carried out both in herds where ringworm was already a problem and in ringworm-free herds. The results show that the prophylactic effect of the vaccine is very good and with full vaccination throughout a district it seems possible to control ringworm in cattle.According to experience in Norway, therapeutic use of the vaccine against ringworm is not recommended.The side-effects of the vaccine are minimal and do not seem to exceed those experienced in other vaccinatons.ZusammenfassungSchutzimpfung von norwegischen Rindern gegen TrichophytieVon 1979 bis 1981 wurden in Norwegen etwa 200 000 Rinder mit einem Lebendimpfstoff gegen Trichophytie, hervorgerufen durch Trichophyton verrucosum, geimpft. Die Schutzimpfung wurde ausgeführt, sowohl in Herden, wo die Trichophytie bereits ein Problem ist, als auch in trichophytie-freien Herden.Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß die prophylaktische Wirksamkeit des Impfstoffes sehr gut ist, und mit einer vollständigen Impfung eines ganzen Bezirkes scheint es möglich zu sein die Trichophytie unter Kontrolle zu bringen.Gemäß den Erfahrungen in Norwegen, wird die therapeutische Verwendung des Impfstoffes gegen Trichophytie nicht empfohlen.Die Nebenwirkungen des Impfstoffes sind minimal und scheinen jene, die bei anderen Impfungen beobachtet wurden nicht zu übersteigen.RésuméVaccination de bovins norvégiens contre la trichophytieEnviron 200 000 bovins ont été vaccinés de 1979 à 1981 en Norvège au moyen d'un vaccin vivant contre la trichophytie à partir de Trichophyton verrucosum. La vaccination a été faite aussi bien dans des exploitations où la trichophytie était un problème que dans des élevages indemnes.Les résultats ont montré que l'effet prophylactique du vaccin est très bon et qu'il semble possible de contrôler la maladie avec la vaccination complète dans une région.L'emploi thérapeutique du vaccin contre la trichophytie n'est pas recommandé sur la base des expériences faites en Norvège.Les effets secondaires du vaccin sont minimales et ne semblent pas dépasser ceux observés avec d'autres vaccins.ResumenLa vacunación profiláctica de vacunos noruegos contra la tricofitiaDesde 1979 hasta 1981 se vacunaron en Noruega una 200.000 reses vacunas con una vacuna viva contra la tricofitia, originada por Trichophyton verrucosum. La vacunación protectora fué llevada a cabo tanto en tropas, en las cuales la tricofitia ya era un problema, como en cabañas libres de tricofitia.Los resultados muestran que la eficacia profiláctica de la vacuna es muy buena, y con una vacunación íntegra de toda una demarcación parece que resulta posible mantener la tricofitia bajo control.Con arreglo a las experiencias adquiridas en Noruega, no se recomienda la utilización terapéutica de la vacuna contra la tricofitia.Las acciones secundarias de la vacuna son mínimas y no parecen exceder a las observadas en otras vacunaciones.
Article
Resolution of lesions and subsequent protection against ringworm is primarily associated with the development of a cell-mediated immune (CMI) response, in which stimulation of Type-1 lymphocytes and cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12 and interferon gamma are significant. Type-2 lymphocyte activation and antibody formation seem a feature of chronic disease states, rather than protection, and are antagonistic to a Type-1 cell response. Initial studies on ringworm vaccines should be directed at identifying and characterizing dermatophyte antigens elaborated during spore germination and early hyphal growth, and the method of their presentation which best potentiates Type-1 cell-associated events, and primes the recipient for a subsequent CMI response.
Article
During the year 1989 12,520 veal calves were visually examined for ringworm at the Zürich abattoir. The mean prevalence of ringworm amounted to 7.7% with a maximum of 12.8% in July and a minimum of 5.1% in March. Epidemiological data were collected at repeated visits from 73 calf fattening farms. Batches of calves were significantly more frequently affected in continuous management systems (51%) than in all-in all-out systems (28%). Ringworm was more prevalent in farms with large groups of calves, and where calves were shorn. Prevention of leather defects necessitates prophylactic measures. The latter are determined by the importance of animal to animal contacts for transmission of the fungus. The health status of calves at purchase and the choice of the management system are therefore of primary importance. Vaccination may be considered in problem herds. A premium for high quality skins might further stimulate the interest of the producers in leather quality.
Article
Of a group of seven calves, four were vaccinated against bovine ringworm with the vaccine Ringvac bovis LTF-130 (Alpharma, Oslo, Norway), while three calves were left unvaccinated. All calves were inoculated epicutaneously with a virulent strain of Trichophyton verrucosum. Clinical signs were recorded. In response to stimulation with trichophytin, in vitro interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in whole blood cell cultures was assessed in samples obtained pre- and post-vaccination and pre- and post-inoculation. A commercial enzyme immunoas say kit was used to measure IFN-gamma levels (Bovigam, CSL, Victoria, Australia). Control calves developed typical ringworm lesions, whereas vaccinated calves did not. Following vaccination, release of IFN-gamma in whole blood cell cultures indicated the presence of circulating trichophytin-specific lymphocytes. After inoculation with T. verrucosum, IFN-gamma production was demonstrated in samples from both vaccinated and control calves. This study showed that vaccination with Ringvac bovis LTF-130 elicits a protective immune response suggesting involvement of the cellular branch of the immune system. Experimental infection of naïve nonvaccinated calves with T. verrucosum, also indicated stimulation of a cell-mediated immune response essential for resolution of lesions.
Article
The immune response to infection by dermatophytes ranges from a non-specific host mechanism to a humoral and cell-mediated immune response. The currently accepted view is that a cell-mediated immune response is responsible for the control of dermatophytosis. Indeed, some individuals develop a chronic or recurrent infection mediated by the suppression of a cell-mediated immune response. The immune response to Trichophyton is unusual in that this fungus can elicit both immediate hypersensitivity (IH) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in different individuals when they are submitted to a skin test reaction. Understanding the nature and function of the immune response to dermatophytes is an exciting challenge that might lead to novel approaches in the treatment and immunological prophylaxis of dermatophytosis.
Article
Despite the superficial localization of most dermatophytosis, host-fungus relationship in these infections is complex and still poorly elucidated. Though many efforts have been accomplished to characterize secreted dermatophytic proteases at the molecular level, only punctual insights have been afforded into other aspects of the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis, such as fungal adhesion, regulation of gene expression during the infection process, and immunomodulation by fungal factors. However, new genetic tools were recently developed, allowing a more rapid and high-throughput functional investigation of dermatophyte genes and the identification of new putative virulence factors. In addition, sophisticated in vitro infection models are now used and will open the way to a more comprehensive view of the interactions between these fungi and host epidermal cells, especially keratinocytes.
Article
Dermatophytosis is a relatively common disease in many countries occurring endemically both in companion and food animals. Fungi belonging to the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are most often isolated from clinical cases. Measures to control and prevent dermatophytosis include sanitation, hygienic measures and treatment. In some countries, successful control and eradication have been achieved by mass vaccination of cattle and fur-bearing animals. Vaccines containing live attenuated cells of the fungus stimulate a cell-mediated immune response conferring long-lasting protection against subsequent challenge by the homologous fungus. A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test using appropriate dermatophyte antigens is suitable to assess the response. Inactivated dermatophyte vaccines are available for use in cattle, horse, dog, and cat in some countries. However, the scientific literature is scarce making it difficult to conclude on efficacy and appropriate use. Current vaccines are all first generation vaccines. Attempts have been made to prepare subunit vaccines based on new knowledge about virulence factors like the keratinases, so far with limited success. Candidate antigens must be able to stimulate a strong T helper 1 cell response and future research should focus on identification of major T-cell epitopes that specifically elicit a DTH reaction. Dermatophytosis is a zoonotic disease. In Norway and a few other countries, systematic vaccination against cattle ringworm has almost eliminated the disease, and ringworm in man caused by T. verrucosum is almost nonexistent. A similar benefit could be expected if a safe and efficacious vaccine was available for Microsporum canis infection in cats and dogs.
Versuche zur Immunprophylaxe der Rindertrichophytie
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Erste Erfahrungen bei der Anwendung der sowjetischen Trichophytievakzine LTF-130
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Créa-tion de troupeaux immuns et éradication de la Trichophytose par la vaccination des animaux
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Epidemiologie der Tri-chophytie beim Mastkalb im Hinblick auf die Verhütung von Lederschäden
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Control of bovine ringworm by vaccination in . 43 5. Concluding remarks
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Transmission of Dermatophytes from Animals to Man
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Een onderzoek naar de werkzaamheid van het trichofytie-vaccin LTF-130 onder praktijkom-standigheden
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Practicne mogucnosti za immunoprofilaksu trichficije goveda u industrijskom uzgoju. Veter-Glasnik
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Krdzalic, P., Stojicevic, S., Bresjanac, D., 1978. Practicne mogucnosti za immunoprofilaksu trichficije goveda u industrijskom uzgoju. Veter-Glasnik. 32, 343–349 (in Serbian).