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ROSA CENTIFOLIA: PLANT REVIEW

Authors:
  • Pharmacy College Azamgarh
  • Devsthali Vidyapeeth college of Pharmacy

Abstract

ABSTRACT Rosa centifolia (family: Rosaceae), cultivated as an ornamental plant throughout India, but particularly cultivated in Grasse, the French city known as the PERFUME CAPITAL of the world. It is commonly known as province rose, cabbage rose or Rose de mai. It is one of the herbs mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda. It has divers’ pharmacological used including asthma, hypertension and bronchitis. It is widely cultivated for its fragrance, clear & sweet with light notes of honey. The widespread uses of Rosa centifolia in traditional systems of medicine have resulted in their extensive chemical analysis for their bio-active principles. This article briefly reviews the Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Rosa centifolia.
IJRPC 2012, 2(3) Jena Jitendra et al ISSN: 22312781
794
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY
Available online at www.ijrpc.com
ROSA CENTIFOLIA: PLANT REVIEW
Jena Jitendra *, Tripathi Vineeta, Kumar Ashok, Kumar Brijesh and Pankaj Singh
Pharmacy College, Itaura, Chandeshwar, Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.
INTRODUCTION
Health and disease are two important areas
which have engaged attracted the attention of
mankind since time immemorial. The one and
most important sources of medicines even since
the beginning of human civilization are the plant
source. In spite of tremendous developments in
the field of allopathic during the 20th century,
plants still remain one of the major sources of
drugs in modern as well as in traditional system
of medicines through the world. Over 60% of all
pharmaceutical are plant based. In traditional
medicine, there are many natural crude drugs
that have the potential activity to treat many
disease and disorders one of them is Rosa
centifolia; Family: Rosaceae) popularly known
as province rose, cabbage rose or Rose de mai
and commonly known as Gulab, Satapatri,
Rosapoo, Troja . Generally the rose varieties are
cultivated for home and garden beautification
and its rich perfumery fragrance in many parts of
the world. Traditionally the Plant pacifies vitiated
VATA, PITTA, inflammation, burning sensation,
conjunctivitis, cough, skin disease, cardiac
disability, fever, and general weakness.
PLANT PROFILE
The plants are obtained from the dried roots,
flowers and leaves of plant Rosa centifolia
belong to the family rosaceae. There are more
than 200 species of Rosa. Some species are
R. bella
R.blanda
R. canina
R.damascena
R.foetida
R. gallica
R. multiflora
R.rubrifolia
R. setipoda
R. pomifera
R. omissa
R. Carolina
R. alpina
R. alba
TAXONOMY CLASSIFICATION OF ROSA
CENTIFOLIA:
Kingdom - Plantae
Division - Magnoliophyta
Class - Magnoliopsida
Order - Rosales
Family - Rosaceae
Genus - Rosa
Species - Centifolia
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Article
ABSTRACT
Rosa centifolia (family: Rosaceae), cultivated as an ornamental plant throughout India, but
particularly cultivated in Grasse, the French city known as the PERFUME CAPITAL of the world. It
is commonly known as province rose, cabbage rose or Rose de mai. It is one of the herbs
mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda. It has divers’ pharmacological used including
asthma, hypertension and bronchitis. It is widely cultivated for its fragrance, clear & sweet with
light notes of honey. The widespread uses of Rosa centifolia in traditional systems of medicine
have resulted in their extensive chemical analysis for their bio-active principles. This article
briefly reviews the Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Rosa centifolia.
Keywords: Rosa centifolia, province rose. Rose de mai.
IJRPC 2012, 2(3) Jena Jitendra et al ISSN: 22312781
795
CULTIVATION
Rosa centifolia are particularly to the French city
of Grasse known as the perfume capital of the
world. It is widely cultivated for its fragrance. The
flowers are commercially harvested for the
production of rose oil, which is commonly used
in perfumery. The plants cultivated are therefore
recommended because of their higher flower
production.
MORPHOLOGY
The plant is shrubby and grows up to 1.5-2
meters in height. Leaves are grayish green in
colour, compound, imperipinnate, with 5-7
leaflets and the leaflets are ovate- lancelets.
Flowers are varying in colour, usually pink,
fragrant, with many petals. They are fleshy hip
enclosing small and pendulous seeds. They are
round shape, globular with their overlapping
petals.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
The important chemical constituents isolated
from flower petals by gas chromatographic
analysis, were Phenyl ethanol (43%), Geranyl
acetate (15.6%), Geraniol (10.5%), Linalool
(6.9%), Benzyl alcohol (3.3%), Benzaldehyde
(1.5%), Nerol (5-10%), Citronellyl acetate
(0.3%).
It also contains tannins, oloigomeric
proantrocyanides, saccharine matter, mineral
salts, salt of mallic acid & tartaric acid, Pectin
(11%), Riboflavin, sugars, purgative glycosides
(multiflorin A & B).
USEFUL PART OF ROSA CENTIFOLIA
Generally the Leaves, Root, Flowers part are
used.
TRADITIONAL USE OF ROSA CENTIFOLIA
Traditionally the Plant pacifies vitiated VATA,
PITTA, inflammation, burning sensation,
conjunctivitis, cough, skin disease, cardiac
disability, fever, and general weakness.
Generally the several rose products are used to
make different cosmetic preparation like creams,
lotions and other cosmetic uses. It used for
moisturizing purpose by mixing with vegetable
glycerin. It was also used in toilet preparations,
lozenges and toothpaste for its perfumery. Rose
water is used in desserts, pastries and cakes.
The flower buds are generally used in cardiac
troubles and as a tonic and aperients. Gulkand
made from the petals possesses mild laxative
properties and is useful in sore throat and
enlarged tonsils.
PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS
The roots are useful in intestinal ulcers,
rickets, hemorrhages and diarrhea and
also astringent in nature.
The leaves are used in treating wounds,
ophthalmia, hepatopathy and
hemorrhoids.
The flowers has cooling emollient
aromatic, cardio tonic, anti-
inflammatory, expectorant, aphrodisiac,
depurative, febrifuge, intellect-promoting
styptic, digestive, carminative,
rejuvenating and tonic properties. It is
also useful in asthma, high blood
pressure, bronchitis, diarrhea,
dysmenorrheal, cough, fever, fluid
retention, insomnia, palpitation, and
stress and urinary tract infections.
Tea made from petals used as- blood
purifier, vertigo, and headache.
Mild sedative, local anesthetics,
laxatives, liver protectors,
antidepressant, cardio-active.
Rose petals are rejuvenating & prove to
be a tonic.
Due to small and pleasant fragrance
rose petals are used for making
essential oils and perfumes.
Used as antioxidant, & antitussive.
It inhibits vasoconstriction.
It shows potent antibacterial activity.
It inhibits the growth of leukemia cell
line
Ointment of rose-water
It is commonly known as Cold Cream, enjoys
deserved popularity as a soothing, cooling
application for chapping of the hands, face,
abrasions and other superficial lesions of the
skin.
BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL
ACTIVITIES
Antibacterial activity
Hassan Ali et al, 2003 showed that Rosa
centifolia water extract possesses significant
antibacterial activity. It showed anti-microbial
activity against bacterial strains like M.
lysoditicus, S.aureus, C. pseudodiptheroid, S.
dysenters, S. typhi, E. coli and S. pyogenes.
Anti tussive activity
Sankar et al,2011showed that the ethanol
extract of Rosa centifolia produced significant
anti-tussive activity. The essential oil obtained
from Rosa centifolia is reported gastro
IJRPC 2012, 2(3) Jena Jitendra et al ISSN: 22312781
796
intestinal relaxant activity; therefore the
bronchodilatory effect is responsible for its anti-
tussive property and might be due to its possible
tachykinin inhibitory substance mediating anti-
tussive effect.
CONCLUSION
Rosa centifolia have been ethno medicinally
used as a therapeutic agent for a variety of
diseases, as we have illustrated in this article.
More ever, numerous research works have
proven its uses beyond the ethno medicinal
ones in experimental animals. Citronella &
farnesol which were isolated from this plant may
be responsible for these actions. Researchers
are of the opinion that the presence of mallic
acid and citric acid are the reason behind the
laxative and diuretic effect.
Leaves
Flowers
Roots
REFERENCES
1. Hassan Ali; Nafisa; An investigation of
antimicrobial compounds for
immunomodulating and anti-adhesion
properties, Pakistan Research
Repository; 2003.
2. K. Anu Kiruthika et al /Int.J. PharmTech
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3. M. Canales et al. / Journal of Ethno
pharmacology 97 (2005) 429–439.
4. M. KHALID SHABBIR ET AL., Pak. J.
Bot., 41(2): 615-620, 2009.
5. Nadkarni K. M.; Indian Material Medica,
vol-1, page no-1071.
6. Rastogi Ram P; Mehrotra B. N.;
Compendium of Indian medicinal plant,
volume-3rd (1980-1984) Page no:-554.
7. Sankaranand R; Evaluation of anti-
tussive activity of Rosa centifolia,
IJPSR, 2011; Vol. 2(6). 1473-1475.
8. The Wealth of India, vol-IX, page no-
66-67.
... Phenyl, ethanol, Geranyl acetate, Geraniol, Linalool, Benzyl alcohol, Benzaldehyde, Nerol , Citronellyl acetate (flowers). [82] Antibacterial, Antitussive. [82] Dysmenorrhea treatment (by Aromatherapy). ...
... [82] Antibacterial, Antitussive. [82] Dysmenorrhea treatment (by Aromatherapy). [83] 20 ...
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Aim of study is to evaluate the potential anti-tussive activity in a mouse model induced by sulphur dioxide gas of ethanolic extract of "Rosa centifolia". The ethanol extract of Rosa centifolia (250mg/kg 500 mg/g p.o) showed significant anti-tussive activity, the cough inhibition (35% and 57% respectively) and being comparable to that of 10-20mg/kg of codeine phosphate (41 and 64% respectively).The effect of ethanolic extract on the trachea was also tested it did not relax pre-contractions in guinea pig trachealis induced by KCl and histamine. INTRODUCTION: Cough is a protective reflex, its purpose being expulsion of respiratory secretions or foreign particles from air passages and is a symptom of respiratory illness that prevents talking and cause chest and thorax pain. It occurs due to stimulation of mechano or chemo receptors in throat, respiratory passages or stretch receptors in the lungs 1 . A number of drugs reduce cough as a result of their central actions, although the exact mechanism still are not entirely clear. Included among them are the opioid analgesics codeine and hydrocodone most commonly used to suppress cough. A 10 or 20mg oral dose of codeine although in effective for analgesia, produces a demonstrable antitussive effect and higher doses produce even more suppression of cough 2 .
  • Anu Kiruthika
K. Anu Kiruthika et al /Int.J. PharmTech Res.2011,3(2).
  • M Canales
M. Canales et al. / Journal of Ethno pharmacology 97 (2005) 429-439.
  • M Shabbir
M. KHALID SHABBIR ET AL., Pak. J. Bot., 41(2): 615-620, 2009.