ArticlePDF Available

Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator in Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Authors:
  • Labverk Sweden AB

Abstract

Thermal insulation is the most effective energy efficient technique of energy conservation available today. The main goal of energy an conscious designer is to condition the interior environment to support a level of climate comfort acceptable to users. From the past 20 years data it is concluded that temperature is at the increase and thus thermal insulation is an immediate need to be considered. Environmental problems have recently expanded due to industrial pollution and manmade products that are found in solid wastes. One of these products are the Aluminum cans. Since the recycling rate of these cans is decreasing. It is therefore the main goal of this study is to evaluate the thermal insulation of these cans through models in insulating reinforced concrete roofs and ceiling and comparing the insulation with that of Thermo-stone blocks and Polystyrene boards which are commonly used in Iraq. Results indicated that Aluminum cans are considered as a good insulator and can withstand a considerable live and dead loads beside it’s low construction cost and low weight. Finally the use of Aluminum cans in the thermal insulation will contribute in solving a part of the global environmental problems.
Al-Taie: Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator
29
Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator in
Reinforced Concrete Slabs
Laith K. I. Al-Taie,
Civil Engineering Department, University of Mosul
ABSTRACT
Thermal insulation is the most effective energy efficient technique of energy
conservation available today. The main goal of energy an conscious designer is to
condition the interior environment to support a level of climate comfort acceptable to
users. From the past 20 years data it is concluded that temperature is at the increase
and thus thermal insulation is an immediate need to be considered. Environmental
problems have recently expanded due to industrial pollution and manmade products
that are found in solid wastes. One of these products are the Aluminum cans. Since the
recycling rate of these cans is decreasing. It is therefore the main goal of this study is to
evaluate the thermal insulation of these cans through models in insulating reinforced
concrete roofs and ceiling and comparing the insulation with that of Thermo-stone
blocks and Polystyrene boards which are commonly used in Iraq. Results indicated that
Aluminum cans are considered as a good insulator and can withstand a considerable
live and dead loads beside it’s low construction cost and low weight. Finally the use of
Aluminum cans in the thermal insulation will contribute in solving a part of the global
environmental problems.
Keywords: Thermal Insulation , Solid wastes, Aluminum cans, Model.
.
. .
. . .
.
. .
Accepted 16-3-2010Received 18-5-2009
Al-Rafidain Engineering Vol.19 No.1 February 2011
30
Notations Unit
QHeat Flow w
T
1
-T
2
Thermal potential gradient
o
C
LMaterial thickness m
AArea m
2
kThermal conductivity w/m.
o
C
RThermal resistance
o
C/w
Rt Overall thermal resistance
o
C/w
AC Aluminum cans
TB Thermo-stone Blocks
PB Polystyrene Boards
Model A Model with insulation
Model B Model without insulation
T
1
Temperature reading at the surface of the tile.
o
C
T
2
Temperature reading at the lower face of the reinforced concrete slab.
o
C
T
3
Temperature reading of the inner air space of the model.
o
C
T
1a
Temperature gradient of model A, T
1
a
= T
1
– T
2
o
C
T
2a
Temperature gradient of model A, T
2
a
= T
1
– T
3
o
C
T
1b
Temperature gradient of model B, T
1
b
= T
1
– T
2
o
C
T
2b
Temperature gradient of model B, T
2
b
= T
1
– T
3
o
C
Net
1
Temperature gradient, Net
1
= T
T
1b
o
C
Net
2
Temperature gradient, Net
2
= T
T
o
C
1. Introduction:
Thermal insulation is the most effective technique of energy conservation available today.
Thermal insulation has the largest impact on reducing fuel cost year after year. The main goal
of an energy conscious designer is to condition the interior environment to support a level of
climate comfort acceptable to users. Efficient use of energy is important since global energy
resources are finite and power generation using fossil fuels (such as coal and oil) has adverse
environmental effects. Thermal insulation is a technique that minimizes the transfer of heat
energy from inside to outside and vice versa, of a building by reducing the conduction,
convection and radiation effects. From the previous on-going 20 years data it is found that the
temperature is increasing and thus thermal insulation is an immediate need to be considered
for occupant comfort [1], [2].
Environmental problems have recently expanded due to industrial pollution and also due to
man made products that are found in solid wastes. One of these materials are the used
Aluminum cans. Since 1972, some 594 billion used Aluminum cans have been recycled. If
these cans are placed end to end, this would stretch to the moon and back 190 times. Of the
102 billion Aluminum can manufactured in 1999, 63.8 billion of them were recycled.
Unfortunately, recycling rate was noticed to be decreasing specially since 1992 (figure 1) [3],
[4]. As it is known that these cans are manufactured from aluminum, aluminum is the most
abundant metallic element in the earth’s crust and, after oxygen and silicon, by mass the third
most abundant of all elements in the earth’s crust. It constitutes approximately 8% of the
earth’s crust by mass [4], [5].
There are various thermal insulating materials, commonly used are flexible (mineral wool,
glass fiber), loose fill, and spray. In Iraq, the most common insulating materials are Thermo-
stone blocks, Polystyrene boards and air gap (Cavity) [6], [7].
Al-Taie: Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator
31
Years
Figure (1): U.S. aluminum recycling rates from 1990 to 2004 (Container Recycling
Institute, n.d.), after M. E. Schlesinger.
Insulation material are evaluated in many methods, the most common are U-value and R-
value. U-value is the measurement of heat flow, the lower the U-value the better the thermal
insulation. R-value is another mathematical expression used to quantify an insulation agent. It
indicate the resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater insulation
effectiveness [8], [9]. In general:
= (1)
= (2)
Where:
Q: Heat flow (w)
T1-T2: Thermal potential gradient (oC).
L: Material thickness (m)
A: Area (m2)
k: Thermal conductivity (w/m.oC)
R: Thermal resistance (oC/w)
In many engineering applications, heat transfer takes place through a medium composed of
several different layers, each having a different thermal conductivity, k. for composite slabs
the heat flow:
= (3)
(4)
Where:
Rt: Overall thermal resistance
Al-Rafidain Engineering Vol.19 No.1 February 2011
32
The main goal of this study is to evaluate the thermal insulation of used Aluminum cans in
insulating reinforced concrete roofs and ceilings and comparing the insulation efficiency with
Thermo-stone blocks and Polystyrene boards that are commonly used in Iraq for slabs
thermal insulation. The comparison between the selected insulation materials will be based
on four aspects, temperature gradient, compressive strength, weight and cost.
2. Materials and Methods:
In order to accomplish the project goals, two identical models were built from local
construction materials used in Iraq, this will idealy represent the local boundary conditions of
the studied area. The construction site was selected to insure direct sun light on the model
ceiling during the day. The site was located in Iraq, Mosul city (36o 23' 35.41" N and 43o 08'
38.18" E, elevation: 258m from MSL, Google Earth 2009). One of the models was insulated
and the other was kept without insulation to be taken as a reference or as a benchmark.
The construction materials of the two models consisted of a reinforced concrete slab
(100x100x15)cm supported by four brick walls of (12)cm thickness and (100)cm height, the
four walls were insulated with a clay rendering of (2.5)cm thickness then the last was covered
with a (5)cm PB, table (1). The floor was also insulated using a (5)cm dry clay layer covered
with Styrofoam board of (5)cm thickness. This procedure was adopted to minimize the heat
that would come from the walls and the roof, table (1), figure (2). The reinforced concrete
slab was simulated to the local slabs manufactured in Iraq. Usually the slabs in Iraq are
covered with tiles that are mostly of white color. The slabs of the two models were covered
with tiles plus a cement mortar of (3)cm thick beneath (the insulating agent was installed
beneath the tile mortar for the insulated model).
Table (1): Legend of the materials used in model construction.
Legend
Material
Dimension(s) (cm)
Aluminum cans (AC)
12.5×6 Ø
Thermo
-
stone Blocks (TB)
5.5
Polystyrene
Boards (PB)
5
Clay brick
23×11×7
Clay
rendering
5
Tile
30×30×15
Sand mortar (1:3)
3
Reinforced concrete (1:2:4/0.50)
100×100×15
Thermometer probe
2.5×0.5
Three digital thermometers were used for each model (range -50 to +70oC, ±0.1oC accuracy).
A thermometer was imbedded in the surface of the tile by making a groove that just fit the
thermometer probe which was fixed to the tiles using a white cement paste (almost the same
color of the tile). Another thermometer was installed at the lower face of the concrete slab
similar to the tile’s thermometer probe except using an ordinary cement paste. The last
thermometer was hanged at the middle height of the model inner space for reading air
temperature inside the model. All thermometers were installed during the construction
process of the two models, figure (2).
Three types of insulation materials were used in this project, AC, TB and PB. One of the
models was treated with insulation (model A) while the other was kept as a reference without
insulation (model B). The insulating agent was placed beneath the tiles covering the slab.
Each insulation material was tested for one week using the two models. Temperature readings
were taken daily at (7:00, 9:00, 11:00, 12:00, 13:00, 14:00, 15:00, 17:00, 19:00 and 21:00),
(July-August, 2008).
Al-Taie: Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator
33
The compressive strength of the AC must be obtained. A group of cans were arranged in a
hexagonal shape that consists of seven cans, figure (3). Three groups were tested in the
unconfined compression machine with a slow rate
(0.35 mm/min.). A single can was also tested in the
same machine with the same loading rate. The
compressive strength of TB was taken as referred in
the literature
3. Results and Discussion:
In order to evaluate which insulation material is better
among the selected, the comparison was based on four
aspects, temperature gradient, compressive strength,
weight and cost. The following paragraphs will discuss
these aspects.
Figure (2): Schematic diagram of Model A and Model B, (a): AC. (b): TB. (c): PB.
(a)
Model A
Model
B
(b)
Model A
Model
B
(c)
Model A
Model
B
Fig. (3): Hexagonal arrangement
of AC for compressive strength
evaluation.
Al-Rafidain Engineering Vol.19 No.1 February 2011
34
3.1 Temperature Gradients:
Temperature readings were taken at the same time for model (A) and model (B). There was a
thermal gradient between tile temperature (T1), concrete slab (T2) and air space (T3), this is
clear in figures (4, 5, 6) for AC, TB and PB respectively. It is obvious from these figures that
T1 was higher than T2 and T3 for all insulation materials.
In order to make an accurate comparison, the mean temperatures readings of one week were
plotted against time for T1, T2 and T3, figures (7, 8, 9) for AC, TB and PB respectively. The
mean maximum temperature recorded of (T1) was (52.2, 54.4 and 54.3oC) for AC, TB and PB
respectively.
Temperature gradients between model (A) and model (B) were adopted to show the better
insulation. The algebraic gradient was calculated on the basis of the time that corresponds to
the maximum T1 reading of model (A), table (2), figures (10, 11, 12)
3.1 .1 Temperature gradient between (T1) and (T2); ( T1):
The algebraic difference between T1 and T2 is equal to T1, table (2). From the data listed,
the mean value of T
1a for AC is 20oC while the mean value of T1b was 9.6oC. The
algebraic difference between T1a and T1b is equal to Net1, this value for AC was equal to
10.4oC. The value Net1 was adopted in the comparison among the selected insulation
materials. The value Net1 for TB and PB were 7.6oC and 7.3oC respectively. It is clear that
the AC showed a greater value of Net1 than those for TB and PB.
Table(2): Temperature reading gradients of the insulation materials.
AC data analysis
Day
Time
(Hours)
Model A
Model B
T
1a
(oC)
T
2a
(oC)
T
1b
(oC)
T
2b
(oC)
Net
1
(oC)
Net
2
(oC)
1
3:00
20.4
22.1
10
15.2
10.4
6.9
2
3:00
20.7
24.3
10.3
16.3
10.4
8
3
2:00
21.2
22.4
9.5
14.4
11.7
8
4
3:00
18.6
19.7
8.5
10.1
10.1
9.6
5
3:00
19.6
20.9
9.6
14
10
6.9
6
3:00
20.2
22
10.5
15.9
9.7
6.1
7
3:00
19.3
22
9.1
14.3
10.2
7.7
Mean
20.0
21.9
9.6
14.3
10.4
7.6
TB data analysis
1
2:00
17.1
20.3
10.7
14.8
6.4
7.2
2
2:00
18.1
21
9.3
15.7
8.8
7.3
3
2:00
19
21.5
11.1
16.5
7.9
7.9
4
2:00
19.7
21.1
11.9
15.1
7.8
6.9
5
2:00
19.2
21.1
12
15.3
7.2
5.9
6
2:00
18.6
21.4
11
16
7.6
7
7
2:00
19.9
20.9
12.4
16.2
7.5
6.5
Mean
18.8
21.0
11.2
15.7
7.6
5.3
PB data analysis
1
2:00
18.8
19.8
11.7
15
7.1
4.8
2
2:00
19
19.7
11.4
13.6
7.6
6.1
3
2:00
17
17.8
9.5
13.3
7.5
4.5
4
2:00
18.5
19.5
11
14.8
7.5
4.7
5
1:00
18.2
19.1
11.8
14.3
6.4
4.8
6
1:00
16.9
19.1
9.4
15.1
7.5
4
7
1:00
17.7
20
10.3
15.6
7.4
4.4
Mean
18.0
19.3
10.7
14.5
7.3
4.8
Al-Taie: Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator
35
Figure (4): Temperature readings of AC for one week, (a)
Model A, (b) Model B.
From to left to right ( 1 – 7 ) Days
From to left to right ( 1 – 7 ) Days
Group (b)
Group (a)
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T1
T
2
T
3
Al-Rafidain Engineering Vol.19 No.1 February 2011
36
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
79 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
79 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Tim e (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
From to left to right ( 1 – 7 ) Days
From to left to right ( 1 – 7 ) Days
Figure (5): Temperature readings of TB for one
week, (a) Model A, (b) Model B.
Group (a)
Group (b)
Al-Taie: Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator
37
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (2 4hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
79 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
79 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
79 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
From to left to right ( 1 – 7 ) Days
From to left to right ( 1 – 7 ) Days
Figure (6): Temperature readings of PB for one
week, (a) Model A, (b) Model B.
Groap (a)
Groap (a)
Al-Rafidain Engineering Vol.19 No.1 February 2011
38
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 111315171921
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T1
T
2
T
3
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10
20
30
40
50
60
79 111315171921
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
T
2
T
3
Figure(7): Mean temperature readings of AC for one week, (a) Model A, (b)
Model B.
Figure(8): Mean temperature readings of TB for one week, (a) Model A, (b)
Model B.
Figure(9): Mean temperature readings of PB for one week, (a) Model A, (b)
Model B.
(a)
(b)
(a)
(b)
(a)
(b)
Al-Taie: Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator
39
3.1 .2 Temperature gradient between (T1) and (T3); ( T2):
The same calculation procedure considered in the previous paragraph will be applied here to
calculate the gradient between T1 and T3, this will give T2 value, table (2). The algebraic
gradient between T2a and T2b is equal to Net2 which was considered in the comparison as
had used in Net1 values. The mean value of Net2 for AC is 7.6oC, while it is 5.3oC and
4.8oC for TB and PB respectively.
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 111315171921
Time (24hr)
T
1
a
T1b 10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
2
a
T2b
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 111315171921
Time (24hr)
T
3
a
T3b
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
a
T
1
b
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
2
a
T
2
b
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
3
a
T
3
b
Figure (10): Comparison between mean temperature readings of model A and
Model B for AC.
Figure (11): Comparison between mean temperature readings of model A and
Model B for TB.
Al-Rafidain Engineering Vol.19 No.1 February 2011
40
3.1Compressive Strength:
Group AC was found to carry a load of 5.23kN, while a single can carried a load of 0.75kN.
The number of cans beneath one tile (30x30cm) consisted at least of fourteen cans, this
means that one tile can carry a load of 10.5kN. These results could be calculated roughly for
one square meter, which is equal to be 100kN/m2.
TB was found to withstand 10kN/m2 according the Iraqi Standard Specifications No. 1441.
PB was considered in this paper to carry the minimal compressive strength compared with the
AC and the TB, table (3). From these results it can be concluded that AC withstand a load
much higher than the TB and PB.
3.2 Weight:
The weight of any insulation material is considered to represent its dead load. Table (3)
shows the weight of each insulation material for one square meter. Each can was weighted,
the weight range was (20-27)g. It was also found that in order to cover an area of one square
meter, a number of (255) cans were required, this will bring the total dead load to (6.5)kg/m2.
.
Table(3): compressive strength and weight of the selected insulation materials.
Insulation material Compressive strength (kN/m
2
)Weight (kg/m
2
)
AC 100 6.5
TB 10 20
PB None 1.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
1
a
T
1
b
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 111315171921
Time (24hr)
T
2
a
T
2
b
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Time (24hr)
T
3
a
T
3
b
Figure (12): Comparison between mean temperature readings of model A and
Model B for PB.
Al-Taie: Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator
41
3.1 Cost:
The cost of any insulation material has the controlling rule for selection, the higher the cost,
the better the insulation and the higher the construction cost. In this study, AC was found to
meet the minimum cost requirements, since AC could be collected from Aluminum
Recycling Agencies, beside the minimal construction cost. AC may also be bought directly
from the factory for insulation use. The cost of AC is much lower than the cost of TB and the
PB
4. Conclusions:
The tested insulation materials were evaluated through models, AC showed a significant
results. Experiments also showed that the cans are a good thermal insulation material and can
withstand a considerable live and dead loads, in addition to the low construction cost and low
dead weight. From practical side of view, these cans could be packed using nylon sheets with
suitable dimensions (100x100cm or 50x50cm) for easy installation process beneath the
floor’s or ceiling’s tiles. As it was stated before that the AC recycling rate is decreasing, the
use of these cans is certainly will contribute in solving part of the environmental problems.
References:
[1] Akash Singh, Mohd. Alam Khan, Jahi Gaur and Grishma Gupta, "Thermal insulation
of energy efficient buildings", 2007. http://en.scientificcommons.org/42406716
[2] The Aluminum Association, "Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap", 2003.
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/aluminum/pdfs/al_roadmap.pdf
[3] Missouri Recycling Association, Recycling Guide, 2007.
http://www.mora.org/publications/recycling_guide
[4] Mark E. Schlesinger, "Aluminum Recycling", Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2007.
[5] Marceau, Medgar L., Gajda, John, VanGeem, Martha G., Gentry, Thomas, and
Nisbet, Michael A., "Partial Environmental Life Cycle Inventory of an Insulating Concrete
Form House Compared to a Wood Frame House", R&D Serial No. 2464, Portland Cement
Association, Skokie, Illinois, 2000.
[6] Richard T. Bynum Jr., "Insulation Handbook", McGraw Hill, 2001.
[7] Wayne C. Turner and Steve Doty, "Energy Management Handbook", The Fairmont
Press, INC, 6th ed., 2007.
[8] M. Necati Özi ik, "Heat Transfer, A basic Approach", McGraw Hill, 1985.
[9] W. M. Rohsenow, J. P. Hartnett and Y. I. Cho, "Handbook of Heat Transfer",
McGraw Hill, 3rd ed., 1998.
The work was carried out at the college of Engg. University of Mosul
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Thermal insulation is the easiest and most effective energy efficient technologies available today. Thermal insulating materials commonly used are flexible (mineral wool, glass fibre), loose fill, and spray. Using these materials insulation techniques like stud walls with standard sheathing and cladding, stud walls with exterior thermal sheathing and foundations like concrete foundation with exterior insulation, permanent wood foundation renders good amount of efficient thermal insulation. But with the use of GRP, ACC and some insulating paints thermal insulation can be increased to an optimum level. This paper includes the case study of residential complex at Thatipur, Gwalior in which composite technique has been introduced.
Article
A partial life cycle inventory (LCI) of a wood frame house and a concrete masonry unit (CMU) house has been carried out according to the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) guidelines and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards 14040 and 14041. The houses was modeled in five cities, representing a range of U.S. climates: Tucson, Lake Charles, Denver, St. Louis, and Minneapolis. Each house is a two-story single-family building with a contemporary design. The house life cycle system boundary includes the energy and material inputs and outputs of excavation; construction; occupancy; maintenance, repair, and replacement; demolition; and disposal. It also includes (i) the upstream profiles of concrete, concrete masonry units, mortar, grout, and stucco, (ii) the mass of other building materials used, (iii) occupant energy-use, and (iv) transportation energy. The partial LCI is presented in terms of energy use, material use, emissions to air, and solid waste generation over a 100-year life.
Thermal insulation of energy efficient buildings http://en.scientificcommons.org/42406716 [2] The Aluminum AssociationAluminum Industry Technology Roadmap
  • Akash Singh
  • Mohd Alam Khan
  • Jahi Gaur
  • Grishma Gupta
Akash Singh, Mohd. Alam Khan, Jahi Gaur and Grishma Gupta, "Thermal insulation of energy efficient buildings", 2007. http://en.scientificcommons.org/42406716 [2] The Aluminum Association, "Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap", 2003. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/aluminum/pdfs/al_roadmap.pdf [3] Missouri Recycling Association, Recycling Guide, 2007. http://www.mora.org/publications/recycling_guide [4]
Energy Management Handbook The Fairmont Press, INC, 6 th ed.Heat Transfer, A basic ApproachHandbook of Heat Transfer
  • C Wayne
  • Steve Turner
  • Doty
Wayne C. Turner and Steve Doty, "Energy Management Handbook", The Fairmont Press, INC, 6 th ed., 2007. [8] M. Necati Özi ik, "Heat Transfer, A basic Approach", McGraw Hill, 1985. [9] W. M. Rohsenow, J. P. Hartnett and Y. I. Cho, "Handbook of Heat Transfer", McGraw Hill, 3 rd ed., 1998.