Atrial fibrillation among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with sepsis: Incidence and risk factors

Pulmonary Center and the Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address: .
American heart journal (Impact Factor: 4.46). 06/2013; 165(6):949-955.e3. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.03.020
Source: PubMed


Newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) during severe sepsis is associated with increased risks of in-hospital stroke and mortality. However, the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors associated with AF during the sepsis syndromes are unclear.

We identified patients with preexisting, newly diagnosed, or no AF in a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with sepsis between 2004 and 2007. We identified multivariable-adjusted demographic and clinical characteristics associated with development of newly diagnosed AF during a sepsis hospitalization.

A total of 60,209 beneficiaries had a sepsis hospitalization. Mean age was 80.2 years, 44.4% were men, and 83.1% were white. Atrial fibrillation occurred during 25.5% (95% CI 25.2-25.9) of sepsis hospitalizations, including 18.3% (18.0%-18.7%) with preexisting AF and 7.2% (7.0%-7.4%) with newly diagnosed AF. Patients with sepsis requiring intensive care had a greater risk of newly diagnosed AF (10.7%, 95% CI 10.3%-11.1%) compared with patients who did not require intensive care (4.4%, 4.2%-4.5%, P < .001). In multivariable analysis, factors associated with newly diagnosed AF during sepsis included older age, white race, acute organ dysfunction, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, right heart catheterization, diagnosis of endocarditis, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Cardiovascular comorbid conditions generally were not associated with increased risk for newly diagnosed AF during sepsis.

Atrial fibrillation is common among critically ill patients with sepsis. Acute factors, rather than preexisting cardiovascular comorbid conditions, are associated with increased risk for newly diagnosed AF during sepsis, suggesting that mechanisms of newly diagnosed AF during sepsis may differ from the general population of patients with AF.

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    • "Our results also suggested that pre-existing cardiovascular diseases was a risk factor for mortality in patients with severe sepsis. It was reported that new-onset atrial fibrillation was an independent risk factor of stroke and death in patients with severe sepsis [36], [37]. Pre-existing cardiovascular diseases might induce the myocardial remodeling and predispose the patients to the development of new-onset atrial fibrillation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Endothelium-derived molecules may be predictive to organ injury. Heat shock protein (HSP) A12B is mainly located in endothelial cells, which can be detected in the plasma of septic patients. Whether it is correlated with prognosis of sepsis remains unclear. Methods Extracellular HSPA12B (eHSPA12B) was determined in plasma of septic mice at 6h, 12h, 24h and 48h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). It was also detected in plasma of patients with severe sepsis, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and healthy volunteers. The predictive value for prognosis of severe sepsis was assessed by receiver operating curve (ROC) and Cox regression analyses. Results eHSPA12B was elevated in plasma of CLP mice at 6h and peaked at 24h after surgery. A total of 118 subjects were included in the clinical section, including 66 patients with severe sepsis, 21 patients with sepsis, 16 patients with SIRS and 15 volunteers. Plasma eHSPA12B was significantly higher in patients with severe sepsis than in patients with sepsis, SIRS and volunteers. The level of eHSPA12B was also higher in non-survivals than survivals with severe sepsis. The area under the curve (AUC) of eHSPA12B in predicting death among patients with severe sepsis was 0.782 (0.654–0.909) in ROC analysis, much higher than that of IL-6 and IL-10. Cox regression analysis showed that cardiovascular diseases, IL-6 and eHSPA12B were risk factors for mortality in patients with severe sepsis. Survival curve demonstrated a strikingly significant difference between 28-day survival rates of patients with an eHSPA12B lower or not lower than 1.466ng/ml. Conclusions Plasma eHSPA12B is elevated in both septic mice and patients. It may be a good predictor for poor outcome in patients with severe sepsis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE

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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) sometimes develops in younger individuals without any evident cardiac or other disease. To refer to these patients who were considered to have a very favourable prognosis compared with other AF patients, the term 'lone' AF was introduced in 1953. However, there are numerous uncertainties associated with 'lone' AF, including inconsistent entity definitions, considerable variations in the reported prevalence and outcomes, etc. Indeed, increasing evidence suggests a number of often subtle cardiac alterations associated with apparently 'lone' AF, which may have relevant prognostic implications. Hence, 'lone' AF patients comprise a rather heterogeneous cohort, and may have largely variable risk profiles based on the presence (or absence) of overlooked subclinical cardiovascular risk factors or genetically determined subtle alterations at the cellular or molecular level. Whether the implementation of various cardiac imaging techniques, biomarkers and genetic information could improve the prediction of risk for incident AF and risk assessment of 'lone' AF patients, and influence the treatment decisions needs further research. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on 'lone' AF, highlight the existing inconsistencies in the field and discuss the prognostic and treatment implications of recent insights in 'lone' AF pathophysiology.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · International Journal of Clinical Practice
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