Article

The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on Memory, Attention and Cognition in Healthy Human Volunteers.

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Abstract

Background: Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect. Aim of the study: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on memory, attention and cognition in healthy elderly volunteers. Furthermore, safety profile of NS was assessed during the nine-week study period. Methods: Forty elderly volunteers were recruited and divided randomly into group A and group B--each consisting of 20 volunteers. The treatment procedure for group A was 500 mg NS capsule twice daily for nine weeks and Group B received placebo instead of NS in the similar manner. All the volunteers were assessed for neuropsychological state and safety profile twice before treatment and after nine weeks. The neuropsychological tests were logical memory test, digit span test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and stroop test. Safety profile was assessed by measuring biochemical markers of Cardiac (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase-MB); Liver (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin) and Kidney (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) through using commercial kits. Results: There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the score of logical memory test-I and II, total score of digit span, 30 min delayed-recall, percent score in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, time taken to complete letter cancellation test, time taken in trail making test-A and test-B, score in part C of stroop test due to ingestion of NS for nine weeks. There were not statistically significant changes (p>0.05) in any of the biochemical markers of cardiac, liver, kidney function during this nine-week study period. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates the role of NS in enhancing memory, attention and cognition. Therefore, whether NS could be considered as potential food supplement for preventing or slow progressing of Alzheimer disease needs further investigations. However, study with Alzheimer's patients with large population size for longer period of time is recommended before using NS daily and extensive phytochemical investigations are recommended for novel drug discovery from NS for treating cognitive disorders.

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... One article, which was in Farsi [46], was excluded from the present study, since the results related to liver function tests were previously reported in another study [47]. Finally, 19 articles included in the systematic review and metaanalysis [9,10,14,[47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62]. The characteristics of the included articles are presented in Table 1. ...
... According to the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias assessment, only 3 trials were classified as good quality [14,50,53] (i.e., low risk of bias for all domains), 10 had fair quality [10,48,51,52,54,56,58,59,61,62] and 6 were classified as poor quality [9,47,49,55,57,60] (Table 2). ...
... Besides, detection bias was present for some studies that did not describe all the measures used for related outcomes or the need to blind outcome assessors from participants [9,49,56,57,60]. Attrition bias was also present for nine articles [10,48,49,52,54,55,57,59,60], since they did not report any reasons for exclusions or attrition of the participants. All the studies reported outcomes and none of them had selective reporting bias. ...
Article
The aim of this systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis was to determine the effect of Nigella Sativa (N.S) supplementation on liver and kidney parameters. We searched PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane central register for controlled trials and Google Scholar from database inception to April 2019 for relevant controlled trials. Mean differences and standard deviations for each outcome were pooled using a random-effects model and a dose–response analysis was performed using a fractional polynomial model. Quality of evidence was evaluated using Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Nineteen trials (n = 1295 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. We observed that N.S supplements had significant reducing effects on alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) [9 trials, n = 710 participants, weighted mean difference (WMD)= -10.825; 95%CI: -19.658, -1.992 U/L; P = 0.016; I² = 75.7 %; P-heterogeneity = 0.000) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (12 trials, n = 821 participants, WMD= -1.016; 95% CI: -1.760, -0.273 U/L; P = 0.007; I² = 87.7%; P-heterogeneity = 0.000) concentrations. Subgroup analysis showed that, an intervention of more than 12 weeks was found to have a reducing effect on aspartate- aminotransferase (AST) measures (2 trials, n = 201 participants, WMD= -11.317; 95%CI: -15.007, -7.626; P = 0.000; I² = 0.0%; P-heterogeneity = 0.977). Creatinine levels increased significantly in studies that considered adjusted analysis based on covariates (3 trials, n = 152 participants, WMD = 0.070; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.112 U/L; P = 0.001; I² = 0.0%; P-heterogeneity = 0.788). A daily dose of 1100-1500 mg of N.S supplements was observed to have a substantial reducing effect on ALP levels (5 trials, n = 340 participants, WMD= -11.323; 95% CI: -21.418, -1.229 U/L; P = 0.028; I² = 0.00%; P-heterogeneity = 0.686), while a dosage of more than 2000 mg per day led to a significant increase in BUN concentrations (2 trials, n = 101 participants, WMD= -1.016; 95% CI: -1.760, -0.273 U/L; P = 0.007; I² = 87.7%; P-heterogeneity = 0.000). Our data suggested that N.S supplementation had significant impacts on liver and kidney parameters leading to a decrease in ALP and BUN levels. Longer duration of intervention and normal daily dosages of N.S supplements led to significant reductions in ALP and AST concentrations, respectively, while higher daily dosages increased BUN levels. Hence, in spite of favorable impacts of N.S supplements on liver and kidney parameters, due to the herbal nature of N.S, more studies with high-quality, large-scale, long-term intervention and precise baseline characteristics are needed to assess the exact effective dose, duration and efficacy of N.S supplementation on kidney and liver parameters.
... Po 9 týdnech byl zaznamenán signifikantní rozdíl v paměti i pozornosti jak v rámci skupiny a (před intervencí a po intervenci), tak při porovnání skupin A a B. V biochemických parametrech se žádné změny neprojevily. Bylo by vhodné provést podobnou studii na pacientech trpících demencí (52). ...
... Denně se podává 1-3(-5) g prášku ze semen (5) nebo 1-3 g oleje (78,69). V humánních studiích se při užívání černuchy neprojevily žádné závažné nežádoucí účinky a je považováno za bezpečné (52,53,79). ...
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Nigella sativa is an annual herb of the buttercup family, native to Western Asia and North Africa. Its seeds are used as a spice, especially in India and the Middle East, but also for medicinal purposes. Nigella sativa seeds contain a large number of bioactive substances, which have a number of pharmacological effects. It is a forgotten medicine and has been used in various systems of traditional medicine for thousands of years, but studies of modern medicine in recent years show that its therapeutic use can be much wider. It is likely that it could also find use in the treatment of mental disorders such as anxiety, depression and some neurodegenerative diseases. Its potential use in COVID-19 therapy is not without interest.
... Given these preclinical pharmacological actions, two prospective placebo-controlled studies investigated the action of NS on memory, attention, cognition, mood and anxiety in consenting healthy human subjects. Both trials were conducted by the same principal investigator but with a different age of the subject cohorts [44,45]. The ethics of the trials complied with the Helsinki Declaration for the Protection of Human Subjects and its Subsequent Revisions. ...
... The first trial recruited 40 healthy men (55 years or older), who were randomized to two treatment groups each consisting of 20 subjects/group [44]. Subjects were included if they had no previous ...
... A study by Perveen et al. (2008) showed that N. sativa increases 5-HT levels in the brain in a similar manner to anxiolytic drugs. Also, Sayeed et al. (2013) concluded that the seeds of N. sativa (two 500 mg capsules once daily after dinner for 9 weeks), may have mild memory enhancement properties in elderly people by preventing the destruction of acetylcholine and inhibiting further neurodegeneration. Based on Sahak et al.'s (2013) findings, N. sativa oil not only has been shown to inhibit enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), it also affects brain tumor necrosis Frontiers in Pharmacology frontiersin.org ...
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Aging is described as an advanced time-related collection of changes that may negatively affect with the risk of several diseases or death. Aging is a main factor of several age-related neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and dementia), stroke, neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity, brain tumors, oxidative stress, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently available medications for age-related neurological disorders may lead to several side effects, such as headache, diarrhea, nausea, gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, dyskinesia, and hallucinosis. These days, studies on plant efficacy in traditional medicine are being conducted because herbal medicine is affordable, safe, and culturally acceptable and easily accessible. The Indian traditional medicine system called Ayurveda uses several herbs and medicinal plants to treat various disorders including neurological disorders. This review aims to summarize the data on the neuroprotective potential of the following common Indian spices widely used in Ayurveda: cumin ( Cuminum cyminum (L.), Apiaceae), black cumin ( Nigella sativa (L.), Ranunculaceae), black pepper ( Piper nigrum (L.), Piperaceae), curry leaf tree ( Murraya koenigii (L.), Spreng Rutaceae), fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum (L.), Fabaceae), fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Apiaceae), cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Zingiberaceae), cloves ( Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, Myrtaceae), and coriander ( Coriandrum sativum (L.), Apiaceae) in age-related neurological disorders.
... The majority of the biological activities of black seed are now known to be related to thymoquinone, the primary, secondary metabolite found in the seeds of N. sativa, as evidenced by scientific investigations [11,12]. Because of these characteristics, thymoquinone derived from N. sativa is a useful tool in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors today. ...
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Herbal plants are a reservoir of potential phytochemical compounds and the richest bioresource of drugs for traditional systems of medicine, nutraceuticals, food supplements, modern medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates, folk medicines, and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. In the present study we find out phytoconstituents of Nigella sativa and quantitative densitometric analysis of its bioactive compound thymoquinone in the different solvent extracts. It was found that Nigella sativa seeds were extracted with ethanol, methanol, and benzene as solvents. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of potent bioactive constituents such as alkaloids, phenols, tannins, trepenoid, saponins, and steroids in methanol extract. Benzene extracts have only alkaloids and steroids. While ethanol extract showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and steroids. The high-performance thin layer chromatographic method (HPTLC) was employed to quantify and densitometrically analyze thymoquinone in methanol, ethanol, and benzene extract of Nigella sativa. The analysis was performed on an aluminum plate with a mobile phase of n-hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (7:2:1 v/v/v) and a densitometric measurement using a TLC scanner (CAMAG) at 254 nm. The ethanol extract of N. Sativa exhibited single sharp peak of thymoquinone with 0.85 Rf value, the highest area of the band 8137.6, and a total recovery of was 98.08% which is nearly equal to the standard thymoquinone with Rf value (0.85), the highest area of the band 8789.4 and total recovery was obtained 100%. The present research indicated that purified thymoquinone from N. sativa is a potential source for therapeutic application.
... It is used for treating various diseases for its antibacterial, anticancer, antioxidative, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, gastroprotective, immunomodulatory, antihistaminic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In a placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 healthy elderly volunteers were administered NS seed capsule twice a day for 9 weeks and showed improvement in cognition, memory, and attention [85]. Another study reported similar results in 48 healthy adolescent males treated with N. sativa capsules once per day for 4 weeks showed mood stability and decreased anxiety [86]. ...
... Moreover, human trials at the dosage of 500 mg explained the neuroprotective potential. The better concentration, with improved memory and enhanced cognitive abilities, are the marvelous positive outcomes of N. sativa Oil consumption [158]. In addition to all these therapeutic applications of black cumin, a rat study explained the mechanism regarding Parkinson's treatment by reducing oxidative stress, along with an increased amount of superoxide dismutase in the midbrain. ...
Article
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The current review investigates the effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) on human health, which is also used to encapsulate and oxidative stable in different food products. In recent decades, many extraction methods, such as cold pressing, supercritical fluid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, hydro distillation (HD) method, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction, steam distillation, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) have been used to extract the oils from black seeds under optimal conditions. Black seed oil contains essential fatty acids, in which the major fatty acids are linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids. The oxidative stability of black seed oil is very low, due to various environmental conditions or factors (temperature and light) affecting the stability. The oxidative stability of black seed oil has been increased by using encapsulation methods, including nanoprecipitation, ultra-sonication, spray-drying, nanoprecipitation, electrohydrodynamic, atomization, freeze-drying, a electrospray technique, and coaxial electrospraying. Black seed, oil, microcapsules, and their components have been used in various food processing, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetics industries as functional ingredients for multiple purposes. Black seed and oil contain thymoquinone as a major component, which has anti-oxidant, -diabetic, -inflammatory, -cancer, -viral, and -microbial properties, due to its phenolic compounds. Many clinical and experimental studies have indicated that the black seed and their by-products can be used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, chronic cancer, diabetes, oxidative stress, polycystic ovary syndrome, metabolic disorders, hypertension, asthma, and skin disorders. In this review, we are focusing on black seed oil composition and increasing the stability using different encapsulation methods. It is used in various food products to increase the human nutrition and health properties.
... Salem (2005) reviewed immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties for the crude oil of N. sativa seeds and its active ingredients particularly thymoquinone, concluding that the immunotherapeutic efficacy of ingestion or administration of the whole seed, oil or its purified constituents should be measured by the nature of disease. Sayeed et al. (2013) demonstrated the beneficial effects of N. sativa seeds on memory, attention and cognition in forty healthy human volunteers using neuropsycological tests along with its safety profile during the nine-week study period. Biochemical assay of kidney, liver and heart were determined which do not show any statistically significant changes. ...
... This study also showed positive effect of N. sativa on these factors. [22] As indicated, human studies on N. sativa have shown the effectiveness of this drug on mood disorders and depression and these studies have also investigated the side effects of this drug. Almost all studies that have examined the side effects of black seed at regular doses have found no side effects. ...
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Background: Here, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa extract on serum brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and depression score in patients with depression. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed in 2021 in the hospitals of military forces in Tehran on 52 male patients with major depressive disorder treated with sertraline. We used the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale‑21 Items (DASS‑21) questionnaire to assess the patients. Serum BDNF levels were measured by the enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were then divided into two groups receiving 1000 mg N. sativa oil extract, daily, and placebo. Both groups received sertraline for at least 3 months. DASS‑21 questionnaire and serum BDNF levels were measured after 10 weeks. Results: After treatments, we observed significantly decreased DASS‑21 score (−11.24 ± 5.69) in the intervention group (P < 0.001) and placebo (−2.72 ± 6.19, P = 0.032), but patients in the intervention group had significantly lower scores (50.1 ± 6.8 vs. 58.2 ± 5.6, respectively, P < 0.001). Furthermore, patients in the intervention group had significantly decreased depression score (−5.5 ± 2.47, P < 0.001) and lower scores compared to the placebo (P < 0.001) (18.6 ± 2.7 vs. 23.4 ± 2.1 in intervention and placebo, respectively). We also observed significantly increased BDNF levels in the intervention group after the treatments (6.08 ± 3.76, P < 0.001) compared to the placebo group (29.4 ± 3.6 vs. 24.9 ± 2.1, P < 0.001). Serum BDNF levels had also significant reverse correlations with DASS‑21 score (r = −0.35, P = 0.011) and depression score (r = −0.45, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The use of N. sativa resulted in decreased depression score and increase in serum BDNF levels that indicate the importance and efficacy of this drug.
... While the effects of repeated administration of N. sativa in rats indicated that, there was an improvement in learning and recall status [70]. In addition, flavonoids isolated from black cumin have been shown to modulate critical neuronal signaling paths involved in the processes of memory and are likely to affects synaptic plasticity and long-standing potentiating mechanisms [71]. Based on the wide-ranging neuro pharmacological effects, black cumin seed, its oil, and the active principle thymoquinone can be explored as a promising natural remedy for improvement of numerous neurological disorders. ...
Article
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This review aimed to strength the effect of black cumin to remedies of different diseases. The seed of Nigella sativa has been used around the world for centuries to treat various animal and human ailments. So far, numerous studies demonstrated the seed of Nigella sativa and its main active constituent, thymoquinone, to be medicinally very effective against various illnesses including different chronic illness: neurological and mental illness, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, inflammatory conditions, and infertility as well as various infectious diseases due to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections. The strong antioxidant property of this valued seed has recently gained increasing attention with regard to its potential role as dietary supplement with minimal side effects.
... Black seeds enhanced memory, attention and cognition and considered as a potential food supplement for the prevention of Alzheimer disease in elderly. The biochemical markers of cardiac, liver and kidney functions remained normal in Nigella sativa seed treatment group throughout the study period [175]. ...
Article
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Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for an estimated 60% to 80% of cases. The treatment of Alzheimer's disease remains challenging. Many medicinal plants possessed beneficial therapeutic effect inAlzheimer’s disease and memory deficits, by their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, NF-κB inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition, anti-amyloidogenic, and anticholinesterase activities. In the current article, the medicinal plants with beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease and memory deficits were discussed. This article considers not only the therapeutic effect of medicinal plants in AD and memory deficits, but also discussed the mechanisms of their beneficial effects.
... Black seeds enhanced memory, attention and cognition and considered as a potential food supplement for the prevention of Alzheimer disease in elderly. The biochemical markers of cardiac, liver and kidney functions remained normal in Nigella sativa seed treatment group throughout the study period [175]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for an estimated 60% to 80% of cases. The treatment of Alzheimer's disease remains challenging. Many medicinal plants possessed beneficial therapeutic effect inAlzheimer’s disease and memory deficits, by their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, NF-κB inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition, anti-amyloidogenic, and anticholinesterase activities. In the current article, the medicinal plants with beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease and memory deficits were discussed. This article considers not only the therapeutic effect of medicinal plants in AD and memory deficits, but also discussed the mechanisms of their beneficial effects.
... Black seeds enhanced memory, attention and cognition and considered as a potential food supplement for the prevention of Alzheimer disease in elderly. The biochemical markers of cardiac, liver and kidney functions remained normal in Nigella sativa seed treatment group throughout the study period [175]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for an estimated 60% to 80% of cases. The treatment of Alzheimer's disease remains challenging. Many medicinal plants possessed beneficial therapeutic effect inAlzheimer’s disease and memory deficits, by their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, NF-κB inhibition, phosphodiesterase inhibition, anti-amyloidogenic, and anticholinesterase activities. In the current article, the medicinal plants with beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease and memory deficits were discussed. This article considers not only the therapeutic effect of medicinal plants in AD and memory deficits, but also discussed the mechanisms of their beneficial effects.
... Previous studies have indicated that N. sativa oil improves spatial cognitive functions in experimental rats (52,53). Furthermore, the beneficial effects of N. sativa on human cognition, memory, and attention have also been confirmed (54). As a cellular mechanism of memory, LTP in the hippocampus plays a key role in some forms of learning and memory (10). ...
Article
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Objectives: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that causes brain disturbances. Thymoquinone (TQ) has a wide spectrum of activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of TQ on spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury and hepatic encephalopathy. Materials and methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups randomly: 1) Control; 2) HE, received TAA (200 mg/kg); 3-5) Treated groups (HE+TQ5, HE+TQ10, and HE+TQ20). TQ (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (IP) for 12 consecutive days from day 18 to 29. Subsequently, spatial memory performance was evaluated by the Morris water maze paradigm and hippocampal LTP was recorded from the dentate gyrus (DG) region. Activity levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in the hippocampal tissue. Results: Data showed that the hippocampal content of MDA was increased while SOD activities were decreased in TAA-induced HE. TQ treatment significantly improved spatial memory and LTP. Moreover, TQ restored the levels of MDA and SOD activities in the hippocampal tissue in HE rats. Conclusion: Our data confirm that TQ could attenuate cognitive impairment and improve LTP deficit by modulating the oxidative stress parameters in this model of HE, which leads to impairment of spatial cognition and LTP deficit. Thus, these results suggest that TQ may be a promising agent with positive therapeutic effects against liver failure and HE defects.
... Both TQ and N. sativa extract treated PC12 cell lysate significantly show lesser DNA damage in terms of comet tail as compared to the control. There are reports which suggest that direct treatment of N. sativa seeds to oldaged rats increases their memory, attention, and cognition (Sayeed et al., 2013). A human trial with the treatment of N. sativa seeds to the adolescent male shows significantly reduce anxiety level along with learning capability as compared to the nontreated control male (Sayeed et al., 2014). ...
... NS also showed mnemonic or nootropic properties. Among the elderly, its commercially available capsules (500 mg, taken for nine weeks) were shown to increase executive functions, as shown by various memory-related tests (letter cancellation, logical memory, trail making, digit span, and Stroop tests) [75]. Taking 500 mg NS capsules daily for four weeks as a nutritional supplement reduces anxiety, improves memory, and stabilizes mood [43]. ...
Article
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Nigella sativa L. is one of the most extensively used traditional medicinal plants. This widely studied plant is known to display diverse pharmacological actions, including antimicrobial activities. Current literature has documented its multi-target mode of antimicrobial actions. N. sativa or its bioactive compounds, such as thymoquinone, can induce oxidative stress, cell apoptosis (by producing reactive oxygen species), increase membrane permeability, inhibit efflux pumps, and impose strong biocidal actions. Despite its well-documented antimicrobial efficacy in the experimental model, to the best of our knowledge its antimicrobial mechanisms highlighting the multi-targeting properties have yet to be well discussed. Is N. sativa or thymoquinone a valuable lead compound for therapeutic development for infectious diseases? Are N. sativa's bioactive compounds potential antimicrobial agents or able to overcome antimicrobial resistance? This review aims to discuss the antimicrobial pharmacology of N. sativa-based treatments. Additionally, it provides a holistic overview of the ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry of N. sativa.
... A randomized, placebocontrolled study with 40 healthy elderly investigated the safety profile after daily intake of 1 g N. sativa seed powder for 9 weeks. Results found no statistical changes in any of the biochemical markers of cardiac, liver, and kidney function [105]. In 70 patients with chronic renal disease, 2.5 ml/day N. sativa oil for 12 weeks was safe and effective in improving clinical and biochemical parameters of kidney function without adverse events [106]. ...
Chapter
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Usage of supplements has increased dramatically this last decade. From herbs to vitamins and mineral, consumers are interested in improving health, self-treatment and preventing diseases. Often using information from the internet to self-prescribe, many consumers believe that natural products are safe, while many others avoid using these products because of the lack of an approval process by health officials in many countries. Herbs and other supplements including proteins, vitamins and minerals provide significant benefits to health. The lack of guidance from health professionals however can be problematic. When combined with drugs and disease, herbs can interact and cause side effects. Some of the steps to evaluate the safe use of supplements is to know their mechanism of action, clinical effect, and consumers’ medical history. For example, an herb that induces liver enzymes will reduce the effect of a drug that is metabolized by these same enzymes. This can be life threating if the patient depends on this drug for normal function. Based on drug-herb interaction experience and literature review, this book chapter provides insights into safe use of echinacea, licorice, turmeric, and black seed in patients with heart disease, diabetes, and COVID-19.
... Thymoquinone-treated group was found to show a decrease in the level of Caspase-3, lactate dehydrogenase, Aβ-42, and cytochrome c gene expression as compared to the group treated with glutamate [181]. Likewise, in a placebocontrolled clinical trial, treatment with N. sativa seed capsule (500 mg), twice a day for a period of 9 weeks was found to enhance cognitive function, memory and attention in elderly participants [182]. Hence, N. sativa, especially its component, thymoquinone, could serve as a promising therapeutic for treating NDs. ...
Article
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are notorious neurodegenerative diseases amongst the general population. Being age-associated diseases, the prevalence of AD and PD is forecasted to rapidly escalate with the progressive aging population of the world. These diseases are complex and multifactorial. Among the different events, amyloid β peptide (Aβ) induced toxicity is a well‐established pathway of neuronal cell death which plays a vital function in AD. Glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter, acts a neurotoxin when present in excess at the synapses; this latter mechanism is termed as excitotoxicity. It is hypothesised that glutamate-induced excitotoxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of AD and PD. No cure for AD and PD is currently available and the currently approved drugs available to treat these diseases have limited effectiveness and pose adverse effects. Indeed, plants have been a major source for the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds for distinct pathological conditions. Diverse plant species employed for brain related disorders in the traditional medicine are being explored to determine them scientific rationale behind their uses. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of plants and their constituents have shown promise in reversing the (i) amyloid-β -related toxicity in AD models and (ii) glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in AD and PD models. This review summarizes information with regard to the phytochemistry, biological and cellular activities as well as clinical trials of several plant species in view to provide adequate scientific baseline information that could be used in drug development process, thereby providing effective leads for AD and PD.
... In the present study, treatment with TQ, an important component of Nigella Sativa, restored the learning and memory deficits caused by TAA in HE rats in the passive avoidance test. As it has been found in human and animal studies, Nigella Sativa has beneficial effects on cognition, memory, and attention (El-Marasy et al. 2012;Sayeed et al. 2013). Additionally, TQ injection significantly improved the firing rate of hippocampal DG neurons in HE animals; although the mechanism of the protective effect of TQ on learning and memory is not completely understood. ...
Article
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Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a prevalent complication of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by acute or chronic liver failure. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced HE in rats, and determine the consequential behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes. HE was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 200 mg/kg TAA once every 48 h for 14 consecutive days. Control groups received the normal saline containing 5 % DMSO. Thymoquinone (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered for ten consecutive days intraperitoneally (i.p.) after HE induction and it was continued until the end of the tests. Then, the passive avoidance memory, extracellular single unit, BBB permeability, and brain water content were evaluated. Moreover, hippocampal tissues were used for evaluation of oxidative stress index, inflammatory biomarkers, and histological parameters following HE. As result of the treatment, TQ improved passive avoidance memory, increased the average number of simultaneous firing of spikes/bins, improved the integrity of BBB, and decreased brain water content in the animal model of HE. Furthermore, the results indicated that treatment with TQ decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) but increased the levels of glutathione (GSH) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) of the surviving cells in the hippocampal tissues. This study demonstrates that TQ may have beneficial therapeutic effects on cognitive, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory, and histological complications of HE in rat.
... In an intervention study, the effect of N. sativa seed on memory, attention, and cognition was observed for 9 weeks in healthy elderly subjects (Bin Sayeed et al. 2013). The volunteers were asked to take N. sativa seed capsule (500 mg/day) and assessed for their neuropsychological state. ...
Chapter
Nigella sativa L. (black cumin, family Ranunculaceae) is an annual flowering plant. Its black trigonal seeds are the source of the active ingredients of the plant. It is native to South Asian and East Mediterranean countries, where it has been used traditionally and clinically in different parts of the world to treat many diseases. The use of N. sativa seed showed wide range worldwide in foods (preservative, spice, and flavoring agent), painkiller (headache, and back pain), some ailment treatments (diabetes, infection, inflammation, hypertension), pharmacology (antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antifungal, anticancer and male infertility). Black cumin seeds contain a substantial amount of vegetable protein, fiber, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins. The major bioactive component of black cumin seed is thymoquinone which found in the essential oil and provides wide range of therapeutic benefits (i.e., gastrointestinal protective effects). Fatty acid composition of the seed oil is reported mainly to contain linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitoleic and palmitic acids. The major sterols of seeds are β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and 5-avenasterol which known to lower cholesterol levels. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review based on the scientific reports about the health-promoting activities of N. sativa seed and to discuss the therapeutic properties and functionality of the seed that lead the appliactions of seeds in the pharmaceuticals and food industry.
... 43 Administration of N. sativa capsules (500 mg) twice daily for 9 weeks in 40 healthy volunteers increased attention, cognition and memory with respect to the placebo (500 mg) capsulestreated group. 44 Similarly, in the other clinical study the effects of N. sativa capsules (500 mg) on healthy adolescent 14 -17 years old (n=48) once daily for one month were evaluated. All healthy adolescent were managed for mood, cognition and anxiety with the relative tests in the start and the end of the study. ...
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which is characterized by typical symptoms including gradual progressive muscle rigidity, tremor and loss of motor skills. Although there is no definitive cure for PD, the extract of some medicinal plants and their ingredients have been suggested to relieve its symptoms and to prevent disability in patients. This review is focused on therapeutic effects of some medicinal plants and their ingredients on PD. The findings presented in this review were collected from experimental and clinical studies in databases including PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar until the end of May 2019. The keywords "neurotoxicity " or "Parkinson's disease" or "neuroprotective" and "Medicinal plants" and "Flavonoids" were searched. Based on the results of animal and clinical studies, the extract of medicinal plants and their components which are discussed in this review have neuro-protective effects against PD. These protective properties mainly are mediated through inhibition of dopamine metabolizing enzymes, reduction oxidant markers, increase of antioxidant agents and suppression of neuro-inflammation.
... N. sativa encourages modulation properties on memory mutilation, averts hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and increases memory consolidation stored information and decreases neuronal cell death of hippocampal CA1 region (Sayeed et al., 2013). Flumazenil is a particular antagonist of GABA A -BZD receptor complex (Brogden and Goa, 1988;File and Pellow, 1986). ...
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N. sativa (N. sativa) has been used since ancient times, when a scientific concept about the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human illnesses and alleviation of their sufferings was yet to be developed. It has a strong religious significance as it is mentioned in the religious books of Islam and Christianity. In addition to its historical and religious significance, it is also mentioned in ancient medicine. It is widely used in traditional systems of medicine for a number of diseases including asthma, fever, bronchitis, cough, chest congestion, dizziness, paralysis, chronic headache, back pain and inflammation. The importance of this plant led the scientific community to carry out extensive phytochemical and biological investigations on N. sativa. Pharmacological studies on N. sativa have confirmed its antidiabetic, antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuro-protective, gastroprotective, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and bronchodilator activity. The present review is an effort to explore the reported chemical composition and pharmacological activity of this plant. It will help as a reference for scientists, researchers, and other health professionals who are working with this plant and who need up to date knowledge about it.
... N. sativa encourages modulation properties on memory mutilation, averts hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and increases memory consolidation stored information and decreases neuronal cell death of hippocampal CA1 region (Sayeed et al., 2013). Flumazenil is a particular antagonist of GABA A -BZD receptor complex (Brogden and Goa, 1988;File and Pellow, 1986). ...
Article
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been used since ancient times, when a scientific concept about the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human illnesses and alleviation of their sufferings was yet to be developed. It has a strong religious significance as it is mentioned in the religious books of Islam and Christianity. In addition to its historical and religious significance, it is also mentioned in ancient medicine. It is widely used in traditional systems of medicine for a number of diseases including asthma, fever, bronchitis, cough, chest congestion, dizziness, paralysis, chronic headache, back pain and inflammation. The importance of this plant led the scientific community to carry out extensive phytochemical and biological investigations on N. sativa. Pharmacological studies on N. sativa have confirmed its antidiabetic, antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuro-protective, gastroprotective, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and bronchodilator activity. The present review is an effort to explore the reported chemical composition and pharmacological activity of this plant. It will help as a reference for scientists, researchers, and other health professionals who are working with this plant and who need up to date knowledge about it
... TQ the natural main bioactive component of NS has been found to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as it acts as a free radical scavenger augmented by many factors, such as its quinone structure's redox properties and its ability to cross biological barriers (Badary et al., 2003;Ragheb et al., 2009). Moreover, the beneficial effect of NS on cognition, attention and memory was documented by other researches (Sayeed et al., 2013). Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpenoid and is the major ingredient of rose oil and palmarosa oil and the main component of ginger, lemon, lime, lavender, nutmeg, orange and rose essential oil. ...
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Background Cisplatin (CP) is a common antineoplastic agent widely used to treat a broad spectrum of cancers. However, its usage for cancer treatment was restricted due to various side effects such as neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and ototoxicity. Neurotoxicity in patients who have undergone a complete course of chemotherapy is clinically evident. CP administration caused problems in rats with memory and learning. Methods The effect of combination of CP with either thymoquinone (TQ) or geraniol (Ger) on cell viability of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) was detected by MTT assay. Forty male Wistar albino rats, healthy and adult, were divided into four groups: normal control, CP-treated group, CP + TQ-treated group and CP + Ger-treated group. Results Our results demonstrated that prophylactic treatment with either TQ or Ger plus CP enhanced the anticancer effect of CP in MCF-7 cell line. In vivo study showed that CP-treated rats had higher depressives like behavior in open field and Morris water maze test while prophylactic treatment with either TQ or Ger and CP significantly enhanced the performance of depressive-like behavior. Also, histopathological evaluation of brain tissues proved the neurotoxic effect of CP and the possible protective activity of either TQ or Ger. Conclusion The findings of the present work revealed that TQ or Ger along with CP may enhance the antitumor effect of CP. Also, spontaneous administration of CP with either TQ or Ger as natural antioxidants may prevent CP-induced neurotoxicity in rats through diminishing the memory and learning impairment.
... In clinical investigations on healthy volunteers, it has been shown that NS enhanced memory and attention (Bin Sayeed et al., 2013), and stabilized mood, decreased anxiety and modulated cognition positively when compared to patients treated with placebo (Bin Sayeed et al., 2014). Despite clinical data are very limited, a large number of scientific evidences have been collected (Figure 9.1). ...
... asthma [31,32]. Moreover, nigella sativa was reported to enhance memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers [33]. ...
... asthma [31,32]. Moreover, NS was reported to enhance memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers [33]. ...
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Nigella sativa, anthemis hyaline and natural honey are effective for COVID-19 treatment
... asthma [31,32]. Moreover, nigella sativa was reported to enhance memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers [33]. ...
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Abstract With the continuously expanding terrible pandemic of COVID-19 infection, globally increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients and contacts progressively jump to heavy burdens beyond capabilities. Developing and poor countries may face humanity disasters in the next few days unless urgent measures are rapidly performed. Standard anti-COVID-19 treatment should inhibit COVID-19 replication, repair virus-induced tissue damage and enhance patients' immunity. Unfortunately, such criteria are still lacking in current treatments resulting in relatively high viral infectivity, morbidity and mortality. Based on previous prophetic medicine research experience and the literature, we introduce TaibUVID therapy as a novel medicinal nutrition formulation. TaibUVID stands for Taibah University anti-COVID-19 treatment as a novel evidence-based approach (using natural products) for treating COVID-19 patients. A single TaibUVID dose includes: 1 large spoonful of nigella sativa oil (or 2 gram nigella sativa seeds) mixed with 1 gram of grinded anthemis hyaline and 1 large spoonful of natural honey. This mixture is to be chewed in the mouth and swallowed orally for both COVID-19 contacts and patients. We adjusted dosing regimen and period of treatment into three clinical levels including contacts or prophylaxis, mild cases and severe case. We also introduce novel nigella sativa oil (or nigella sativa decoction) nebulization for local treatment of pneumonia or bronchopneumonia that is faced in severe COVID-19 cases. The wonderful report by Ulasli et al. (Ulasli et al. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:1703-11) deserves a lot of interest where nigella sativa and Anthemis hyalina (chamomile) were confirmed to inhibit corona virus replication maximally. In addition, nigella sativa enhances immunity, exerts tissue protective effects and effectively treats co-morbidities. Oral honey exerts potent antiviral effects, enhances immunity and exerts tissue protective effects. Our suggested TaibUVID is a promising evidencebased approach to rescue lives, decrease fatalities and put a rapid end to COVID-19 pandemic.
... Some of therapeutic agents such as AChE inhibitors (AChEIs) can increase the memory and are a promising approach to improve cognitive deficits. A variety of synthetic and natural sources have been studied to achieve the novel AChEIs agents (Bin Sayeed et al., 2013Sayeed et al., , 2014Chaiyana et al., 2013;Mandegary et al., 2014b). ...
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Objective: Zataria multiflora (Zm) has been proposed for memory enhancing in Persian traditional medicine; but to now, no study has been carried out in this field yet. The aim of this research was to study the plant effect on spatial memory in scopolamine-induced amnesia and investigate in vivo anticholinesterase effect of Zm. Material and methods: Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with methanol and standardized on the basis of rutin content. Male rats received three doses of Zm extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (ip) for 7 days) and 30 min after the latest dose, scopolamine (1 mg/kg) was administered to animals. Learning capacity and spatial memory were studied using morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance test (PAT) methods. Anticholinesterase activity was studied using Ellman's method. Physostigmine (0.3 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg) were used as positive controls. Results: All doses of Zm extract significantly decreased the distance and time spent to find the platform in MWM and increased the time latency in PAT test. In both MWM and PAT tests, the highest effect of Zm was observed at 200 mg/kg which was in accordance with AChE inhibitory effect of the plant. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that Zm has anti-amnesic effect and might improve memory deficit through anticholinesterase activity.
... Moreover, many recent studies have described the following neuropharmacological properties of TQ, i.e. anticonvulsant [16], antinociceptive [17], anxiolytic and antidepressant [18], and antipsychotic potential [19]. Also, TQ countered memory impairments and enhanced cognitive functioning [20] and alleviated neuropathy in an experimental diabetic model [21]. ...
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Lead (Pb) toxicity is known to be a chief environmental health issue, especially for pregnant women and young children. Today, the use of medicinal herbs in the treatment of many diseases and different toxic agents has become highly accepted due to their effectiveness and lower costs. Thymoquinone (TQ), which is extracted from Nigella sativa seeds, is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. This study was designed to explore the optional protectivity of TQ against maternal and fetal oxidative stress and brain damage induced by Pb administration. Pregnant rats were distributed into seven groups: control group, TQ group, DMSO group, two groups Pb-treated (160 and 320 ppm), and two groups Pb-treated (160 and 320 ppm) co-treated with TQ. Administration started from gestation day 1 (GD1) to day 20 (GD20) through oral gavage once daily. Lead administration caused a dose-dependent toxicity for both mothers and fetuses. Also, the histopathological assessment of the brains from Pb-treated groups showed marked alterations. Co-treatment of with TQ and Pb caused a significant decrease in Pb levels as compared with those treated with Pb alone and amelioration of histopathological changes in the brains. It was concluded that co-treatment of TQ along with gestational Pb exposure could mitigate the effects against Pb-induced maternal and fetal neurotoxicity.
... Nigella sativa (synonyms: Nigella cretica Mill) belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, is an annual flowering plant, which is native to south and southwest Asia. It is also commonly known as black seed or black cumin and is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of array of human diseases such as asthma [276], diarrhea, dyslipidemia [277], allergic rhinitis [278], peptic ulcer [279], acutetonsillo-pharyngitis [280], cognitive, attention and memory impairments [281], epilepsy [282], diabetes [283] and opioid dependence [284]. Nigella sativa seed oil is abundantly rich in conjugated linoleic (18:2) acid, thymoquinone, nigellone (dithymoquinone), melanthin, nigilline, damascenine, and tannins [285], although melanthin and nigelline are toxic and paralytic, in high doses, respectively. ...
Book
Phytotherapy has the potential to give patients long term benefits with less or no side effects. This is the second volume of the series. This volume brings 11 chapters that cover updates on general phytotherapy, traditional Chinese medicine as well as information on anti-diabetic and antihypertensive herbs (including Senna spp., Curcumin, Carum carvi, Premna serratifolia, Eugenia jambolana and more). The monographs presented within this volume give several details necessary for pharmacopoeial data for quality assurance of pharmaceutical products derived from these specific plant sources: botanical features, distribution, identity tests, purity requirements, chemical assays, active or major chemical constituents, clinical applications, pharmacology, contraindications, warnings, precautions, potential adverse reactions, and posology. Hence academic and professional pharmacologists or clinicians will find comprehensive information on a variety of therapeutic agents along with guidelines for applying them in practical phytotherapy of diabetes and hypertension.
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Context: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the biggest causes of public health problems today, especially in older, where women have a greater risk of developing AD than men. However, the current AD therapy has not been satisfactory. Nigella sativa(NS) has bioactive compounds of flavonoid compounds and estrogenic effects that could be alternative medicine. Aims: To evaluate an extract of N. sativa on improving memory function through reducing GSK3β activation and Aβ42/40 ratio in a model of AD in rats. Methods: This research was an experimental study with the post-test-only group design using 24 Wistar rats divided into eight groups. Conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.018-0.0036 mg/day and NS 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW were administered orally two weeks before intraperitoneal AlCl3 induction, then continued for up to 8 weeks. In the last five days of the study, the Morris water maze memory test was performed to analyze the expression of amyloid β (Ab), neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and Aβ42/40 ratio. Results: There were significant differences in the memory test (p = 0.000), the expression Aβ40 (p = 0.000), Aβ42 (p = 0.000), NFT (p = 0.000) and GSK3β levels (p = 0.000). The lowest expression of Aβ40 in the NS100 group, Aβ42 in the NS400, NFT in the CEE group, and GSK3β levels in the NS100 group. Administration of NS increased the plasma ratio of Ab42/40 with the highest mean in the CEE group (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The administration of NS extract affected improving memory function by decreasing the expression of Aβ, NFT, GSK3β in ovariectomized Wistar rats supplemented with AlCl3.
Article
This study was performed to assess the effect of nigella supplementation on blood pressure levels among the adult population. A comprehensive search was carried out through PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library by using relevant keywords to find out the randomized clinical trials evaluating the effect of nigella administration on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). A random-effect model was applied to achieve the overall effect size. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to explore the source of heterogeneity and the effects of the possible moderators. Of the twenty-two trials that were eligible for the present study, seventeen studies consisting of 1048 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that nigella administration could significantly reduce both SBP (−4.58 mmHg; 95%CI: −6.22, −2.94) and DBP (−3.08 mmHg; 95%CI: −4.62, −1.55). Subgroup analysis did not show any superiority between subgroups of variables. Dose-response analysis detected a nonlinear association between dose and duration of administration and change in blood pressure outcomes, highlighting that maximum SBP and DBP reduction was experienced at 2000 mg/day and 8 weeks of nigella administration, respectively. The present study suggests that nigella supplementation can be beneficial for managing blood pressure.
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Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is characterized by delayed or absent puberty and infertility due to abnormally low levels of gonadotropic hormones and sex steroids. The most common reason for its development is Kallmann syndrome - a rare congenital disorder resulting from impaired migration of GnRH-secreting neurons from the olfactory epithelium to the hypothalamus. It is associated with hyposmia and anosmia. In 1942 Klinefelter described 9 men with gynecomastia, sparse facial and body hair, small testes and inability to produce sperm. In 1959 the additional X chromosome was discovered - genotype 47, XXY, characteristic of the complete and most common form of Klinefelter syndrome. The classic phenotype includes low serum testosterone, high LH and FSH levels. We present a rare clinical case of an 18-year-old boy with disomy X- 47, XXY, hormonal constellation for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, atypical for Klinefelter syndrome, and olfactory defect - Kallmann syndrome. Key words: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Kallmann syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome
Article
At present, people and patients worldwide are relying on the medicinal plant as a therapeutic agent over pharmaceuticals because the medicinal plant is considered safer, especially for chronic disorders. Several medicinal plants and their components are being researched and explored for their possible therapeutic contribution to CNS disorders. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one such molecule. Thymoquinone, one of the constituents of Plant Nigella Sativa, is effective against several neurodegenerative diseases like; Alzheimer's, Depression, Encephalomyelitis, Epilepsy, Ischemia, Parkinson's, and Traumatic. This review article presents the neuropharmacological potential of TQ's, their challenges, and delivery prospects, explicitly focusing on neurological disorders along with their chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. Since TQ has some pharmacokinetic challenges, scientists have focused on novel formulations and delivery systems to enhance bioavailability and ultimately increase its therapeutic value. In the present work, the role of nanotechnology in neurodegenerative disease and how it improves bioavailability and delivery of a drug to the site of action has been discussed. There are a few limitations for developing novel drug formulation, including solubility, pH, and compatibility of nanomaterials. Since here we are targeting CNS disorders, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) becomes an additional challenge Hence, the review summarized the novel aspects of delivery and biocompatible nanoparticles-based approaches for targeted drug delivery into CNS, enhancing TQ bioavailability and its neurotherapeutic effects.
Article
Background and purpose Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the metabolic disturbances associated with liver cell inflammation. Nigella sativa (N.sativa) is a widely used medicinal plant known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hepato-protective properties. This study aimed to assess the effect of supplementation of N.sativa oil on plasma levels of adiponectin, leptin, and blood pressure (BP) in patients diagnosed with NAFLD. Materials and methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 44 NAFLD patients. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 22/group); the experimental group received 1000 mg of N.sativa oil per day, while the control group received a placebo for eight weeks. The primary outcome measures were serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured at the baseline and the end of the intervention. Results After eight weeks of supplementation with N.sativa oil, no statistically significant differences were found in serum levels of adiponectin (p = 0.40), leptin (p = 0.89), systolic BP (p = 0.13), and diastolic BP (p = 0.09) between the two groups. Furthermore, after supplementation with N.sativa, no significant changes were observed in leptin (p = 0.07), adiponectin (p = 0.13), systolic BP (p = 0.82), and diastolic BP (p = 0.38) within the two groups. Conclusion These results indicate that administration of N.sativa oil 1000 mg/day for 8 weeks has no favorable effect on cardiometabolic measures in NAFLD patients. Further studies with higher dosage over a longer period are needed to investigate whether this effect is dose- and time-dependent.
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BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia with a global prevalence of 0.33–0.75% and one of the top 15 causes of disability. The etiology underlying this disease is still controversial. One of the causes is the Vulnerability Stress-Schizophrenia Inflammatory Model which shows an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, one of which is Interleukin-6 (IL-6). AIM: It is hoped that through the adjuvant anti-inflammatory effect of black seed or Nigella sativa can improve the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia and reduce levels of Serum IL-6 as a marker of therapeutic efficacy, as well as observing the effect of treatment on liver function. METHODS: The present study was conducted 22 schizophrenic patients hospitalized at the psychiatric hospital (Rumah Sakit Khusus Daerah) of South Sulawesi aged 20–45 years and received risperidone 4 mg/day therapy. Patients were divided into two groups, the control and treatment groups received N. sativa 1000 mg/d for 4 weeks. Each group was measured for baseline and week 4 clinical symptoms of schizophrenia with Positive and Negative Symptom of Schizophrenia (PANSS) and serum IL-6 levels. The analysis also measured serum IL-6 levels in 14 healthy people by assessing the side effects of N. sativa adjuvants by measuring liver function enzymes of Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT). RESULTS: Serum IL-6 levels of schizophrenic patients were higher than healthy controls. Administration of adjuvant N. sativa 1000 mg for 4 weeks significantly p < 0.001 improved PANSS value, decreased serum IL-6 levels 2.5 times faster in the treatment group and did not give a significant change in SGOT and SGPT values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that N. sativa may consider as an adjuvant therapy to improve clinical symptoms of schizophrenia and reduce levels of IL-6 was faster than control group and is safe for liver function.
Article
Dyslipidemia is the major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery disease (PAD). It is characterized by higher plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), apolipoprotein B (apoB), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c), triglycerides (TGs) and low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c). Herbal medicines are preferred by many across the globe particularly to manage chronic conditions such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and plenty of others. Nigella sativa (Black seeds or Black cumin seeds) is a miracle herb employed within the management of many sicknesses for centuries. Hence, this review focuses on the ameliorative effects of N. sativa on the plasma lipid concentrations of human subjects. Numerous randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and different clinical studies demonstrated that N. sativa possess potential anti-dyslipidemic activity. The patients with dyslipidemia may well be benefited by using N. sativa along with healthy lifestyle changes and statin and other antihyperlipidemic medications as adjuvant therapy if needed.
Chapter
Black seed (Nigella sativa) is a functional food generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as a spice, natural seasoning, or flavoring, according to the US FDA. It has been around for thousands of years; archeological sites in Egypt provide evidence of human use of black seed from as far back as the 14th century BCE. It can be used for asthma, cough, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, diarrhea, dysentery, abdominal pain, renal calculi, headache, dermatological problems, back pain, and infections. This chapter examines some of the scientific research conducted on black seed, both alone and in combination formulas, for treating numerous health conditions. It summarizes results from several human studies of the herb’s use in treating oral and dental, pulmonary, ENT, cardiovascular, cardiometabolic, gastrointestinal, renal, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychiatric disorders as well as disorders of the breasts and ovaries, among others. Finally, the chapter presents a list of black seed’s active constituents, different Commonly Used Preparations and Dosage, and a section on “Safety and Precaution” that examines side effects, toxicity, and disease and drug interactions.
Chapter
Nigella sativa plant from Ranunculaceae family has been commonly used as traditional remedies by the ancient world such as Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians. The plant is also known black seed or black cumin. The plant is highly valued by Muslims all over the world as it has been mentioned by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad that the black seed has the capability of curing all diseases except death. The purpose of this chapter is to provide updated and categorized information on the traditional uses, chemical composition, biological activities, bioavailability, safety, toxicity, and clinical trials of N. sativa in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Every part of this plant contains a valuable medicinal feature. It contains different types of active phytoconstituents like carbohydrates, volatiles, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, glycoside, coumarins, fixed oils, proteins, vitamins, and minerals are present. The use of its seeds, whole plant, and oil is common for treatment of many diseases like hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, cardioprotective, analgesic, neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. N. sativa has potential for the treatment of a wide range of diseases and has been well studied for its phytochemical properties. However, further scientific studies are needed to explore mechanisms of actions, adverse effects of the extracts, the effective therapeutic dose, and the therapeutic effect of major secondary metabolites.
Chapter
Due to the lack of prophylactic vaccines and effective treatment strategies against numerous public health conditions, viral infections remain a serious threat to global public health and socioeconomic development. The current ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, against which there is no prophylactic vaccine or licensed antiviral agents, underscores the need to continuously identify novel/effective treatment strategies against these infectious agents. Plants and plant-derived compounds have immensely contributed to the fight against numerous health conditions by providing bioactives that possess potent antimicrobial attributes, including antiviral activities. One such plant that has gathered much interest, due to its multiple medicinal properties, is the Nigella sativa plant, a flowering plant belonging to the family Ranunculacea, which is native to various regions of the world. In this chapter, we discuss the antiviral activities of N. sativa against critical viral pathogens, focusing more on the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the etiologic agent of the current unparalleled coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
Article
Nigella is a small genus of the family Ranunculaceae, which includes some popular species due to their culinary and medicinal properties, especially in Eastern Europe, Middle East, Western, and Central Asia. Therefore, this review covers the traditional uses and phytochemical composition of Nigella and, in particular, Nigella sativa. The pharmacological studies reported in vitro, in vivo, and in humans have also been reviewed. One of the main strength of the use of Nigella is that the seeds are rich in the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and provide an extra-source of dietary phytochemicals, including the bioactive thymoquinone, and characteristics saponins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Among Nigella species, N. sativa L. is the most studied plant from the genus. Due to the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties, the seed and seed oil from this plant can be considered as good candidates to formulate functional ingredients on the basis of folklore and scientific knowledge. Nonetheless, the main limations are that more studies, especially, clinical trials are required to standardize the results, e.g. to establish active molecules, dosage, chemical profile, long-term effects and impact of cooking/incorporation into foods.
Article
Background Many researches papers have demonstrated that Nigella has neurotropic properties, and it has also been shown that Nigella seeds have several activities, such as analgesic, antiepileptic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, and psychostimulant activities. Methods Databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar were used. Results : The orientation towards this type of research has become more and more accentuated to enhance and detail the pharmacological properties of medicinal aromatic plants. Conclusion The present review consists in revealing and combining the experimental research studies carried out to demonstrate the central effects of nigella.
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Nigella sativa (commonly known as black seed or black cumin), from the family Ranunculaceae, is a plant that grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This narrative review discusses the toxicological profile reported by short-to long-term studies that examined different extracts and oils of N. sativa seeds. Scientific databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using appropriate keywords. LD 50 for administered N. sativa seed fixed oil varied from 28.8 mL/kg to 3,371 mg/kg in mice, while 21 g/kg of aqueous, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. sativa did not lead to any mortality. Subacute toxicity evaluations indicated that aqueous, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. sativa at doses as high as 6 g/kg do not produce toxicity. Investigation of chronic toxicity found that 2 mL/kg of N. sativa fixed oil is slightly toxic. Cytotoxicity studies indicated that N. sativa chloroform and petroleum ether extracts are more cytotoxic than its other extracts. Although studies that assessed N. sativa toxicity generally introduced it as a safe medicinal herb, to draw a more definitive conclusion on its safety, more detailed studies must be conducted.
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Glutamate, as an essential neurotransmitter, has been thought to have different roles in the central nervous system (CNS), including nerve regeneration, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis. Excessive glutamate causes an up-regulation of the multiple signaling pathways, including phosphoinositide-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein, mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and autophagy that are involved in neurodegenerative diseases pathophysiology. There are numerous findings on curcumin, astaxanthin, thymoquinone, and berberine, as natural products, which have outstanding effects in cell signaling far beyond their anti-oxidant activity, considering as a potential therapeutic target for glutamate excitotoxicity. Herein, we address the role of glutamate as a potential target in neurodegenerative diseases and discuss the protective effects of certain phytochemicals on glutamateinduced neurotoxicity.
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The aim of this systematic review and meta‐analysis was to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on glycemic control, lipid profiles, and biomarkers of inflammatory and oxidative stress. Two independent authors systematically examined online databases consisting of, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until October 30, 2019. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of the studied trials. The heterogeneity among the included studies were assessed using the Cochrane's Q test and I‐square (I²) statistic. Data were pooled using a random‐effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size. A total of 50 trials were included in this meta‐analysis. We found a significant reduction in total cholesterol (WMD: −16.80; 95% CI: −21.04, −12.55), triglycerides (WMD: −15.73; 95% CI: −20.77, −10.69), LDL‐cholesterol (WMD: −18.45; 95% CI: −22.44, −14.94) and VLDL‐cholesterol (WMD: −3.72; 95% CI: −7.27, −0.18) following supplementation with N. sativa. In addition, there was significant reductive effect observed with N. sativa on fasting glucose (WMD: −15.18; 95% CI: −19.82, −10.55) and HbA1C levels (WMD: −0.45; 95% CI: −0.66, −0.23). Effects of N. sativa on CRP (WMD: −3.61; 95% CI: −9.23, 2.01), TNF‐α (WMD: −1.18; 95% CI: −3.23, 0.86), TAC (WMD: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.63), and MDA levels (WMD: −0.95; 95% CI: −2.18, 0.27) were insignificant. This meta‐analysis demonstrated the beneficial effects of N. sativa on fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total‐, VLDL‐, LDL‐cholesterol levels.
Chapter
Nigella sativa (N. sativa), known as black seed, is native to South and Southwest Asia. N. sativa contains fixed oil that is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), saponins (α-hederin), and volatile oil. N. sativa and the major constituent, thymoquinone (TQ), have been widely used in traditional medicinal applications. The present review focuses on dermatological and cosmeceutical studies of N. sativa and TQ. Regarding to the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, antioxidant, antineoplastic, antimicrobial, and other activities, N. sativa and TQ may be effective therapeutic agents in various infectious and noninfectious skin conditions including different types of allergy, autoimmunity, skin inflammations and wounds, cancer, and vitiligo.
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In this meta-analysis, data from 20 studies comparing younger and older adults on the Stroop interference effect, contained in 15 articles, were analyzed. No significant difference was found in the Stroop interference effect, expressed as mean standardized difference, between the 2 age groups (for younger adults: d = 2.04; for older adults: d = 2.17). Moderator variables were present, but these did not produce age differences. Brinley analysis showed that a single regression line with a slowing factor of 1.9 described the data well (R2 = .83) and confirmed that no Age x Condition interaction was present in the data. Likewise, no Age x Condition interaction was found when the data were fitted to the information loss model; the age ratio of decay rates was estimated to be 1.4. Consequently, the apparent age-sensitivity of the Stroop interference effect appears to be merely an artifact of general slowing.
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Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. The histopathological changes in AD include neuronal cell death, formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. There is also evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress (e.g., protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, DNA oxidation and glycoxidation) during the course of the disease. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are present in amyloid plaques in AD, and its extracellular accumulation may be caused by an accelerated oxidation of glycated proteins. AGEs participate in neuronal death causing direct (chemical) and indirect (cellular) free radical production and consequently increase oxidative stress. The development of drugs for the treatment of AD that breaks the vicious cycles of oxidative stress and neurodegeneration offer new opportunities. These approaches include AGE-inhibitors, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory substances, which prevent free radical production.
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To determine whether Nigella sativa prevents hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (Group 1), control (Group 2), and Nigella sativa (NS) treatment group (Group 3). All rats underwent hepatic ischemia for 45 min followed by 60 min period of reperfusion. Rats were intraperitoneally infused with only 0.9% saline solution in group 2. Rats in group 3 received NS (0.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally, before ischemia and before reperfusion. Blood samples and liver tissues were harvested from the rats, and then the rats were sacrificed. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), total oxidative status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in hepatic tissue were measured. Also liver tissue histopathology was evaluated by light microscopy. The levels of liver enzymes in group 3 were significantly lower than those in the group 2. TAC in liver tissue was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 2. TOS, OSI and MPO in hepatic tissue were significantly lower in group 3 than the group 2. Histological tissue damage was milder in the NS treatment group than that in the control group. Our results suggest that Nigella sativa treatment protects the rat liver against to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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The literature on interference in the Stroop Color–Word Task, covering over 50 years and some 400 studies, is organized and reviewed. In so doing, a set of 18 reliable empirical findings is isolated that must be captured by any successful theory of the Stroop effect. Existing theoretical positions are summarized and evaluated in view of this critical evidence and the 2 major candidate theories—relative speed of processing and automaticity of reading—are found to be wanting. It is concluded that recent theories placing the explanatory weight on parallel processing of the irrelevant and the relevant dimensions are likely to be more successful than are earlier theories attempting to locate a single bottleneck in attention.
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The Stroop test comes in different variations, but all of them index performance on a basic task, like color or picture naming, when it is carried out by itself versus when it is performed in the presence of conflicting or incongruent stimuli. The present study examined the hypothesis that Stroop interference--the cost of performing one task in the presence of another--is a general as opposed to a test-specific index of cognitive flexibility. A second goal was to examine changes in Stroop test performance in old age. A group of 129 healthy older adults (> or = 65 years of age) were assessed on the color- and picture-word Stroop test, as well as on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Subjects' performance on each card of both Stroop tests, and various derived (differences and ratios) scores, were used to prepare age-group norms. The use of the norms is illustrated with findings from previous studies. Regression analyses showed age-changes in several aspects of Stroop test performance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, and causal modeling showed an age effect on Stroop interference only on the picture-word test but not on the color-word test. Exploratory factor analysis of the Stroop data and the neuropsychological test data revealed different factor loadings for the color- and picture-word test. The combined findings suggest that the color- and picture-word Stroop test measure different cognitive functions, at least in old age.
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The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animal models. The extract has an anti-inflammatory effect demonstrated by its inhibitory effects on Carrageenan induced paw edema. It also produced significant increase in the hot plate reaction time in mice indicating analgesic effect. However, N. sativa crude suspension had no effect on yeast induced pyrexia. This study therefore, supports its use in folk medicine both as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent and calls for further investigations to elucidate its mechanism of action.
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The essential oil of black cumin seeds, Nigella sativa L., was tested for a possible antioxidant activity. A rapid evaluation for antioxidants, using two TLC screening methods, showed that thymoquinone and the components carvacrol, t-anethole and 4-terpineol demonstrated respectable radical scavenging property. These four constituents and the essential oil possessed variable antioxidant activity when tested in the diphenylpicrylhydracyl assay for non-specific hydrogen atom or electron donating activity. They were also effective ·OH radical scavenging agents in the assay for non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in liposomes and the deoxyribose degradation assay.
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Nigella sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering angiosperm that originated in the Mediterranean region but has been cultivated in Asia, Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. This plant is known as; Black cumin, Fennel Flower, Roman Coriander, Nutmeg Flower, Black seed, Black Caraway, Damascena, Devil in-the-bush, Wild Onion Seed. The perfect balance in the body the omega 6 and omega 3 should be in a ratio of 3:1 respectively. N. sativa (Black Seed) oil help maintain this ratio through the production of Prostoglandin E1. Studies have determined this is probably brought about by the component thymoquinone (contained in N. sativa oil). The N. sativa seed itself contains numerous esters of structurally unusual unsaturated fatty acids and the chemical composition is very rich and diverse. Apart from its active ingredients, crystalline nigellone, it contains 15 amino acids (including eight of the nine essential ones carbohydrates, fatty acids including linolenic and oleic, volatile oils, alkaloids and dietary fibre, as well as minerals such as calcium, iron, sodium and potassium. It has been traditionally used to treat a variety of ailments and conditions related to respiratory health, stomach and intestinal complaints, kidney and liver function, circulatory and immune system support and to improve health in general. These results are effective enough to consider the oil being used in the treatment of AIDS and the findings of this paper caught the attention of the Archives of AIDS where they were duly published. These results also shed light on why N. sativa oil has been shown to be so effective in helping treat immune-related disorders including Psoriasis and Cancer. Traditionally, there is a common Islamic belief that blackseed is a panacea for all ailments, but cannot prevent aging or death.
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Maternal diabetes is responsible for many types of embryonic defects. Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of disturbed embryogenesis in diabetic pregnancies. The Nigella sativa seeds are used in folk medicine all over the world for treating many diseases. Regarding to antioxidant properties of Nigella Sativa, it was of interest to determine whether Nigella sativa extract has any effect on spinal cord neuroepithelium of diabetic rats' embryos. Rats were distributed to 4 groups, two diabetic and two control groups. Diabetes was induced by intrapritoneal injection of STZ. Rats were mated overnight and treatment with Nigella sativa extract or vehicle from 1 to day 17 of gestation at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight by gastric gavages. On the 17 th day of gestation, rats were sacrificed. In offspring of vehicle-treated diabetic rats, a significantly decreased means (CRL) observed, in comparison with offspring of nondiabetic rats. Treatment with Nigella sativa slightly increased but did not normalize CRL compared with control group. No abnormal changes in histology of neural tube were seen in evaluation of neural tube in all groups. Micrograph of diabetic rats treated with vehicle showed some abnormal projection on the apical surface of neuroepithelial cells. These changes were not seen in other groups. It seems Nigella sativa has a protective effect against diabetic embryopathy and fetal loss.
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The four-sources model of human abilities posits that individual differences in performance on cognitive tasks are due to differences in working-memory capacity, information-processing speed, the breadth of declarative knowledge, and the breadth of procedural knowledge. To test this model, 310 civilian volunteers were administered a 25-test battery, consisting of verbal, quantitative, and spatial tasks designed to reflect each of the four sources. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the variance-covariance matrix of test scores to test the four-sources model and plausible alternatives. The best-fitting model was one that included both the four-sources factors and three content factors. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical models fit about equally well. From additional data on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, latent-factor correlations suggested that working-memory capacity overlapped considerably with psychometric general ability (r = .99) and breadth of declarative knowledge overlapped with psychometric verbal ability (r = .97), but information-processing speed was distinct from psychometric perceptual speed (r = .16).
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( This reprinted article originally appeared in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1935, Vol 18, 643–662. The following abstract of the original article appeared in PA, Vol 10:1863.) In this study pairs of conflicting stimuli, both being inherent aspects of the same symbols, were presented simultaneously (a name of one color printed in the ink of another color—a word stimulus and a color stimulus). The difference in time for reading the words printed in colors and the same words printed in black is the measure of the interference of color stimuli on reading words. The difference in the time for naming the colors in which the words are printed and the same colors printed in squares is the measure of the interference of conflicting word stimuli on naming colors. The interference of conflicting color stimuli on the time for reading 100 words (each word naming a color unlike the ink-color of its print) caused an increase of 2.3 sec or 5.6% over the normal time for reading the same words printed in black. This increase is not reliable, but the interference of conflicting word stimuli on the time for naming 100 colors (each color being the print of a word which names another color) caused an increase of 47.0 sec or 74.3% of the normal time for naming colors printed in squares.… (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Non-conventional seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds and its crude or essential oils have been widely used in traditional nutritional and medicinal applications. Consequently, black cumin has been extensively studied for its nutritional value and biological activities. The black cumin oilseed had been shown to be anticancer, antidiabetic, antiradical and immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive and renal protective. Moreover, black seeds have many antioxidative properties and activities. In consideration of potential utilisation, detailed knowledge on the composition of black cumin oilseed is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which black cumin can be put gives this oilseed great industrial importance. This review summarises the nutritional value, functional properties and nutraceutical applications of black cumin (N. sativa L.) oilseeds.
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Background: Oxygen-induced lung injury is believed to lead to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. We have evaluated the beneficial effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on rats with hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Methods: Thirty newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups as hyperoxia (95% O(2)), hyperoxia+NSO and control (21% O(2)). Pups in the hyperoxia+NSO group were administered intraperitoneal NSO at a dose of 4ml/kg daily during the study period. Histopathologic, immunochemical, and biochemical evaluations (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], malonaldehyde [MDA] and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were performed. Results: In the histopathologic and immunochemical evaluation, severity of lung damage was significantly lower in the hyperoxia+NOS group (P<.05). Tissue GSH-Px and SOD levels were significantly preserved, and MDA, MPO levels were significantly lower in the hyperoxia+NSO group (P<.05). Conclusion: NSO significantly reduced the severity of lung damage due to hyperoxia.
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Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in epileptic patients. It has been shown that not only epilepsy but also antiepileptic drugs could induce cognitive impairment. Thus, there is an urgent need for drugs that can suppress seizures without causing cognitive deficit. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, and many antioxidants have an antiepileptic property. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a catechin polyphenols component, is found to be an effective antioxidant. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of EGCG against seizures, seizure-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 35 mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) once every alternate day for 13 injections. EGCG was administered daily in two doses (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg) intraperitoneally along with alternate-day PTZ. Morris water maze test was carried out 24h after the last injection of PTZ, and the oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde and glutathione) were assessed after the completion of the behavioral test. The results showed that EGCG dose-dependently suppressed the progression of kindling. EGCG also ameliorated the cognitive impairment and oxidative stress induced by PTZ kindling. These observations suggest that EGCG may be a potential agent for the treatment of epilepsy as well as a preventive agent against cognitive impairment induced by seizure.
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Appreciation of the role that inflammatory mediators play in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis continues to be hampered by two related misconceptions. The first is that to be pathogenically significant a neurodegenerative mechanism must be primary. The second is that inflammation merely occurs to clear the detritis of already existant pathology. The present review addresses these issues by showing that 1) inflammatory molecules and mechanisms are uniquely present or significantly elevated in the AD brain, 2) inflammation may be a necessary component of AD pathogenssis, 3) inflammation may be sufficient to cause AD neurodegeneration, and 4) retrospective and direct clinical trials suggest a therapeutic benefit of conventional antiinflammatory medications in slowing the progress or even delaying the onset of AD.
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The performances of groups of patients with left, right and bilateral frontal lesions were compared on a battery consisting of two tests presumed to be related specifically to left hemisphere function, two tests presumed to be related specifically to right hemisphere function, and two tests presumed to be related specifically to bilateral frontal lobe function. Eighteen predictions, based on both theoretical considerations and the indications of previous literature, were made concerning the differences in performance to be expected among the three groups.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive deficits, accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal death. Additionally, mitochondrial dysfunction and free radical damage are hallmarks of AD brain. Here we set out to define the role of oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis and progression by chronically treating 3xTg-AD mice with the superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic, EUK-207. Treatment started at 4 months before onset of pathology and cognitive deficits, and continued until 9 months, when the AD phenotype was established. Cognitive performance was assessed using fear conditioning, and brain oxidative stress, Aβ, and tau pathology were analyzed. At 9 months, 3xTg-AD mice exhibited a decline in performance in both contextual and cued fear conditioning, as compared to wild-type mice. EUK-207-treated 3xTg-AD mice did not display any deficit in fear conditioning and exhibited reduced Aβ, tau, and phosphorylated tau accumulation in amygdala and hippocampus, as well as brain levels of Aβ42, oxidized nucleic acids, and lipid peroxidation. The effects of a 3-month treatment after pathology onset at 9 months on cognitive performance, brain oxidative stress, Aβ, and tau pathology were also evaluated. EUK-207-treated 3xTg-AD mice did not display any deficit in fear conditioning and were protected against increases in brain levels of oxidized nucleic acids and lipid peroxidation; they also had reduced Aβ, tau, and hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation in amygdala and hippocampus. Our results confirm a critical role for oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis and progression and suggest the potential usefulness of EUK-207 in AD treatment.
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Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role in epileptogenesis and pilocarpine-induced seizures. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant effects of curcumin, Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and valproate on the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and the activities of catalase, Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats. The animal model of epilepsy was induced by pilocarpine and left for 22 days to establish the chronic phase of epilepsy. These animals were then treated with curcumin, NSO or valproate for 21 days. The data revealed evidence of oxidative stress in the hippocampus of pilocarpinized rats as indicated by the increased nitric oxide levels and the decreased glutathione levels and catalase activity. Moreover, a decrease in Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity and an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity occurred in the hippocampus after pilocarpine. Treatment with curcumin, NSO or valproate ameliorated most of the changes induced by pilocarpine and restored Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity in the hippocampus to control levels. This study reflects the promising anticonvulsant and potent antioxidant effects of curcumin and NSO in reducing oxidative stress, excitability and the induction of seizures in epileptic animals and improving some of the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs.
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The present study investigated the effects of Nigella sativa aqueous extract and oil, as well as thymoquinone, on serum insulin and glucose concentrations in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five experimental groups (control, untreated STZ-diabetic, and aqueous extract-, oil-, or thymoquinone-treated diabetic rats). Treated rats received 2 mL/kg, i.p., 5%N. sativa extract, 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., N. sativa oil, or 3 mg/mL, i.p., thymoquinone 6 days/week for 30 days. Serum insulin and glucose concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and pancreatic tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. Electron microscopy was used to identify any subcellular changes. Diabetes increased tissue MDA and serum glucose levels and decreased insulin and SOD levels. Treatment of rats with N. sativa extract and oil, as well as thymoquinone, significantly decreased the diabetes-induced increases in tissue MDA and serum glucose and significantly increased serum insulin and tissue SOD. Ultrastructurally, thymoquinone ameliorated most of the toxic effects of STZ, including segregated nucleoli, heterochromatin aggregates (indicating DNA damage), and mitochondrial vacuolization and fragmentation. The aqueous extract of N. sativa also reversed these effects of STZ, but to a lesser extent. The N. sativa oil restored normal insulin levels, but failed to decrease serum glucose concentrations to normal. The biochemical and ultrastructural findings suggest that N. sativa extract and thymoquinone have therapeutic and protect against STZ-diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress, thus preserving pancreatic β-cell integrity. The hypoglycemic effect observed could be due to amelioration of β-cell ultrastructure, thus leading to increased insulin levels. Consequently, N. sativa and thymoquinone may prove clinically useful in the treatment of diabetics and in the protection of β-cells against oxidative stress.
Article
Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies.
Article
Aim. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Nigella sativa (NS) in experimental bacterial rhinosinusitis. Material and Methods. Bacterial rhinosinusitis was induced with Staphylococcus aureus. Rabbits were divided into control, NS 50, NS 100 and NS 200 mg/kg/d groups. NS was given orally for 7 days. The same volume of normal saline was given as a vehicle to the control group for the same period. At 7 days post-treatment, mucosal samples were excised from the treated and control groups for measurements of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results. SOD and GSH-Px activities significantly increased in the NS 50, NS 100 and NS 200 mg/kg/d groups when compared with the saline treated group. MPO activity and MDA levels significantly decreased in the NS 50, NS 100 and NS 200 mg/kg/d when compared with the saline treated group. Conclusion. These findings show that administration of NS increased the SOD, GSH-Px activities and decreased the lipid peroxidation and MPO activity in experimental rhinosinusitis in rabbits. NS prevented oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated in rhinosinusitis model in rabbits.