Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry-Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway. .
Nutrients (Impact Factor: 3.27). 05/2013; 5(5):1757-1800. DOI: 10.3390/nu5051757
Source: PubMed


Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

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Available from: Mahiuddin Alamgir, May 27, 2014
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    • "According to World Health Organization (WHO) diarrhea is the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day, or more frequently than normal for the individual. Children are more vulnerable against diarrhea and it is estimated that 17% of all deaths in children up to five years are due to diarrhea, correspond to 1.8 million annual deaths (Wangensteen et al., 2013). At 1998, estimated by WHO, about 7.1 million deaths were caused by diarrhea (Choudhary, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Mikania cordata and Litsea monopetala was evaluated. Diarrhea was induced in mice by oral administration of castor oil (0.5 mL) 30 min after the administration of the extracts. During a 4 hour study the number of diarrheal feces and percentage inhibition of the extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was determined. Loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight) served as standard and belonged to the positive control group. The extracts exhibited potent antidiarrheal activity as well as achieved statistically significant p value (p<0.01 and p<0.05) compared to control group. Among the extracts the highest percentage inhibition of defecation (60%) was recorded for leaf extract (400 mg/kg body weight) of L. monopetala. So, the study corroborates the significant antidiarrheal activity of M. cordata and L. monopetala leaf extracts and raises the demand of further sophisticated investigation.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology
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    • "The antioxidant properties of the compounds isolated from the EtOAc extract of D. thollonii have previously been reported in different other plant extracts. These included 3,3′-di- O-méthylellagic acid 4′-O-β-D-xylopyranoside 1(Khallouki et al., 2007), betulinic acid 4 (De Souza et al., 2011; Yogeeswari and Sriram, 2005; Adesanwo et al., 2013), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6′- mirystate 5 (Wangensteen et al., 2013), β-sitosterol 7 (Rao et al., 2013; Gupta et al., 2011; Rajanandh and Kavitha, 2010), β-sitosterol- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 8 (Rajanandh and Kavitha, 2010) and arjunolic acid 9 (Sai et al., 2010). The synergic action of these compounds could contribute to the antioxidant activity observed and we can hypothesizedthat a large contribution is assigned to the presence of β-sitosterol, betulinic acid and arjunolic acid for which more important properties and biological activities have been reported (Rao et al., 2013; Gupta et al., 2011; Rajanandh and Kavitha, 2010; Sai et al., 2010; Thiagarajan et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Dissotis thollonii Cogn. belonging to the Malastomataceae family is used in the West Region of Cameroon for the treatment of inflammation, kidney diseases, pregnancy control and sinusitis. Despite the traditional use of this plant, no scientific report or information was found in the literature regarding neither its biological activity nor its chemical constituents. Aim of the study The present work was designed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of different extracts of the roots of D. thollonii Cogn. as well as the isolation and identification of the chemical constituents of this plant. Materials and methods The tests for antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were performed over the MeOH, EtOAc, n-BuOH and aqueous extracts. Compounds were isolated from EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts of the roots of D. thollonii Cogn. through column chromatography and their structures were determined by means of NMR and MS analysis, and published data. Results According to the antimicrobial and antioxidant assays, the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts were submitted to further separation and purification. This led to the isolation of twelve compounds identified as 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-β-D-xylopyranoside 1, 3-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside 2, casuarinin 3, betulinic acid 4, β-sitosterol-3-O-D-glucopyranosyl-6′-mirystate 5, cellobiosylsterol 6, β-sitosterol 7, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 8, arjunolic acid 9, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 10, ellagic acid 11, and 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 12. The EtOAc extract was the only antimicrobial active sample [diameter of the zone of inhibition (DZI) of 10 mm against Staphyloccocus aureus] among all the tested extracts. The analysis of fractions of this extract revealed the presence of bioactive compounds with a described antimicrobial activity such as β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and arjunolic acid. By using Trolox as the standard drug, all extracts showed antioxidant activity against DPPH in the following order of scavenging ability: Trolox > nBuOH > EtOAc > MeOH > WE (water extract). The ABTS•+ scavenging ability was similar to that found for the DPPH assay, being Trolox > n-BuOH > MeOH > EtOAc > WE. Along with the DPPH and ABTS assays, the FRAP assay showed the scale n-BuOH > MeOH > WE > EtOAc. The phytochemical study of the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts revealed the presence of important known antioxidant compounds such as ellagic acid derivatives, arjunolic acid, betulinic acid and β-sitosterol. The anti-inflammatory properties of D. thollonii extracts were investigated using RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The MeOH extract reduced the stimulated NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. 86% reduction was observed at the highest tested concentration of 100 μg/ml (IC50 = 5.9 μg/ml). The n-BuOH extract showed higher dose dependent reduction of NO formation (IC50 = 6.5 μg/ml) than the EtOAc extract (IC50 = 18.1 μg/ml), whereas the water extract had no significant influence on the NO production. All the extracts did not have any influence on the macrophage viability. The phytochemical investigation of the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts revealed that the main compounds identified do have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion The biological and phytochemical characterization of the root extracts of D. thollonii validates the use of this plant for the treatment of inflammation and sinusitis, thus providing evidence that this plant extracts, as well as some of the isolated compounds, might be potential sources of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · South African Journal of Botany
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    ABSTRACT: Ixora coccinea is widely used in Ayurveda and traditional medicinal practices in Sri Lanka and in Asia for acute bronchitis, reddened eyes and eruptions and dermatological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the underling mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of I. coccinea with respect to its inhibitory activity on human neutrophils. Freeze-dried products of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts (ALE and MLE) prepared from mature fresh leaves of I. coccinea and total human leukocytes purified by Dextran sedimentation were used in this study. Three in vitro functional assays were developed and used to assess the inhibitory effects of ALE and MLE on human neutrophils, i) assay for change-in-shape (CIS) for inhibitory effects on neutrophil polarization, ii) yeast phagocytosis assay to investigate phagocytic activity of neutrophils and iii) an optimized quantitative NBT assay to detect the production of reactive oxygen production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both ALE and MLE demonstrated maximum inhibition at 500µg/ml for CIS (75% and 79% respectively; IC50values 44.5 and 24.0µg/ml respectively.), yeast phagocytosis (100%; IC50 values 18.0 and 30.0µg/ml respectively) and ROS production (47% and 67% respectively; IC50 values 248 and 360µg/ml respectively). All three inhibitory effects of both ALE and MLE were dose-dependent (P<0.05). This study has shown that both ALE and MLE of I. coccinea exhibit potent anti-neutrophil activity that inhibits its intracellular killing which was demonstrated by the significabvnt inhibition of neutrophil activation, phagocytosis, and production of ROS. MLE showed more potent anti-neutrophil activity compared to ALE reflecting a higher anti-inflammatory activity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
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