Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination
Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute (S.A.S.T.A.S.). Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d'Alcontres, 31, 98166 S. Agata. Messina, Italy.. Electronic address: . Food Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 3.39).
10/2013; 140(4):794-802. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.060
In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%.
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- "Nowadays, there are some reports about chromatographic fingerprints of natural pigments in foodstuffs. The applications of natural pigment fingerprinting were mainly focused on the characterization of new pigment components (Giuffrida et al., 2013; Li, Wang, Guo, & Wang, 2011; Schoefs, 2004; Zhang, Hang, & Peng, 2009), discrimination of food variety or authenticity analysis (Cserháti et al., 2000; Galaup et al., 2007; Kósa et al., 2001; Primetta, Jaakola, Ayaz, Inceer, & Riihinen, 2013; Ruth et al., 2011). Moreover, it was also stated that the fingerprinting of natural pigments can help the detection of adulteration (e.g. the presence of exogene colorants) etc. (Cserháti & Forgács, 2001). "
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ABSTRACT: A multi-wavelength HPLC fingerprint comparison method was proposed for the screening of oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products. The screening was based on the fingerprint differences of normal unadulterated chilli sample with tested chilli samples. The samples were extracted with acetone and fingerprinted by HPLC under four visible light wavelengths (450nm, 490nm, 520nm, and 620nm). It was found that the fingerprints of different chilli product samples had a relatively fixed number of peaks and stable retention time. When 16 kinds of known synthetic dyes were used as model analytes to assess the screening efficiency, 14 of them could be screened using fingerprint comparison method, with LOD of 0.40-2.41mg/kg. The new screening method was simple and had the possibility of finding existence of the adulterated dyes which could not be identified using known standard analytes as control.
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- "different paprika genotypes at IRS but they did not identify carotenoid esters. Others have identified individual free, mono, and diesterified carotenoids in fruits from different pepper genotypes at the full-coloured ripening stage but not in fruits at IRS (Giuffrida et al., 2013; Schweiggert et al., 2005). Márkuz et al. (1999) identified several individual carotenoids (free, mono, and diesterified forms) in peppers at IRS; however, the chlorophylls and the fatty acid moiety in esters were not identified. "
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- "capsaicin:dihydrocapsaicin ratio varied from 0.33 to 4.92 (Table 1) which is significantly different from earlier reported capsaicin: dihydrocapsaicin ratios of 1 and 2 for C. annuum and C. frutescens accessions, respectively (Govindarajan and Sathyanarayana, 1991). However, our findings are quite similar to those of Giuffrida et al. (2013) "
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ABSTRACT: Level of variation in capsaicinoid content was evaluated in Capsicum accessions belonging to chilli land races from north-eastern India. Accessions from NE India showed enormous variation in morphological characters such as fruit shape, size, colour, and fruit position. Capsaicinoid content in 139 accessions varied from 0.02 to 72.05 mg/g. The ratio between two major capsaicinoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, varied from 0.34 to 4.92. The capsaicinoid content among 92 accessions of Bhut Jolokia varied from 11.95 to 72.05 mg/g with corresponding pungency levels of 191,135–1,152,832 SHU. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.90) was obtained between capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content.
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