Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus Infections in Adolescent Females

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington.
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 03/2013; 2(1):7-14. DOI: 10.1093/jpids/pis076
Source: PubMed


Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Understanding risk factors for acquisition of CMV infection in adolescent females will help determine vaccine strategies.
Females (12-17 years) were recruited from primary care settings in Cincinnati, Galveston, Houston, and Nashville from June 2006 to July 2010 for a seroepidemiologic study, from which seronegative participants were recruited for a CMV vaccine trial. Participants (n = 1585) responded to questions regarding potential exposures. For those with young children in the home (n = 859), additional questions were asked about feeding and changing diapers, and for those > 14 years of age (n = 1162), questions regarding sexual activity were asked. Serum was evaluated for CMV antibody using a commercial immunoglobulin G assay.
Cytomegalovirus antibody was detected in 49% of participants. In the univariate analyses, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher among African Americans, those with children < 3 years of age in the home, and those with a history of oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse. Among those with young children in the home, feeding children and changing diapers further increased the association with CMV infection. However, in the final multivariate analysis, only African Americans and household contact with young children were associated with CMV infection.
By age 12, evidence of CMV infection was common. Multiple factors regarding race and personal behaviors likely contribute to seroconversion earlier in life.

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Available from: Laura Patricia Stadler, Apr 13, 2015
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    • "More rarely, specific causes of pouchitis can be identified, for example Clostridium difficile or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection [1-6]. CMV has infected between 40 and 100% of the adult population [7-9]. This facultative pathogen causes clinical illness in a small percentage of the infected, with the greatest risk during the intrauterine period or in immunocompromised patients [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Pouchitis often occurs after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. It is usually deemed idiopathic and commonly responds to antibacterial therapy. To date, only a few cases of cytomegalovirus pouchitis have been documented, and only a single report describes pouchitis in a case of assumed primary cytomegalovirus infection. Case presentation A 26-year-old Caucasian woman underwent proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for refractory ulcerative colitis and adenocarcinoma. After 28 months she developed bloody diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea and general malaise suggesting severe pouchitis. Antibiotic treatment reduced humoral inflammation, but failed to resolve her fever. A pouchoscopy revealed distinct pouchitis, and cytomegalovirus infection was diagnosed from pouch biopsies by polymerase chain reaction as well as conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. The infection was confirmed in her blood by polymerase chain reaction and pp65 antigen test, and was clearly defined as the ‘primary’ infection by serial serological tests. Intravenous treatment with ganciclovir (10mg/kg body weight/day) led to resolution of symptoms and negative cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid and pp65 within a few days. When symptoms and laboratory evidence of cytomegalovirus infection recurred a few days after completing 20 days of therapy with ganciclovir and valganciclovir, a second course of ganciclovir treatment was initiated. Conclusions Cytomegalovirus infection of the ileoanal pouch is an important differential diagnosis of pouchitis even in non-immunosuppressed patients and can be treated with ganciclovir.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
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    • "Unfortunately, most studies reporting an association between CMV infection and sexual activity have not included contact with a young child in the home as an independent variable.1,5,6,8,10,11 Two studies have included both contact with young children and sexual activity as potential risk factors for CMV infection.2,4 After adjusting for contact with a young child, one study found sexual activity was an independent risk factor for CMV infection and the other did not. "
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    ABSTRACT: We observed previously that African American adolescents in Richmond reporting infrequent sexual activity had cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence rates one half that of their adult mothers and caregivers. We therefore sought to determine if sexually active African American adolescents have higher rates of CMV infection than sexually inactive African American adolescents. Cases (aged 13-18 years) sought care for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or pregnancy. Controls were sexually inactive and matched to cases for age, race, and gender and enrolled at the same clinic as cases and sought medical treatment unrelated to an STI. Subjects completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and were interviewed for determination of sexual activity. Two groups of sexually active cases were enrolled. The first group had a diagnosis of an STI. In this group, both cases and matched controls were seropositive at a rate of 32% (7/22 for cases and 7/22 for controls). In the second group, cases self-reported an STI but objective evidence was lacking. In this group, cases were seropositive at a rate of 38% (six of 16) compared with matched controls among whom 6.3% were seropositive (one in 16). The overall rate of seropositivity in all 38 cases was 34% compared with a rate of 21% for all controls (P=0.3, odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 0.6-7.5). Our results confirm lower rates of CMV infection among the current generation of African American adolescents compared with African American adults in Richmond, and suggest that this is not associated with sexual activity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common cause of birth defects and hearing loss in infants and opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised. Previous studies have found higher CMV seroprevalence rates among minorities and among persons with lower socioeconomic status. No studies have investigated the geographic distribution of CMV and its relationship to age, race, and poverty in the community. Methods. We identified patients from 6 North Carolina counties who were tested in the Duke University Health System for CMV immunoglobulin G. We performed spatial statistical analyses to analyze the distributions of seropositive and seronegative individuals. Results. Of 1884 subjects, 90% were either white or African American. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity was significantly more common among African Americans (73% vs 42%; odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-4.1), and this disparity persisted across the life span. We identified clusters of high and low CMV odds, both of which were largely explained by race. Clusters of high CMV odds were found in communities with high proportions of African Americans. Conclusions. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is geographically clustered, and its distribution is strongly determined by a community's racial composition. African American communities have high prevalence rates of CMV infection, and there may be a disparate burden of CMV-associated morbidity in these communities.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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