The Effect of tumor subsite on short-term outcomes and costs of care after oral cancer surgery
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. The Laryngoscope
(Impact Factor: 2.14).
07/2013; 123(7). DOI: 10.1002/lary.23952
To determine if epidemiologic differences exist between patients with oral tongue carcinoma compared to tumors arising from other oral cavity subsites, and the relationship between primary site and in-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, length of stay, and costs in patients undergoing surgery for oral cavity cancer.
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was analyzed for patients who underwent an ablative procedure for a malignant oral cavity neoplasm in 2001 to 2008 using cross-tabulations and multivariate regression modeling.
Overall, there were 45,071 patients treated surgically for oral cavity cancer, with oral tongue cancer comprising 35% of all oral cavity tumors. Patients with oral tongue cancer were significantly more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4) and undergo neck dissection (OR = 1.4), and significantly less likely to be black (OR = 0.4), over 40 years of age (OR = 0.4), have Medicaid payer status (OR = 0.7), advanced comorbidity (OR = 0.7), receive care at a teaching hospital (OR = 0.5), and undergo pedicled or free flap reconstruction (OR = 0.6, P < .001). Oral tongue primary site was not associated with in-hospital mortality or surgical complications, but was significantly associated with a reduced incidence of medical complications (OR = 0.8, P = .005). After controlling for all other variables, oral tongue primary site disease was associated with a significantly reduced length of hospitalization and hospital-related costs.
Oral tongue cancer is associated with a distinct epidemiologic profile compared to other oral cavity cancer subsites, and is associated with lower postoperative morbidity, length of hospitalization, and hospital-related costs. Further investigation is warranted to determine if biologic factors underlie these observations.
2c. Laryngoscope, 2013
Available from: Ingolf Griebsch
- "Similarly, the Canadian study of patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer found that free flap (C$23,600) and pedicled flap (C$20,400) surgery had comparable costs . These costs are likely to vary by the location of the cancer; three US studies using the National Inpatient Sample database found that costs for pedicled or free flap reconstruction ranged from US$10,087 (2012 US$) for patients with an oral malignancy to US$22,679 (2011 US$) for HNC patients with any oropharyngeal cancer [29, 43, 56]. "
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Head and neck cancer (HNC) and its treatment can affect communication, nutrition, and physical appearance, and the global impact of this disease on patients' quality of life may be substantial.
The aim of this systematic literature review was to describe the impact of HNC and its treatment on the physical, emotional, and social well-being of patients over time, by examining longitudinal studies of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) evaluating these domains.
Databases (MEDLINE and Embase) were searched to identify studies published in English between January 2004 and January 2014 analyzing the humanistic aspects of HNC in adult patients. Additional relevant publications were identified through manual searches of abstracts from recent conference proceedings.
Of 1,566 studies initially identified, 130 met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in the assessment. Investigations using a variety of PRO instruments in heterogeneous patient populations consistently reported that PRO scores decrease significantly from diagnosis through the treatment period, but generally recover to baseline in the first year post-treatment. This trend was observed for many functional domains, although some side effects, such as xerostomia, persisted well beyond 1 year. In addition, considerable evidence exists that baseline PRO scores can predict clinical endpoints such as overall and progression-free survival.
Many aspects of HNC, both disease and treatment specific, profoundly affect patients' quality of life. Improved knowledge of these effects on PRO may allow for more informed treatment decisions and can help physicians to better prepare patients for changes they may experience during therapy. Furthermore, the predictive value of baseline PRO data may enable healthcare providers to identify at-risk patients in need of more intensive intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Oral cancer is rapidly emerging as a major health problem across the globe. The Southeast Asian subcontinent has a high incidence of oral cancer and gingivobuccal complex forms the commonest subsite. The habit of chewing smokeless tobacco and areca nut are mainly responsible for this site predilection. The majority of literature and guidelines stem from the western world and there is ambiguity about tumor behavior among various continents. Thus, it is imperative to do this review for improving our understanding about this specific subsite, its behavior, treatment and outcomes.
Gingivobuccal mucosal cancers (GBCs) usually present as large lesions with early mandibular involvement and cervical node metastasis. Level I nodes are often the first echelon. Surgical resection of the mandible is often en bloc with primary GBCs. A marginal or segmental mandibular resection is based on paramandibular soft tissue involvement. Microvascular free tissue reconstruction is ideal. Prognostic factors include tumor depth greater than 4 mm, skin involvement, nodal metastases and extra capsular spread.
Early mandibular involvement and neck node metastases need to be considered in treatment planning. Appropriate reconstruction is key to early recovery and good quality of life.
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Evidence suggests the incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma is increasing in young patients, many who have no history of tobacco use.
We clinically reviewed 89 patients with oral tongue cancer. Exomic sequencing of tumor DNA from 6 nonsmokers was performed and compared to previously sequenced cases. RNA from 20 tumors was evaluated by massively parallel sequencing to search for potentially oncogenic viruses.
Non-smokers (53 of 89) were younger than smokers (36 of 89; mean, 50.4 vs 61.9 years; p < .001), and seemed more likely to be women (58.5% vs 38.9%; p = .069). Nonsmokers had fewer TP53 mutations (p = .02) than smokers. No tumor-associated viruses were detected.
The young age of nonsmoking patients with oral tongue cancer and fewer TP53 mutations suggest a viral role in this disease. Our efforts to identify such a virus were unsuccessful. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the drivers of carcinogenesis in these patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2014.
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