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Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

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Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

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... The effect of anthocyanins on GPx seems to be controversial as there are several contradictory studies. In pre-clinical models, the greatest effect is seen in hepatic GPx expression in rodents and hamsters, whereas minimal changes are seen in serum GPx activities [104,111]. While some studies did not see an effect [59,107], consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods in several animal models resulted in increased hepatic GPx expression [21,60,64,103,[111][112][113][114][115][116]. ...
... In pre-clinical models, the greatest effect is seen in hepatic GPx expression in rodents and hamsters, whereas minimal changes are seen in serum GPx activities [104,111]. While some studies did not see an effect [59,107], consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods in several animal models resulted in increased hepatic GPx expression [21,60,64,103,[111][112][113][114][115][116]. Increases in GPx activity in response to anthocyanins may be dependent on the c-Jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK)-mediated Nrf2 activation, since anthocyanin metabolites behave in such a manner [117]. ...
... Cellular GSH content increased as well in human monocytes-derived macrophages (HMDM) from the same individuals [121]. Meanwhile, it was shown that hepatic and intestinal GST activity remains unchanged after anthocyanin supplementation in apoE − /− mice [111], while it is increased in rat livers [118]. In adult men with CVD risk factors, a wild blueberry drink providing 375 mg of anthocyanins did not alter GST activity after consumption for 6 weeks [122]. ...
Article
Atherosclerosis develops due to lipid accumulation in the arterial wall and sclerosis as result of increased hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation. However, improving antioxidant status through diet may prevent the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is believed that polyphenol-rich plants contribute to the inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic disease. Anthocyanins are flavonoid polyphenols with antioxidant properties that have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The consumption of anthocyanins increases total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant defense enzymes, and HDL antioxidant properties by several measures in preclinical and clinical populations. Anthocyanins appear to impart antioxidant actions via direct antioxidant properties, as well as indirectly via inducing intracellular Nrf2 activation and antioxidant gene expression. These actions counter oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling in cells present in atherosclerotic plaques, including macrophages and endothelial cells. Overall, anthocyanins may protect against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease through their effects on cellular antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and inflammation; however, their underlying mechanisms of action appear to be complex and require further elucidation.
... The feed containing 300 g of pomace/kg significantly increased the HDL and decreased the TAG concentration, while the TC and LDL levels remained unchanged (Lipińska & Jóźwik, 2017). Kim, Ku, et al. (2013a) and Kim, Park, et al. (2013b) conducted research on inactivated apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in mice which were administered a feed containing black chokeberry extract. After four weeks of feeding the mice the diet with the 0.05% black chokeberry extract, their plasma TC levels decreased. ...
... Black chokeberry is a source of numerous bioactive compounds, belonging to different classes of polyphenols, e.g.: cyaniding 3-galactoside (the predominant anthocyanin), chlorogenic acid (hydroxycinnamic acid), rutin (flavonol glycoside), quercetin (flavonol aglycone) and epicatechin (flavan-3-ol) (Denev, Číž, Kratchanova, & Blazheva, 2019;Zheng & Wang, 2003). However, there is one specific group of polyphenols such as anthocyanins, which have been pointed out as powerful antioxidants showing significant anti-adipogenic properties (Park et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2013a;Kardum, Takic, Šavikin et al., 2014;Broncel et al., 2010). Black chokeberry powder dissolved in water at a dose of 50 mg/kg/ day improved the hepatic lipid metabolism of C57BL/6N mice fed a high-fat diet (60% of energy from lard) (Park et al., 2017). ...
... The extract changed the gene expression and the proteins affecting intestinal lipid metabolism. The expression of proteins responsible for cholesterol synthesis and absorption was reduced, but the expression of proteins responsible for cholesterol leaking into the intestinal lumen increased (Kim et al., 2013a(Kim et al., , 2013b. ...
Article
Background: Black chokeberry fruits (Aronia melnocarpa)are used in the food industry for the production of juices, preserves, tinctures, fruit teas and dietary supplements. Fresh, unprocessed black chokeberry fruits however are rarely consumed due to their bitter taste, resulting from the presence of a significant amount of polyphenols. Polyphenols are biofactors that determine the high activity of black chokeberries, including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, and flavanols. Black chokeberry fruit and products have great health-promoting potential as they reduce the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Many studies showed the beneficial effects of black chokeberries in frequent co-morbidities such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, glucose metabolism disorders, proinflammatory conditions and thrombosis risk. Black chokeberry has the probable potential to inhibit the development of various types of cancers, including leukaemia, breast and intestinal cancer as well as cancer stem cells. Scope and approach: This publication reviewed the scientific research regarding the health benefits of black chokeberry fruits and isolated compounds. These findings may be essential in future research with regard to black chokeberry based functional food products. Key findings and conclusions: Black chokeberry can be considered as promising component of novel food with increased biological potential. However, like other highly bioactive plants and products of natural origin, black chokeberry requires wide-ranging studies on humans to determine its safety, efficacy, as well as mechanisms of action.
... Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) is used as an ornamental plant and as a food and colorant. It is rich in the secondary metabolites such as anthocyanins and flavonoids which play vital roles in protecting against oxidative stress and biotic stress [1]. The main anthocyanins in the black chokeberry are cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-xyloside. ...
... The main anthocyanins in the black chokeberry are cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-xyloside. These compounds exhibit many bioactivities such as antioxidant, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, and modulate hepatic lipid metabolism activities [1][2][3][4]. Meanwhile, anthocyanins have been shown to prevent and remedy diseases such as cardiovascular disease, liver failure, obesity, and diabetes [5]. ...
Article
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Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruits are rich in anthocyanins, which are vital secondary metabolites that possess antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to isolate and purify the anthocyanins from black chokeberry by simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography, and to investigate the neuroprotective effect of SMB purified anthocyanin against Aβ-induced memory damage in rats. The parameters of the SMB process were studied and optimized. Anthocyanin extracts were identified by HPLC and UPLC-QTOF-MS, and antioxidant abilities were evaluated. The Aβ-induced animal model was established by intracerebral ventricle injection in rat brain. Through the SMB purification, anthocyanins were purified to 85%; cyanidin 3-O-galactoside and cyanidin 3-O-arabinoside were identified as the main anthocyanins by UPLC-QTOF-MS. The SMB purified anthocyanins exhibited higher DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging abilities than the crude anthocyanins extract. Furthermore, rats receiving SMB purified anthocyanins treatment (50 mg/kg) showed improved spatial memory in a Morris water maze test, as well as protection of the cells in the hippocampus against Aβ toxicity. These results demonstrate that anthocyanins could serve as antioxidant and neuroprotective agents, with potential in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
... Due to the astringent, sour and bitter taste of fresh chokeberry, this fruit is mainly processed in the food industry into juices, jams, fruit teas and food supplements [7]. From a phytochemical point of view, chokeberry is documented as one of the richest sources of bioactive phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids [8,9]. There is strong scientific evidence for the health benefits of chokeberry [10][11][12]. ...
... There is strong scientific evidence for the health benefits of chokeberry [10][11][12]. As reported, the positive effect of chokeberry consumption is reflected in its ability to prevent and treat various diseases such as colon cancer [13], high blood pressure [14], and high levels of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol [8], among others. ...
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For the isolation of selected phenolic compounds from dried chokeberries, natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) were investigated as a green alternative to conventionally used extraction solvents. Four types of NADESs were synthesised, with choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor in combination with different hydrogen bond donors (sugars, organic acid and urea). Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to improve the extractability of the phenolic compounds and the results were compared to those obtained with 80% methanol as the extraction media. The highest values of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the extract obtained with choline chloride–fructose NADES (36.15 ± 3.39 mg gallic acid g−1 dry weight (DW) and 4.71 ± 0.33 mg rutin g−1 DW, respectively). The extraction recoveries for the individual phenolic compounds depended strongly on the phenolic compound’s structure, with relative mean values between 70% and 97%.
... These findings similar the results of AL-Khayat et al. [17] who inducated that the higher concentrations of IgM, IgG, and IgA were appeared in patients aged 2-12 years old in compare with other age category. In another study, the results demonstarte that serum concentration of IgM, IgG, IgA elevated in infected persons compare with the control subject and suggest that concentration of IgM may reflect exposure to the parasite early in life, concentration of IgA may reflect recurrent exposure to G. lamblia [18][19][20][21][22][23][24] . Otherwise, the results of current work demonstrate high activity role of C. azarolus against the toxicity of G. lamblia. ...
... The elevate in activity of GSH observed after the treatment with extract of C. azarolus may be back to high levels of agents of exogenous antioxidant as polyphenols in plant extract. Similar studies demonstrate a positive effect of various polyphenols classes on activities of enzymes of antioxidant (super peroxidase, catalase and GPx) in animal and human studies [19][20][21][22] . Also, the results odemonstrate high activity role of C. azarolus as anti-inflammatory features, the extract of flavonoid from C. pinnatifida fruits reduced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO induced by agent called lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in macrophage cells in vitro [23-25-26] . ...
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... Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) is used as an ornamental plant and as a colorant and food. It is rich in the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and anthocyanins which has been shown to be important for protection against oxidative stress (Kim et al., 2013;Sójka et al., 2013;Szopa et al., 2017). Fresh chokeberries have a sour, bitter and astringent taste. ...
... The main anthocyanins in the black chokeberry are cyanidin 3-Oarabinoside, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-xyloside. These compounds are characterized by many pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant defence, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, antiinflamatory, and modulate hepatic lipid metabolism activities (Kim et al., 2013;Stanisavljevi´c et al., 2015;Bhaswant et al., 2017;Denev et al., 2019). The health benefits of anthocyanins include the prevention and remedy of cardiovascular disease and liver failure, anti-obesity and antidiabetic activity (Kim et al., 2012;Ho et al., 2014;Thilavech and Adisakwattana, 2019). ...
Article
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The influence of the addition of flowers (Flos sambuci L.) and berries of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) and chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) to wheat flour was characterized by the rheological test Mixolab (Chopin Technologies, France). Twelve types of wheat flour mixture with different fruit and elder flowers addition were prepared for evaluation in the following ratios: 95: 5, 90:10, 85:15. The control represented 100 % wheat flour. Preliminary rheological analyzes indicated a strong influence of the ingredients used on the properties of the dough. The addition of elderflowers, elderberry and blackcurrants significantly increased the values of the dough development time. In the samples with the addition of elder flowers, we also found a higher stability of the dough, on the contrary, the addition of berries of elderberry and also the 15% addition of chokeberry reduced it. The most significant effect of increasing the addition on the development time and stability of the dough was observed in the samples with the addition of blackcurrant. In contrast to the other samples, the properties of the flour with the addition of elder flowers were comparable with the control flours in protein strength, in starch gelatinization and in the estimated amylase activity. Samples of flour with the addition of lyophilized fruits behaved significantly differently rheologically than flour with the addition of elder flowers. The closest relationship (p <0.001) was observed between the torque C3 (starch gelatinization rate) and C4 (stability of the formed gel), also between C3 and the difference C3-C2 (r = 0.99).
... Aronia has positive effects on chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (Duchnowicz, Nowicka, Koter-Michalak, & Broncel, 2012;Naruszewicz, Laniewska, Millo, & Dłuzniewski, 2007), neurodegenerative disorders (Daskalova et al., 2019;Islam, 2017;Lee et al., 2016Lee et al., , 2017, and type 1 diabetes (Badescu, Badulescu, Badescu, & Ciocoiu, 2015;Jeon et al., 2018). Experimental studies have shown that the health-promoting properties of black chokeberry products (such as extracts from berries, leaves, and stems) may be associated with their strong antioxidant activity (Cvetanovic et al., 2018;Jurikova et al., 2017;Kim, Ku, et al., 2013;Thi & Hwang, 2016), antitumor activity (Ruginȃ et al., 2012;Skupień, Kostrzewa-Nowak, Oszmiański, & Tarasiuk, 2008;Staszowska-Karkut & Materska, 2020), anti-inflammatory activity Ohgami et al., 2005;Zapolska-Downar, Bryk, Małecki, Hajdukiewicz, & Sitkiewicz, 2012), gastroprotective effects (Matsumoto, Hara, Chiji, & Kasai, 2004;Paulrayer et al., 2017) and improvement of lipid metabolism (Bakuradze et al., 2019;Jakovljevic et al., 2018;Park et al., 2017). ...
... In contrast, ethanol chokeberry extracts markedly induced expressions of ABCG5 and ABCG8, which mediate apical cholesterol efflux to the intestinal lumen, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, which mediates cellular uptake of LDL. The results of Kim, Ku, et al. (2013) suggest that hypolipidemic effects of chokeberry extract may be associated with increased apical efflux of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol and with decreased chylomicron assembly in the intestine. The specific isoforms of SIRT also may play an important role in the hypolipidemic effects of chokeberry extract . ...
Article
Background Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Micht.) Elliot) is a great dietary source of a wide range of biologically active compounds, such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, other phenolic compounds, vitamins, and minerals that have a wide range of health benefits. Scope and approach Here we provide an overview of the in vitro and in vivo effects of A. melanocarpa extracts to reveal its potential anti-aging properties in terms of meeting the criteria for a geroprotector. The possible mechanisms of the anti-aging action of black chokeberry extracts are highlighted. Key findings and conclusions A. melanocarpa extract exhibit geroprotective activity like lifespan extension, anti-proliferative activity, improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism, amelioration of neurodegenerative disorders, antiviral and antibacterial activity, protection of the gastrointestinal system. The mechanisms of A. melanocarpa anti-aging action may be associated with the hormesis effect, activation of antioxidant-defense, modulation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling, and anti-inflammatory activity.
... The improvement in the serum lipids in the PCOS rats might possibly be due to the increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity to rat's adipose tissues which inhibited the lipogenesis or by increasing the activity of lipo-protein lipase enzyme. However, HT might also be contributed in the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory activities [36,37]. Many previous studies also reported that in PCOS patients, insulin resistance was one of the reasons of serum iron over load [38] which was another finding of the present research as a high level of serum iron was observed; while no effect on serum calcium levels had observed in PCOS control rats. ...
Article
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Abstract Background Food intake and eating behavior are two important risk factors that lead to obesity and other associated metabolic and reproductive disorders like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Most of the phytonutrients like hydrolysable tannin (HT) have the ability to reduce the nutrient intake that might be a suitable remedy for weight management of females in their reproductive age. Therefore, the present research is aimed to find out the effect of HT on nutrient intake, weekly body weight, blood glucose, serum lipids, minerals, immunoglobulins and satiety hormones in PCOS rats. Materials and methods A total of forty five adult healthy female rats of 56 days old, weighed 135 ± 5 g with two consecutive estrous cycles were selected. In order to induce PCOS in rats, the intramuscular injection of 4 mg/rat/kg Estradiol- Valerate was used. After induction, a Complete Randomized Design was used to divide the rats into five equal groups (n = 9) named as Pc0, Pc0.5, Pc1, Pc1.5 and Pc2. The groups of rats were offered different doses of HT i.e. 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 % respectively per kg body weight in solution form through oral gavage once in a day for 60 days. Results After the intake of different levels of HT, the statistical results had shown a significant decrease (p
... It may be helpful in managing the reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis disturbance by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and increasing glutathione peroxidase activity, which confirms the beneficial effect of Aronia melanocarpa in patients with MetS and diabetes (Olas et al., 2008). Kim et al. reported that Aronia modulated hepatic lipid metabolism and improved antioxidant function in mice (Simeonov et al., 2002;Kim et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The term “metabolic syndrome” (MetS) refers to a combination of diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity. The origin of MetS includes a combination of multiple factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet choice, and genetic factors. MetS is highly prevalent and adversely affects the general population by elevating risk of cardiovascular complications, organ failure, and much other pathology associated with late-stage diabetes. Anthocyanins (ANTs) are health-promoting bioactive compounds belonging to the flavonoids subclass of polyphenols. Numerous studies have reported the potential therapeutic benefits on MetS syndrome and diabetes from fruits rich in ANTs. This review summarizes the role of several dietary ANTs on preventing and managing MetS as well as the pharmacological mechanisms and biopharmaceutical features of their action. We also discuss potential nanoformulation and encapsulation approaches that may enhance the bioefficacy of ANTs in MetS. Experiments have demonstrated that ANTs may attenuate the symptoms of MetS via improving insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, cholesterol levels, hypertension, blood glucose, protecting β cells, and preventing free radical production. In brief, the intake of ANT-rich supplements should be considered due to their plausible ability for prevention and management of MetS. Additionally, randomized double-blind clinical trials are obligatory for evaluating the bioefficacy and pharmacological mechanisms of ANTs and their pharmaceutical formulations in patients with MetS.
... iron and copper) [19]. Another important feature of anthocyanins from the point of view of health is their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation [20], which can be of great importance in reducing haemolysis induced by intense physical exertion. ...
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Background The intensive physical exercise in which athletes take part in competitive sports can negatively affect the pro-oxidative–antioxidant balance. The use of compounds with high antioxidant potential, which certainly should include chokeberry, can prevent these adverse changes. Methods The study was conducted on a group of football players aged 16–17 years, who underwent 7 weeks of supplementation with 200 ml chokeberry juice per day. Before and after supplementation, the participants performed an intensive physical exercise test (beep test). At rest, immediately after exercise and after 3 and 24 h of rest, venous blood was taken from the subjects, in which levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARS), hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), iron (Fe), hepcidin, ferritin, myoglobin, albumin and morphological parameters were examined. Results There was a significant impact of the intervention in response to the physical exercise test in the studied groups on parameter dynamics: 8-OHdG (t = 3.56, p = 0.0005), albumin (t = 1.98, p = 0.049), TBARS (t = 4.33, p = 0.00003), hepcidin (t = 2.21, p = 0.03), and Mono level (t = 2.14, p = 0.04) and percentage (t = 2.27, p = 0.03). The post-hoc test showed no effect of chokeberry juice supply on any of the morphological, biochemical or performance parameters analysed. Conclusions The supplementation applied to footballers showed no effects under the influence of the applied exercise stress test. Such results may be the result of both the players’ adaptation to the applied exercise loads and the insufficient antioxidant capacity of the supplement used.
... The dark blue colour of chokeberry fruit is caused by the high concentration of anthocyanins, which include cyanidine 3-glucoside, 3-galactoside, 3-xyloside and 3-arabinoside. A small proportion of anthocyanins is attributed to pelargonidine-3-galactoside and pelargonidine-3-arabinoside [46,59,60]. Chokeberry flavonols are a diverse group of compounds, which mainly consist of quercetin derivatives. ...
Article
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Black chokeberry (Aronia melnocarpa) is a source of many bioactive compounds with a wide spectrum of health-promoting properties. Fresh, unprocessed chokeberry fruits are rarely consumed due to their astringent taste, but they are used in the food industry for the production of juices, nectars, syrups, jams, preserves, wines, tinctures, fruit desserts, jellies, fruit teas and dietary supplements. Polyphenols are biofactors that determine the high bioactivity of chokeberries, some of the richest sources of polyphenols, which include anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. Chokeberry fruit and products have great antioxidant and health-promoting potential as they reduce the occurrence of free radicals. This publication reviewed the scientific research regarding the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant potential of chokeberry fruits, products and isolated compounds. These findings may be crucial in future research concerning chokeberry based functional food products. Chokeberry fruits can be considered as promising component of designed food with enhanced antioxidant potential. However, like other plants and medicinal products of natural origin, black chokeberry requires extensive studies to determine its antioxidant potential, safety and mechanisms of action.
... Consumption of aronia extract increased serum concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase in adults with metabolic syndrome relative to an untreated control group [19]. Aronia extract supplementation increased plasma paraoxonase and catalase activities, and hepatic GPx activity in apolipoprotein E knockout mice [20]. Aronia extract also inhibited expressions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in vitro [21]. ...
Article
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Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease. Consumption of aronia berry inhibits T cell transfer colitis, but the antioxidant mechanisms pertinent to immune function are unclear. We hypothesized that aronia berry consumption could inhibit inflammation by modulating the antioxidant function of immunocytes and gastrointestinal tissues. Colitis was induced in recombinase activating gene-1 deficient (Rag1-/-) mice injected with syngeneic CD4+CD62L+ naïve T cells. Concurrent with transfer, mice consumed either 4.5% w/w aronia berry-supplemented or a control diet for five weeks. Aronia berry inhibited intestinal inflammation evidenced by lower colon weight/length ratios, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) uptake, mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the colon. Aronia berry also suppressed systemic inflammation evidenced by lower FDG uptake in the spleen, liver, and lung. Colitis induced increased colon malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased colon glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, reduced glutathione (rGSH) level, and suppressed expression of antioxidant enzymes in the colon and mesenteric lymph node (MLN). Aronia berry upregulated expression of antioxidant enzymes, prevented colitis-associated depletion of rGSH, and maintained GPx activity. Moreover, aronia berry modulated mitochondria-specific antioxidant activity and decreased splenic mitochondrial H2O2 production in colitic mice. Thus, aronia berry consumption inhibits oxidative stress in the colon during T cell transfer colitis because of its multifaceted antioxidant function in both the cytosol and mitochondria of immunocytes.
... iron and copper) via of the presence of hydroxyl groups on the C ring [42]. Another important feature of anthocyanins from the health perspective is their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation [43]. This property can be of great importance for reducing haemolysis induced by intense physical exertion [44,45]. ...
Article
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Background Intensive physical exercise that competitive sports athletes participate in can negatively affect their pro-oxidative–antioxidant balance. Compounds with high antioxidant potential, such as those present in chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa ), can prevent these adverse changes. We here investigated the effect of antioxidant supplementation on oxidative stress balance in young footballers. Methods The study was designed as a double-blind randomized trial. Diet of a group of young football players (male; n = 20; mean age, 15.8 years-old) was supplemented with 200 ml of chokeberry juice per day, for 7 weeks. The players were randomly assigned to the experimental (supplemented, FP-S; n = 12) and control (placebo, FB-C; n = 8) groups. Before and after the supplementation period, the participants performed a beep test. Venous blood was sampled for serum analysis before, immediately after, 3 h, and 24 h after the beep test. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive products, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, total antioxidant capacity, iron, hepcidin, ferritin, myoglobin, and albumin, and morphological blood parameters (red blood cells, (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT) mean corpuscular volume (MCV) mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and lactic acid) were determined. Results Chokeberry juice supplementation did not significantly affect the outcome of the beep test. The supplementation did not significantly affect any of the morphological, biochemical, or performance parameters analysed. Conclusions Chokeberry juice supplementation did not affect the measured parameters in the studied population, which may indicate insufficient antioxidant capacity of the juice.
... Other anthocyanins, the contents of which in chokeberries are significant are cyanidin-3-arabinose, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-xyloside [26]. In addition, there are small amounts of pelargonidine-3galactoside and pelargonidine-3-arabinoside in the relevant fruits [27,28]. Phenolic compounds are unstable plant secondary metabolites. ...
Article
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Epidemiological studies have emphasized the association between a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and a lower frequency of occurrence of inflammatory-related disorders. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) is a valuable source of biologically active compounds that have been widely investigated for their role in health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that consumption of these fruits is associated with significant improvements in hypertension, LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity and dyslipidemia. The mechanisms for these beneficial effects include upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, decreased oxidative stress, and inhibition of inflammatory gene expression. Collected findings support the recommendation of such berries as an essential fruit group in a heart-healthy diet. The aim of this review was to summarize the reports on the impact of black chokeberry fruits and extracts against several cardiovascular diseases, e.g., hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, as well as to provide an analysis of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of these fruits in the abovementioned disorders.
... No matter in animal studies or clinical studies, appropriate dosage for the intervention is still uncertain. Some controversial studies may due to the different dosage of anthocyanins using (Kim, Ku, Pham et al. 2013). Recommended anthocyanins intake has not been determined yet, which limited the application of anthocyanins daily consumption and products development. ...
Article
Metabolic syndrome develops to several related chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, fatty liver disease. Diseases are outcomes of various cells dysfunction, which are especially acting with a network in metabolic syndrome. Anthocyanins are natural edible pigments widely existed in dark-colored fruits, vegetables, and grains. Epidemiological investigation and nutritional intervention of anthocyanins have exhibited broad-spectrum biological effects that benefit patients with metabolic syndrome related chronic diseases. Whereas the underlying mechanisms and the effects of anthocyanins on critical cells in chronic metabolic diseases are complex and elusive. Therefore, this review summarizes the studies about the effects of anthocyanins on various metabolism related chronic diseases, and mainly focuses on the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms on critical cells. We confirmed that anthocyanins are efficient on adipocytes, endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, hepatocytes, intestinal cells and gut microbiota, but lack of evidence on platelets, skeletal muscle cells, hepatic stellate cells and pancreatic beta cells. Additionally, we discussed the structure-function relationship of anthocyanins and the metabolites. This review summarizes the development of studies on anthocyanins with its target cells in metabolic syndrome, and discusses the unclear aspects of the anthocyanins research work, which is necessary for the future clinical application.
... In addition, chronic treatment with flavonoids improves vascular function and reduces cardiovascular remodeling by increasing the release of nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial cells (Eijsvogels et al. 2016). The results of animal studies demonstrated that chronic consumption of chokeberries and their extracts could reduce total cholesterol, decrease mass gain, and also modulate insulin, adipogenic, and inflammatory pathways (Ciocoiu et al. 2013;Kim et al. 2013;Poreba et al. 2009;Valcheva-Kuzmanova et al. 2007b). ...
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The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of twelve-week consumption of chokeberry extract on redox status, body composition, lipid profile and biochemical parameters in active handball players. The study included 16 handball players, aged 16-24 years (20.26±2.86 years). Every morning before training players received 30mL of liquid chokeberry extract for 12 weeks, during regular competition season. The research consisted of morphofunctional and biochemical testing, which was performed at three points (at the beginning of the study, 6 and 12 weeks after extract consumption). After the chokeberry extract treatment, we noticed significant changes in three main aspects. The 12-week supplementation with chokeberry extract decreased the levels of pro-oxidants (TBARS and nitrites) and increased catalase activity. Analyzing the dynamic of body composition showed a decrease in body fat (9.4±0.5 vs. 7.3±0.6kg), as well as its percent in a body (11.4±0.4 vs. 8.8±0.4%). On the other hand, the analysis showed an increase of high-density lipoprotein (1.3±0.3 vs. 1.6±0.2mmol/L) and hemoglobin (144.4±11.7 vs. 151.7±9.9g/L) after 6-week treatment. At the same time, a decrease in leukocytes (7.2±2.8 vs. 6.5±1.2 109/L) and an increase in red blood cells count (4.9±0.4 vs. 5.5±0.5 109/L) were noticed. Overall, these results emphatically show that the use of chokeberry extract dietary supplement induced a wide range of beneficial effects in the examined group of athletes.
... The fruits of AMP, round in shape and black-purple in color, are a kind of new berry with extremely high nutritional and economic value [3]. "Berry" is used for describing any small edible fruit, usually tender and juicy, fruity, seeds in the flesh, sweet and sour flavor and have different color intensity, which is rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins [4][5]. Anthocyanin is a kind of natural pigment widely exists in plants and have been reported to possess a multiple biological activity, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-thrombosis, improving immunity and promoting erythrolabe synthesis and other biological activities, particularly antioxidant activity that is 4.4 times higher than ascorbic acid [6][7]. ...
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The Based on one-factor-at-a-time experiments, response surface methodology was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction of Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberry; AMP). The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: ethanol concentration 62%, ultrasonic power 198 W, liquid-solid ratio 19 (mL/g) and ultrasonic time 44 min. Under this condition, AMP anthocyanin yield was 4.31893 mg/g with a 1.67 % error compared with the actual value, which showed that the model and the optimization process was feasible. Additionally, superoxide anion radical (O2-·) radical scavenging activities of AMP extracts and VC was comparatively analyzed and the result revealed that the antioxidant activity of AMP extracts was superior to VC.
... However, the mechanism of berries may differ depending on berry variety. For example, when Lonicera caerulea berry suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), which is an important enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis, chokeberry did not affect the expression of HMGCR in mice [98,100]. ...
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Along with the increased knowledge about the positive health effects of food bioactives, the eating habits of many individuals have changed to obtain higher nutritional benefits from foods. Fruits are among the most preferred food materials in this regard. In particular, berry fruits are important sources in the diet in terms of their high nutritional content including vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Berry fruits have remedial effects on several diseases and these health-promoting impacts are associated with their phenolic compounds which may vary depending on the type and variety of the fruit coupled with other factors including climate, agricultural conditions, etc. Most of the berries have outstanding beneficial roles in many body systems of humans such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. Furthermore, they are effective on some metabolic disorders and several types of cancer. In this review, the health-promoting effects of bioactive compounds in berry fruits are presented and the most recent in vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies are discussed from a food science and nutrition point of view.
... The identified compounds included 4 cyanidin and 1 petunidin glycosides as anthocyanin-based pigments and five quercetin glycosides with neochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid as hydroxycinnamic acids (Table 3). A previous study by Kim et al. (2013) reported cyanidin 3-galactoside, chlorogenic acid, cyanidin 3-arabinoside, and chlorogenic acid as major constituents in aronia. Another study also identified similar polyphenolic compounds in aronia (Oszmiański and Lachowicz, 2016). ...
Article
Aronia, blueberry, Korean raspberry, blackberry, mulberry, and red raspberry fruits cultivated in Korea were evaluated for total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total anthocyanin, and ascorbic acid content. All berries were assayed for antioxidant activities determined as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6 sulphonic acid free radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Individual phenolic compounds in aronia were also identified using high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. TPC, TFC, total anthocyanin, and ascorbic acid contents of the fruit samples ranged from 17.05 to 135.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (dw), 1.0 to 8.59 mg of rutin equivalent/g dw, 2.55 to 24.43 mg of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalent/g dw, and 3.14 to 19.45 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent/g dw, respec-tively. Aronia and Korean raspberry showed the highest TPC, TFC, and total anthocyanin while red raspberry had the high-est ascorbic acid content. Antioxidant activities showed positive correlations to phenolic and anthocyanin contents suggesting antioxidant activity of berry samples is due to these compounds. Aronia had the highest antioxidant value among fruits.
... Serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured enzymatically as previously described [16]. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) activity and glucose levels were determined using a liquid ALT (SGPT) reagent set (Pointe Scientific, Canton, MI, USA) and a liquid glucose (oxidase) reagent set (Pointe Scientific), respectively. ...
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Fucoxanthin (FCX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in brown seaweed. The goal of this study was to examine whether FCX supplementation could attenuate obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities, fibrosis, and inflammation in two diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse models. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat/high-sucrose/high-cholesterol (HFC) diet or a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) diet. The former induces more severe liver injury than the latter model. In the first study, male C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFC diet, or an HFC diet containing 0.015% or 0.03% (w/w) FCX powder for 12 weeks to develop obesity-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the second study, mice were fed an HFS diet or an HFS diet containing 0.01% FCX powder for 8 weeks. FCX did not change body weight gain and serum lipid profiles compared to the HFC or HFS controls. No significant differences were present in liver triglyceride and total cholesterol, hepatic fat accumulation, and serum alanine aminotransferase levels between control and FCX-fed mice regardless of whether they were on an HFC or HFS diet. FCX did not mitigate mRNA abundance of genes involved in lipid synthesis, cholesterol metabolism, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver and white adipose tissue, while hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation genes were significantly elevated by FCX in both HFC and HFS feeding studies. Additionally, in the soleus muscle, FCX supplementation significantly elevated genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation, concomitantly increasing mitochondrial DNA copy number, compared with HFC. In summary, FCX supplementation had minor effects on hepatic and white adipose inflammation and fibrosis in two different DIO mouse models.
... Chokeberry extract has also been associated with increased uptake of LDL-cholesterol by cells and the level of proteins or mRNA which mediate apical cholesterol efflux to the intestinal lumen [135]. However, in one animal study, despite lowering cholesterol, no effect on the expression of genes responsible for cholesterol metabolism in the liver was reported [136]. ...
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Abnormal metabolism of substances in the body can result in metabolic disorders which include obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, liver disease, or cancer. Foods rich in antioxidants can help to prevent and treat various types of disorders. Chokeberry fruits are rich in polyphenols, especially cyanidins, and therefore, can show a beneficial health effect. The aim of this study was to summarize and systematize reports about the effects of chokeberry on various metabolic parameters. Studies from 2000 to 2021, published in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases, were reviewed. The review of studies shows that chokeberry may have a positive effect in dyslipidemia and hypertension and may increase the body's antioxidant defense mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effect, in turn, may translate into a reduction in the risk of metabolic disorders over a longer period of use. Changes in glucose levels were reported by studies in which the intervention lasted more than 10 weeks in patients with carbohydrate metabolism disorders. The effects of protecting the liver, inhibiting platelet aggregation, lowering uric acid levels, and having a protective effect on the kidneys require additional confirmation in human clinical trials. Consumption of chokeberry fruit did not impact on anthropometric measurements; however, it seems that chokeberry fruit can be recommended in many metabolic disorders due to the richness of bioactive ingredients.
... f F2-isoprostanes (Davinelli et al. 2015). Superoxide and F2-isoprostanes are two recognized markers of OS (Wightman and Heuberger 2015).Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) contains anthocyanins, phenolic acids and quercetin glycosides, the consumption of chokeberry may reduce CVD risk, chokeberry as interventions have reduced OS in humans and rodents (B. Kim et al. 2013;Kujawska et al. 2011). Extract of chokeberry reduced OS in blood platelets from the healthy subject group (Olas et al. 2008;Kedzierska et al. 2009). Dosed with carbon tetrachloride(CCl 4 ) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in mice increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, expressed the level of hepatic microsomal lipid ...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and diabetes are serious threat to human health and more and more aroused people's attention. It is important to find the safe and effective prevention and treatment methods for the three deadly diseases. At present, a generally attention in the possible positive effects of edible berries for the three deadly diseases has been noted. Berry phytochemical compounds regulate different signaling pathways about cell survival, growth and differentiation. They contribute to the prevention and treatment of CVD, cancer and diabetes. This article reviews previous experimental evidence, several common berry phytochemical compounds and their possible mechanisms involved in three deadly diseases were summarized.
... The hypolipidemic function of chokeberry has been widely praised in clinical research, and a study found that in rats fed a diet containing high levels of cholesterol, chokeberry juice can significantly hinder the increase of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides in vivo, thus reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease [6]. In addition, Kim et al.'s research demonstrated that the mechanism of the chokeberry extract reduction of cholesterol content is independent of the expression of genes related to cholesterol metabolism in the liver [14]. Due to the rich flavonoid content of the fruit, it can effectively inhibit pancreatic lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase so as to regulate the digestion and absorption of lipids and carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract, therefore chokeberry can be used as a raw material for functional foods, and the prevention of hyperglycemia and obesity, and the extract can be used for hyperglycemia and hyperlipemia treatment [15]. ...
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The aim of this study was the purification process of polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry), and the purification parameters were optimised by adsorption and desorption tests. By comparing adsorption and desorption ability of polyphenols from chokeberry on six kinds of macroporous resin, XAD-7 resin was selected. Experiments prove that the best purification parameters of static adsorption and desorption were sample pH = 4.0 with 4 h of adsorption; and desorption solvent is 95% ethanol (pH = 7.0) with 2 h of desorption. The best dynamic parameters were 9.3 bed volume (BV) of sample loading amount at a feeding flow rate of 2 BV/h, and washing the column with 5.8 BV of water, followed by subsequent elution with an eluent volume of 5.0 mL at an elution flow rate of 2 BV/h. Next the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of polyphenols from chokeberry, blueberries, haskap berries was studied on HepG2 human liver cancer cells. The results show that polyphenol from chokeberry has a strong antioxidant effect. Taking into account the content of polyphenols in fruit, polyphenols from chokeberry represent a very valuable natural antioxidant source with antiproliferative products.
... ROS may promote osteoclast resorption directly, by stimulating signaling associated with osteoclast differentiation and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB (RANK), or indirectly, by stimulating osteoblast/osteoclast coupling and subsequent osteoclast differentiation through RANK ligand (RANKL) (32). A number of studies have demonstrated that berry extracts may reduce oxidative stress (45)(46)(47). Karlsen et al (48) demonstrated that anthocyanins isolated from bilberries and black currants efficiently suppressed LPS-induced activation of NF-κB in cultured monocytes. Tanabe et al (49) reported that cranberry extract inhibited RANKL-dependent differentiation of human pre-osteoclasts and bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. ...
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Menopause is associated with increased oxida­tive stress, which serves a role, in part, in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal bone loss. Fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidative nutrients and phytochemicals. Berries are a natural source of anthocyanins, and their intake may improve bone health. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (VME) on bone metabolism in an ovariectomized (Ovx) rat. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) were randomly divided into the following four groups: Baseline, Sham, Ovx and Ovx+VME (n=8‑12 rats per group). Rats in the Baseline group were sacrificed immediately, while those in the other groups were subjected to either sham operation (Sham) or bilateral Ovx (Ovx and Ovx+VME). Rats in the Ovx+VME group were administered VME daily at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. At 8 weeks after surgery, bone mass and bone histomorphometry were evaluated. The femur bone mineral density (BMD) in the Ovx group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (P<0.01). Supplementation of VME in the Ovx rats did not result in an increase in BMD. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that Ovx resulted in decreased measures of bone volume and trabecular number and increased measures of osteoid volume, mineralizing surface and bone formation rates (all P<0.01), whereas VME had no significant effects on these parameters. The present findings indicate that VME did not alter bone metabolism in Ovx rats, suggesting that consump­tion of VME may not be helpful in preventing postmenopausal bone loss.
... The improvement in the serum lipids in the PCOS rats might possibly be due to the increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity to rat's adipose tissues and inhibited the lipogenesis or by increasing the activity of lipo-protein lipase enzyme [34]. However, HT might also be contributed in the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory activities [35]. Many previous studies also reported that in PCOS patients, insulin resistance was one of the reasons of serum iron over load [36] which was another nding of the present research as a high level of serum iron was observed; while no effect on serum calcium levels had observed in PCOS control rats. ...
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Background: Food intake and eating behavior are two important risk factors that lead to obesity and other metabolic and reproductive disorders like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Most of the phytonutrients like hydrolysable tannin (HT) have the ability to reduce the nutrient intake that might be a suitable remedy for weight management of females in their reproductive age. Therefore, the present research is aimed to find out the effect of HT on nutrient intake, weekly body weight, weight gain, serum lipids, minerals, immunoglobulins and satiety hormones in PCOS rats. Methods: A total of forty five adult healthy female rats of 56 days old, weighed 135±5g with two consecutive estrous cycles were selected. In order to induce PCOS in rats, the intramuscular injection of 4mg/rat/kg Estradiol- Valerate was used. After induction, a Complete Randomized Design was used to divide the rats into five equal groups (n=9) named as Pc0, Pc0.5, Pc1, Pc1.5 and Pc2. The groups of rats were offered different doses of HT i.e. 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% respectively per kg body weight in solution form through oral gavage once in a day for 60 days. Results: After the intake of different levels of HT, the statistical results had shown a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the weekly nutrient intake, body weight, water intake, weight gain, blood glucose in PCOS rats. A similar trend of decrease (p<0.05) was noticed in serum iron, IgM, IgG, leptin, ghrelin, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides while a significant improvement (p<0.05) was also observed in high density lipoprotein in the PCOS rats. However, a non-significant effect (p>0.05) was observed on serum protein and calcium levels. Conclusions: The study concluded that HT had a therapeutical potential to decrease the nutrient intake and its anti-nutritional property could be used as remedy for the management of body weight, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk factors of PCOS rats.
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Alginate extracted from Sargassum fulvellum (SFA) was used as a base material for edible films. Calcium chloride was added as a cross-linking agent, and various amounts of black chokeberry extract (BCE: 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.7%, and 1%) were incorporated into the SFA films. The SFA film without calcium chloride had a tensile strength (TS) of 18.74 MPa and an elongation at break (EB) of 21.38%. With the addition of 2% calcium chloride, the TS of the SFA film increased to 31.66 MPa, whereas EB decreased to 10.20%. In contrast, incorporation of BCE increased EB of the SFA/CaCl2 films and decreased TS of the films. The developed SFA/CaCl2 film containing 1% BCE exhibited antioxidant activities. Therefore, the SFA/CaCl2 films containing BCE can be used as a new active packaging material, suggesting that biomass from brown algae can be used as biodegradable films.
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The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of amaranth seeds, dried sea buckthorn pomace and dried chokeberry pomace on the growth performance of broiler chickens and on the fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat lipids. The study was conducted on 480 Ross 308 chickens assigned in the second production phase to 4 experimental groups. The birds from the control group received 3% flax oil, while the chickens from the experimental groups were fed with mixtures containing: 3% flax oil and 8% amaranth seeds (group II), 3% flax oil and 3% dried sea buckthorn pomace (group III), and 3% flax oil and 3% dried chokeberry pomace (group IV). Basic production parameters were evaluated for each feeding period. At 42 days of age, 8 birds with body weight close to the average from each group were slaughtered. A simplified analysis of the chicken carcasses was conducted and samples of the breast muscles were collected for further analysis. The addition of 8% amaranth seeds into the feed mixtures in the second feeding phase decreased body weight gains (P<0.05) and increased the feed conversion ratio compared with groups receiving sea buckthorn or chokeberry pomace. However, the addition of amaranth seeds into the feed mixtures increased breast muscle yield (P<0.05) and decreased fat content in comparison to the other experimental groups. Moreover, sensory analysis of the breast muscles from chickens fed the diet with amaranth seeds revealed that they were characterised by a better aroma (P<0.05) and flavour. The studied feed additives did not significantly affect the physicochemical properties of the breast muscles. Sea buckthorn pomace efficiently slowed down lipid oxidation in the breast muscles. The obtained results indicate that using tested plant additives in feed mixture may be an effective way to improved production parameters of broiler chicken and effectively enriched meat in n-3 fatty acid and protect against excessive oxidation of lipids.
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Scope: Increased fruit consumption is associated with reduced risk of colitis. We investigated whether the anti‐colitic effects of the polyphenol‐rich aronia berry (Aronia mitschurinii ‘Viking’) were mediated through Th17 and Treg. Methods and results: Colitis was induced in recombinase activating gene‐1 deficient mice injected with syngeneic CD4⁺CD62L⁺ naïve T cells. Mice consumed either 4.5% w/w aronia berry‐supplemented or a control diet concurrent with T cell transfer. The extent of colitis and immunocyte populations were evaluated at weeks 3 to 7 after transfer. Aronia consumption prevented colitic wasting and reduced colon weight/length ratios relative to the control diet at weeks 5 and 7. Compared to the control diet, aronia feeding increased Treg in mesenteric lymph node at all colitis stages. Treg and regulatory Th17 subpopulations (IL‐17A⁺IL‐10⁺ and IL‐17A⁺IL‐22⁺) were increased in lamina propria and spleen at week 5 in aronia‐fed mice. Aronia feeding also decreased total CD4⁺ cells but increased colonic Tregs. The ability of aronia to modulate colonic cytokines was associated with functional T cell IL‐10 and increased diversity of microbiota. Conclusions: Aronia berry consumption inhibits adoptive transfer colitis by increasing Treg and regulatory Th17 cells. Dietary modulation of T cells is dynamic and precede colitic wasting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases. Laboratory studies on açaí have shown both its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and more importantly, its neuroprotective properties in animals. Anthraquinones and iridoid glucosides isolated from noni fruit induce the phase II enzyme quinone reductase (QR), and noni fruit juice exhibited antitumor and antidiabetic activities in certain animal models. Antitumorigenic effects of mangosteen in animal xenograft models of human cancers have been attributed to its xanthone content, and pure -mangostin was shown to display antineoplastic activity in mice despite a reported low oral bioavailability. Work on the less extensively investigated black chokeberry and maqui berry has focused on recent isolation studies and has resulted in the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites with QR-inducing and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties. On the basis of the safety studies and toxicity case reports described herein, these fruits may be generally considered as safe. However, cases of adulteration found in a commercialized açaí product and some conflicting results from mangosteen safety studies warrant further investigation on the safety of these marketed botanical dietary supplements. © 2018 Center for Food and Biomolecules, National Taiwan University.
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Introduction – It is well known that berries have beneficial effects on health, owing to their content of phenolic molecules, such as anthocyanin, quercetin and phenolic acid, as well as their content of vitamins, minerals and fiber. There is a gradually increasing body of evidence suggesting that these bioactive molecules have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic and neuroprotective effects. Owing to their antioxidant effects, berry consumption brings positive effects against cardiovascular diseases, obesity, ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Specific objectives – This paper was aimed to highlight natural compounds and health effects of the berries; some mechanisms explored by experimental studies, and to outline human intervention trial. Thus, this review could be useful to develop consumption recommendations and following research in health outcomes.
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Anthocyanins is a natural edible pigment with many health benefits. The aim of this work was the identification of anthocyanins present in Aronia melanocarpa using mass spectrometric features. The anthocyanins of the A. melanocarpa were analyzed by UV-Vis, HPLC-DAD and LC-EIS/MS methods. The four important anthocyanins were identified as follows: cyanidin-3-galactoside (68.68%), cyanidin-3-arabinoside (25.62%), cyanidin-3-glucoside (5.28%) and cyanidin-3-xyloside (0.42%). Among the four anthocyanin monomers, three anthocyanins with the highest content of A. melanocarpa were selected, and the antioxidant activity was studied with the total anthocyanins. The antioxidant capacity was cyanidin-3-galactoside > total anthocyanin > cyanidin-3-arabinoside > cyanidin-3-glucoside. The activity of the four anthocyanin samples was greater than ascorbic acid. The methodology described in this study will provide an effective tool for anthocyanins identification. Our results suggested that anthocyanins from A. melanocarpa exhibited effective antioxidant activity. These findings may be crucial in future research concerning chokeberry based functional food products.
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BACKGROUND: ×Sorbaronia mitschurinii (also known as Aronia mitschurinii) is an intergeneric hybrid of×Sorbaronia fallax and Aronia melanocarpa. ×S. mitschurinii berry is a rich source of phytochemicals such as flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have a broad range of health benefits and a great geroprotective potential. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to investigate the geroprotective effects of Sorbaronia berry ethanolic extract (SBE) in Drosophila melanogaster and whether these effects depend on the concentration of SBE, duration of treatment, age, and sex. METHODS: SBE was used to supplement a diet of Drosophila imagoes throughout life, during 2 weeks after the imago hatching, and from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The relationship between the SBE effects on lifespan, stress resistance and the expression of stress response genes were examined. RESULTS: SBE treatment at 1-2 and 4-6 weeks of life increased the lifespan, while treatment throughout life reduced lifespan. SBE treatment increased Drosophila resistance to oxidative stress and starvation, but not to hyperthermia. A statistically significant effect of SBE treatment on the expression level of per, keap1, hif1, hsp27, hsp68, hsp83, and sirt1 genes in flies of both sexes and on sod1 expression only in female flies was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: The observed relationship between SBE concentration and lifespan effects suggests that the life-extending effect of SBE may be associated with the mechanism of hormesis.
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This study aimed to develop a well-characterized mouse model of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) regression. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli (LD) control diet or LD containing 5% ethanol for ten days followed by one binge, which is the chronic-binge model of AH developed by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. To determine AH regression, mice previously exposed to ethanol were put on LD control diet and metabolic and inflammatory features were monitored weekly for three weeks. Serum alcohol, total cholesterol, and alanine transaminase levels were increased in ethanol-fed mice, which declined to those of no ethanol controls within one and three weeks after ethanol withdrawal, respectively. Serum malondialdehyde was increased with ethanol feeding, but it was restored to no ethanol control levels within one week. Ethanol-induced changes in the hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, ethanol metabolism, and antioxidant response were restored to those of no ethanol controls after 3 weeks of ethanol withdrawal. Also, ethanol-induced hepatic inflammation was gradually decreased during the 3 weeks of ethanol withdrawal. Hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) levels and the expression of enzymes involved in the NAD⁺ salvage pathway were decreased by ethanol feeding, which was mitigated after ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol significantly lowered hepatic sirtuin 1 expression, but its levels were restored with ethanol cessation. This study established a mouse model of AH regression, which can be used as a preclinical model to study the potential of dietary bioactives or therapeutic agents on AH regression.
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Lipid metabolism and inflammation contribute to cardiovascular disease development. This study investigated whether the consumption of cranberry (CR; Vaccinium macrocarpon ) can alter high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and prevent inflammation in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A-I transgene (hApoAI Tg ), which have similar HDL profiles to those of humans. Male hApoAI Tg mice were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93M high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol, w/w; n=15) or high-fat/high-cholesterol diet containing CR (5 % dried CR powder, w/w, n=16) for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight between the groups. Serum total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in control than CR group with no significant differences in serum HDL-C and apoA-I. Mice fed CR showed significantly higher serum lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity than the control. Liver weight and steatosis were not significantly different between the groups, but hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was significantly lower in the CR group. In the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), the CR group showed higher weights with decreased expression of genes for lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. The mRNA abundance of F4/80, a macrophage marker, and the numbers of crown-like structures were less in the CR group. In the soleus muscle, the CR group also demonstrated higher expression of genes for fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis than those of the control. In conclusion, although CR consumption elicited minor effects on HDL metabolism, it prevented obesity-induced inflammation in eWAT with concomitant alterations in soleus muscle energy metabolism.
Chapter
Aronia melanocarpa is a medicinal, culinary, and ornamental plant known for many years in the Central, Eastern, and Southern European countries, in Scandinavia and Russia, but is native to North America. At the end of the eighteenth century, it was introduced to Europe and Asia where it has become naturalized and successfully cultivated on an increasingly large scale. This species is a source of the raw material, i.e., fruits rich in antioxidants, most of all anthocyanins, procyanidins, phenolic acids, catechins and flavonoids, as well vitamins and bioelements. This article reviews basic information on the morphology, ecology, and distribution of A. melanocarpa in natural habitats. The requirements for cultivation of this species are also characterized. Much attention has been paid to the chemical composition of the fruits and their consequent therapeutic, health-promoting, culinary and cosmetic applications as confirmed by scientific studies. The current state of the art in biotechnological studies of this species is described, with a special focus on the investigations of the biosynthetic potential of cells cultured in vitro. The study aimed to establish the most beneficial culture conditions for the accumulation of phenolic acids, which are well-known strong antioxidants showing also many other important directions of biological activity. The optimization of culture conditions comprised testing the basal media, concentrations of plant growth regulators, supplementation of biosynthetic precursors, as well as examination of the impact of light conditions (monochromatic lights, white light, darkness, UV-A irradiation), and culture type (agar callus cultures and agar, agitated and bioreactor shoot cultures). In addition, the biotransformation potential of cells from agitated shoot cultures and high production of arbutin from exogenous hydroquinone were presented. Finally, the evaluation of efficacy and potential applications of biotechnological studies have been outlined. The obtained biotechnological results have documented that shoot cultures of A. melanocarpa could be a rich potential source of phenolic acids and arbutin, which are valuable products with therapeutic, health-promoting, and cosmetological values.
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This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins (AMAs) against Escherichia coli. AMAs displayed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of AMAs against E. coli was 0.625 mg/mL and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively. Analysis of alkaline phosphatase activity, potassium ion leakage, absorption material release at 260 nm, and change in soluble protein content revealed that AMAs could destroy the cell wall and membrane structure of E. coli. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirmed the cell wall and cell membrane damage induced by AMAs. In addition, the interaction between AMAs and DNA was elucidated through agarose gel retardation and fluorescence spectroscopy. In summary, the present results indicate that AMAs kill E. coli by attacking multiple targets in the bacterial cell, which could favour the application of AMAs as natural food preservatives.
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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), closely associated with obesity, is a health concern worldwide. We investigated whether the consumption of U.S.-grown sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima), an edible brown alga, can prevent obesity-associated metabolic disturbances and NASH in a mouse model of diet-induced NASH. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF), a high-fat/high-sucrose/high-cholesterol diet (HF), or a HF diet containing sugar kelp (HF-Kelp) for 14 weeks. HF-Kelp group showed lower body weight with increased O2 consumption, CO2 production, physical activity, and energy expenditure compared with the HF. In the liver, there were significant decreases in weight, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and steatosis with HF-Kelp. The HF-Kelp group decreased hepatic expression of a macrophage marker adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E1 (Adgre1) and an M1 macrophage marker integrin alpha x (Itgax). HF-Kelp group also exhibited decreased liver fibrosis, as evidenced by less expression of fibrogenic genes and collagen accumulation than those of HF group. In epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), HF-Kelp group exhibited decreases in eWAT weight and adipocyte size compared with those of the HF. HF-Kelp group showed decreased expression of collagen type VI alpha 1 chain, Adgre1, Itgax, and tumor necrosis factor α in eWAT. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the consumption of U.S-grown sugar kelp prevented the development of obesity and its associated metabolic disturbances, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver and eWAT of a diet-induced NASH mouse model.
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Beneficial effects of aronia phenolics are determined by their interactions with dietary fibers, such as beta-glucan. The aim of this research was to study interactions between aronia phenolics and beta-glucan by investigating the adsorption process. Phenolic compounds were extracted from aronia, analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and adsorbed onto beta-glucan at pH 1.5. The adsorption data were modeled by using Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Hill isotherms with a novel non-linear regression developed especially for adsorption isotherms. Aronia phenolics adsorbed onto beta-glucan in amounts 31-250 mg/g (individual anthocyanins), 44-123 mg/g (individual flavonols), and 51 mg/g (neochlorogenic acid). The correlation between adsorption capacities and phenolic content was high (r 2 =0.94), which suggested that the adsorption might be concentration dependent. Modeling with a novel non-linear regression allowed more precise determination of adsorption isotherm parameters. Furthermore, there was a correlation between maximum adsorption capacities predicted by models and measured adsorption capacities (r 2 0.76, 0.81, and 0.34 for Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushevich, Hill isotherms, respectively). The suggested bonds involved in interactions are non-covalent bonds (H bonds, Van der Waals forces). Principal component analysis showed that anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids could differently behave in the adsorption process, which could be due to differences in the chemical structures (ionic nature of anthocyanins, nonionic nature of flavonols and phenolic acids at low pH). In conclusion, aronia phenolics interacted with beta-glucan by adsorbing onto its surface, and the novel modeling developed by our team was helpful in the interpretation of this process. Interactions should be further studied due to their importance for the beneficial effects of aronia.
Conference Paper
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This is a Continuation to what the Author has done in the Field of Artificial Neural Network. In this Paper the Author Gave a Study Report of the Basic Methodologies Adopted for the Representation of the Artificial Neural Network. After Presenting the Basic Techniques the Author Gave a Detailed Description of the Basic Techniques. Out of the Techniques Presented the Author is more keen on the Technique Presented by Mason and the Author Gave a Detailed Description of the Technique. The Basic Properties that are shown when Neural Network is represented as a Directed Graph is Discussed. The Author gave a Description of the Rules that Guide the Portrayal of the Representation Technique. The Limitations of the Artificial Neural Network when viewed as a Directed Graph is discussed as well as the Advantages is also Discussed. The Paper Comprises of Sections namely Introduction where an Introduction to the Artificial Neural System Technology is Discussed. In the Next Section that is Literature Survey we made a Detailed Analysis of works done in the Past. Then in the Problem Statement we discussed the Problem for which we are actually going for the Techniques. In the Next Section the Survey Report of the Models is discussed and then comes the Result and Conclusion Sections.
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Obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) promotes the development of metabolic dysregulations by increasing macrophage recruitment in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in macrophages serves as a pivotal mediator of AT inflammatory responses by increasing the expression of proinflammatory genes in obesity. Given the purported anti-inflammatory effects of berry consumption in humans, we evaluated if anthocyanin-rich aronia berry extract (ARN) can prevent obesity-induced AT inflammation in vivo. We also examined whether ARN suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, a high-fat (HF), and high-sucrose (HS) diet or HF/HS diet supplemented with 0.2% ARN (HF/HS + ARN) for 14 weeks. Compared to HF-/HS-fed mice, ARN supplementation tended to decrease fasting serum glucose (P = .07). Furthermore, ARN supplementation significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in epididymal AT with a concomitant decrease in the expression of Cd11b and Tnfα mRNAs in epididymal SVF isolated, compared with those from HF-/HS-fed mice. Consistent with these in vivo findings, ARN treatment significantly decreased the phosphorylation of p65 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and BMDMs. Moreover, ARN suppressed LPS-induced mRNA expression of inflammation mediators (iNos, Cox-2, Tnfα, Mcp-1, and Il-6) and glycolysis markers (Glut1, G6pdh, and Hk1) in both cell types. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ARN supplementation may attenuate obesity-induced AT inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB signaling and glycolytic pathway in macrophages.
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Background: The intensive physical exercise in which athletes take part in competitive sports can negatively affect the pro-oxidative–antioxidant balance. The use of compounds with high antioxidant potential, which certainly should include chokeberry, can prevent these adverse changes. Methods: The study was conducted as a double blinded randomized trial on a group of football players (mean age=15.8), who underwent 7 weeks of supplementation with 200 ml chokeberry juice per day. The players were randomly assigned to the experimental (supplemented, FP-S; n = 12) and control (placebo, FB-C; n = 8) groups. Before and after the supplementation period, participants performed an beep test . Venous blood was taken for serum isolation before, immediately after, 3 h, 24 h after the test Level of thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARS), hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), iron (Fe), hepcidin, ferritin, myoglobin, albumin and morphological parameters (RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC and lactic acid) were measured. Results: There were no significant impact of the supplementation intervention in response to the physical exercise test in the studied groups.. The post-hoc test showed no effect of chokeberry juice supply on any of the morphological, biochemical or performance parameters analysed. Conclusions: The supplementation of Chokeberry juice shows no effects on measured parameters in studied populations. It may indicate Such results may indicate insufficient antioxidant capacity of the supplemented juice.
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Ekologia, skład chemiczny, działanie prozdrowotne oraz badania biotechnologiczne aronii czarnoowocowej (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott), aronii czerwonej (Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers.) i aronii śliwolistnej (Aronia × prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehd.) Ecology, chemical composition, health-promoting effects and biotechnological studies on black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott), red chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers.) and purple chokeberry (Aronia × prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehd.) Katedra i Zakład Botaniki Farmaceutycznej, Wydziała Farmaceutyczny, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Collegium Medicum, Kraków Kierownik Katedry i Zakładu: prof. dr hab. n. farm. Halina Ekiert SUMMARY The paper presents the ecological and botanical characteristic of Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry). The current state of research on the chemical composition and biological activity of fruits and fruit extracts of this plant is presented. These plant raw materials are a rich source of polyphenol compounds (mainly anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonoids, phenolic acids), carote-noids, vitamins and bioelements. These compounds are responsible for the antioxidant, antitumor, improving circulation, radiation protection and anti-inflammatory effects of chokeberry. In the work the special attention is paid to the importance of two other less known plants of the Aronia genus: Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry) and hybrid of A. melanocarpa and A. arbutifolia – Aronia × prunifolia (purple chokeberry). The ecological and botanical characteristic of these chokeberries is described. Moreover, the results of scientific studies evidenced that fruits and/or leaves of these plants could be a plausible medicinal and food-staff raw material alternative to black chokeberry. Furthermore, the state of biotechnology research on Aronia species is presented. In the review the results of the latest phytochemical and biotechnological studies, conducted by the team of the Department of Pharmaceutical Botany UJ CM in cooperation with other scientific centers in Poland, are included. STRESZCZENIE W pracy przedstawiono charakterystykę ekologiczno-botaniczną Aronia melanocarpa (aronii czarnoowocowej). Zaprezentowano aktualny stan badań naukowych dotyczących składu chemicznego i aktywności biologicznej owoców tego gatunku oraz otrzymywanych z nich ekstraktów. Surowce te są bogatym źródłem związków o charakterze polifenoli (głównie antocyjany, proantocyjanidyny, fla-wonoidy, kwasy fenolowe), karotenoidów, witamin oraz biopierwiastków. Związki te są odpowiedzialne między innymi za działanie przeciwutleniające, przeciwnowotworowe, usprawniające krążenie, promieniochronne i przeciwzapalne aronii. W pracy zwrócono uwagę na znaczenie dwóch innych mniej znanych roślin z rodzaju Aronia: Aronia arbutifolia (aronia czerwona; aronia czerwonoowocowa) i mieszańca gatunków A. melanocarpa i A. arbutifolia – Aronia × prunifolia (aronia śliwolistna). Przedstawiono ich charakterystykę ekologiczno-botaniczną oraz zaprezentowano wyniki badań naukowych, z których wynika, że owoce i liście tych roślin mogą stanowić alternatywne dla aronii czarnoowocowej surowce lecznicze i spożywcze. Ponadto przedstawiono stan badań biotechnologicznych dotyczących gatunków rodzaju Aronia. W przeglądzie uwzględniono najnowsze badania fitochemiczne i biotechnologiczne prowadzone przez zespół Zakładu Botaniki Farmaceutycznej UJ CM we współpracy z innymi ośrodkami naukowymi w Polsce. Słowa kluczowe: aronia czarnoowocowa, aronia czerwona, aronia śliwolistna, ekologia, badania fitochemiczne, aktywność biologiczna, badania biotechnologiczne
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Aronia melanocarpa is a common plant in Eastern Europe and in the North America. The fruit contains a lot of polyphenols, including anthocyanins, caffeic acid, and its derivatives also present in chokeberry at relatively high concentrations. Anthocyanins have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, may be potentially used to prevent oxidative stress, frequently associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of anthocyanins contained in chokeberry juice on arterial blood pressure, lipid parameters, inflammatory state parameters and concentrations of antioxidant vitamins in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Fifty eight healthy men with the diagnosed mild hypercholesterolemia without pharmacological treatment were enrolled to the study in 2006. In all men biochemical measurements were carried out 4 times: at the beginning, after 6 weeks of regular chokeberry juice drinking, after 6 weeks without the juice drinking, then repeated after 6 weeks of chokeberry juice drinking. Laboratory tests included: total, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its subfractions: HDL2 and HDL3, triglycerides, lipid peroxides (LPO), C-reactive high sensitivity protein (hsCRP), homocysteine, fibrinogen, glucose and antioxidant vitamins. Regular chokeberry juice drinking resulted in reduction of total cholesterol level (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p < 0.001), and increased HDL2 cholesterol (p < 0.001) level. Moderate but significant decreases in the serum glucose (p < 0.05), homocysteine (p < 0.001) and fibrinogen (p < 0.01) concentrationi were also observed. These beneficial metabolic changes were associated with significant hypotensive effect of chokeberry juice drinking. Our studies showed that drinking of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice may have a beneficial effect on reduction of cardiovascular risk.
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Nutritional markers have several advantages for epidemiologic and clinical assays, when compared to dietary data obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Few studies have assessed whether total polyphenol (TP) compounds provide a valid biomarker for TP intake. To date, there has been almost no literature describing methods to determine TP in complex matrices such as urine, which have many interfering substances.We report a rapid Folin–Ciocalteu method to determine TP in urine samples using Oasis® MAX 96-well plate cartridges for solid phase extraction. These plates allow analysis of a high number of samples at the same time. We performed a prospective, randomized, crossover trial and one cross-sectional study with 60 volunteers from the PREDIMED trial, seeking to evaluate whether the TP in urine were correlated with polyphenol intake and could, therefore, be considered as a marker of intake of these compounds.The assay was optimized; the sensitivity and the polarity range of urine polyphenols were increased and the detection and quantification limits were significantly reduced. The metabolites in standards solution and urine samples were stable under the storage and handling conditions. In the clinical trial and the cross-sectional study, TP excreted in spot urine samples were positively correlated with TP intake, r=0.48, P
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Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) is very rich in phenolic antioxidants, mainly flavonoids from the subclass anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of AMFJ on body and liver mass, plasma lipids and lipoprotein profiles, and the histopathology of liver and aorta in rats fed with cholesterol diets. AMFJ was applied orally for 30 days at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mL/kg. In rats fed the cholesterol-containing diets, AMFJ significantly hindered an increase in plasma lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) because of cholesterol feeding. Body weight gains, liver weights, and liver and aorta histopathology were not influenced either by high-cholesterol diets or by AMFJ treatment. In conclusion, AMFJ showed lipid-lowering effects in rats with experimentally induced hyperlipidemia, and could be valuable in reducing lipidemia as a factor of cardiovascular risk. Hyperlipidemia characterized by an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Plant foods with high contents of phenolic phytochemicals are reported to be inversely correlated with plasma total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol. Aronia melanocarpa fruits are remarkably rich in phenolic substances. They are used for human consumption as juice, syrup, jam and wine. Our research demonstrated that A. melanocarpa fruit juice hindered the dietary-induced elevation of plasma TC, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in rats. In view of the results from our experiment, we can suppose that the juice may be further tested for reducing hyperlipidemia in humans and possibly approved a valuable dietary supplement.
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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity toward the flavonoid quercetin and UGT protein were characterized in three equidistant small intestine (SI) segments from 4-, 12-, 18-, and 28-month-old male Fischer 344 rats (n = 8/age) using villin to control for enterocyte content. SI microsomal intrinsic clearance of quercetin was increased 3- to 9-fold from 4 months in the proximal and distal SI at 12 and 18 months. Likewise, at 30 μM quercetin, SI microsomal glucuronidation activity was increased with age: 4.8- and 3.9-fold greater at 18 months than at 4 months. Quercetin UGT regioselectivity was not changed by age. The distal SI preferentially catalyzed glucuronidation at the 7-position, whereas the proximal SI produced the greatest proportion of 4'- and 3'-conjugates. Enterocyte UGT content in different SI segments was not consistently changed with age. In the proximal SI, UGT1A increased 64 and 150% at 12 and 18 months and UGT1A1, UGT1A7, and UGT1A8 were also increased at 12 and 18 months. However, age-related changes in expression were inconsistent in the medial and distal segments. Microsomal rates of quercetin glucuronidation and UGT expression were positively correlated with UGT1A1 content for all pooled samples (r = 0.467) and at each age (r = 0.538-0.598). UGT1A7 was positively correlated with total, 7-O- and 3-O-quercetin glucuronidation at 18 months. Thus, age-related differences in UGT quercetin glucuronidation depend on intestinal segment, are more pronounced in the proximal and distal segments and may be partially related to UGT1A1 and UGT1A7 content.
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Açaí fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 5% freeze-dried açaí juice powder (AJ) for 20 weeks. The mean lesion areas in the aorta for apoE(-/-) mice fed AJ were 58% less (P<0.001) compared to that for CD fed mice. HDL-cholesterol was higher in AJ fed mice. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, including F(2)-isoprostanes and isomers of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids were significantly lower in serum and in liver of AJ fed mice. Expression of the two antioxidant enzyme genes, Gpx3 and Gsr, were significantly up-regulated in the aorta from AJ fed mice. The activity of GPX, GSR and PON1 increased in serum and/or liver of mice fed AJ. In the second experiment, ApoE(-/-) mice were fed CD or AJ for 5 weeks. Serum levels, gene expression and protein levels of the two proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in the resident macrophages with or without LPS stimulation were lower in mice fed AJ. SEAP reporter assay determined that AJ reduced NF-κB activation. Reducing lipid peroxidation through boosting antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production are proposed as major underlying mechanisms for the athero-protective effects of the açaí juice tested in these experimental in vivo models.
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Protective effects of blueberries (BB) against atherosclerosis and potential underlying mechanisms in reducing oxidative stress were examined in apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed an AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% freeze-dried whole BB for 20 wk. The mean lesion area for apoE(-/-) mice fed BB was reduced by 39% (P < 0.001) in the aorta sinus and 58% (P < 0.001) in the descending aorta compared with CD-fed mice. These atheroprotective effects were independent of the serum lipid profile or total antioxidant capacity (as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity). The concentration of a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F(2)-isoprostane, was lower in liver of BB-fed mice (P < 0.05). Genes analyzed by RT-PCR array showed that 4 major antioxidant enzymes in aorta [superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1, SOD2, glutathione reductase (GSR), and thioredoxin reductase 1] were upregulated in BB-fed mice. Enzyme activities of SOD and GSR were greater (P < 0.05) in liver and/or serum of BB-fed mice than those of CD-fed mice. In addition, serum paraoxonase 1 activity in serum of BB-fed mice was also greater than that of CD-fed mice (P < 0.05) at the end of the study. These results suggest a protective effectiveness of BB against atherosclerosis in this apoE(-/-) mouse model. The potential mechanisms may involve reduction in oxidative stress by both inhibition of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of antioxidant defense.
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Curcumin is a polyphenol and the one of the principle curcuminoids of the spice turmeric. Its antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects have been intensively studied. Previous in vivo studies showed that administration of curcumin also decreased cholesterol levels in the blood, and the effects were considered to be related to upregulation of LDL receptor. However, since plasma cholesterol levels are also influenced by the uptake of cholesterol in the gut, which is mediated by a specific transporter Niemann-Pick Cl-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein, the present study is to investigate whether curcumin affects cholesterol uptake in the intestinal Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells were cultured to confluence. The micelles composed of bile salt, monoolein, and 14C-cholesterol were prepared. We first incubated the cells with the micelles in the presence and absence of ezetimibe, the specific inhibitor of NPC1L1, to see whether the uptake of the cholesterol in the cells was mediated by NPC1L1. We then pretreated the cells with curcumin at different concentrations for 24 h followed by examination of the changes of cholesterol uptake in these curcumin-treated cells. Finally we determined whether curcumin affects the expression of NPC1L1 by both Western blot analysis and qPCR quantification. We found that the uptake of radioactive cholesterol in Caco-2 cells was inhibited by ezetimibe in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that the uptake of cholesterol in this study was mediated by NPC1L1. We then pretreated the cells with 25-100 muM curcumin for 24 h and found that such a treatment dose-dependently inhibited cholesterol uptake with 40% inhibition obtained by 100 muM curcumin. In addition, we found that the curcumin-induced inhibition of cholesterol uptake was associated with significant decrease in the levels of NPC1L1 protein and NPC1L1 mRNA, as analyzed by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake through suppression of NPC1L1 expression in the intestinal cells.
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Blueberries have recently been reported to reduce atherosclerotic lesion progression in apoE deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether lowbush blueberries altered scavenger receptor expression and foam cell formation in apoE(-/-) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed AIN-93 diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% freeze-dried lowbush blueberries (BB) for 20 weeks. Gene expression and protein levels of scavenger receptor CD36 and SR-A in aorta and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (PM) were lower in mice fed BB (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, apoE(-/-) mice were fed CD or BB for 5 weeks. PM were collected and cultured. Gene expression and protein levels of CD36 and SR-A were found to be lower in PM of BB fed mice (P < 0.05). In PM from BB fed mice, fewer oxLDL-induced foam cells were formed compared to those from mice fed CD. Gene expression and protein levels of PPARγ were lower in the PM of BB fed mice (P < 0.05). Detectable isomers of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETEs) were also lower in the PM of BB fed mice (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In conclusion, BB inhibited expression of the two major scavenger receptors CD36 and SR-A in PM of apoE(-/-) mice, at least in part through down-regulating PPARγ and reducing its endogenous ligands HODEs and HETEs. We proposed that BB mediated reduction of scavenger receptor expression and attenuation of oxLDL-induced foam cell formation in PM of apoE(-/-) mice are important mechanisms of the athero-protective effects of BB.
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Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) is the rate-limiting step in glutathione synthesis. The enzyme is a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit, GCLC, and a modifier subunit, GCLM. We generated apolipoprotein E (apoE)-/- mice deficient in GCLM (apoE-/-/Gclm-/-) and transgenic mice that overexpress GCLC specifically in macrophages (apoE-/-/Gclc-Tg) to test the hypothesis that significantly altering the availability of glutathione has a measurable impact on both the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic plaque size and composition were measured in the innominate artery in chow-fed male and female mice at 20, 30, 40, and 50 weeks of age and in the aortic sinus at 40 and 50 weeks of age. The apoE-/-/Gclm-/- mice more rapidly developed complex lesions, whereas the apoE-/-/Gclc-Tg mice had reduced lesion development compared with the littermate apoE-/- control mice. Transplantation of bone marrow from the apoE-/-/Gclm-/- and apoE-/-/Gclc-Tg mice into apoE-/- mice with established lesions also stimulated or inhibited further lesion development at 30 weeks posttransplant. Gain and loss of function in the capacity to synthesize glutathione especially in macrophages has reciprocal effects on the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis at multiple sites in apoE-/- mice.
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Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress contribute to atherogenesis. Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a red-colored carotenoid well known for its high antioxidant capacity. However, its effects on lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanisms have received only limited investigation. We fed male apoE knockout (apoE)(-/-) mice, a mouse model for atherosclerosis, a high-fat (15%)/high-cholesterol (0.2%) diet alone (control) or supplemented with ASTX-rich Hematococcus pluvialis extract (0.03% ASTX by weight) for 4 wk. ASTX-fed apoE(-/-) mice had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and TG concentrations than controls, but body weight and plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase did not differ between the groups. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated significantly greater mRNA levels of LDL receptor (LDLR), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and greater mature SREBP-2 protein in the livers of ASTX-fed mice, indicating that increased LDLR expression may be responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect of ASTX. Hepatic lipogenic gene expression was not altered, but carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase β, and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA abundance were significantly increased by ASTX supplementation, suggesting the TG-lowering effect of ASTX may be due to increased fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver. Expression of the nuclear factor E2 related factor 2-responsive endogenous antioxidant gene also was induced with concomitantly lower glutathione disulfide levels in the livers of ASTX-fed apoE(-/-) mice compared to controls. In conclusion, these results suggest that supplementation of ASTX-rich H. pluvialis extract improves cholesterol and lipid metabolism as well as antioxidant defense mechanisms, all of which could help mitigate the progression of atherosclerosis.
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Products derived from the black chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa, are claimed to be beneficial in disorders or diseases associated with oxidative stress. The claims are based on evidence from in vitro studies and animal experiments. The active principle--a mixture of procyanidins, anthocyanins and phenolic acids--constitutes one of the most potent natural antioxidants. A systematic review was carried out of the quality of the clinical trials on chokeberry products that had been published up to December 2009, and conventionally established criteria were used to assess the strength of the evidence for their clinical effectiveness. Thirteen studies were identified. The quality of most of the trials and, correspondingly, the evidence of effectiveness for Aronia products is poor. Though laboratory and clinical data indicate that chokeberry products may well be useful as 'functional food' for disorders or diseases related to oxidative stress, these promising indications need to be confirmed in more rigorous studies before putative therapeutic uses can be confidently recommended for chokeberry products.
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The objective of this study was to validate an improved 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) colorimetric method using a commercially available standard (procyanidin A2), for the standard method for quantification of proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry powders, in order to establish dosage guidelines for the uropathogenic bacterial anti-adhesion effect of cranberry. Commercially available cranberry samples were obtained (five from U.S. sources and six from European sources) for PAC quantification in five different analytical laboratories. Each laboratory extracted and analyzed the samples using the improved DMAC method. Within-laboratory variation (mean +/- SD) was 4.1 +/- 1.7% RSD (range, 2.3-6.1% RSD) and the between laboratory variability was 16.9 +/- 8.5% RSD (range, 8-32% RSD). For comparative purposes, the cranberry samples were alternatively quantified using weights of extracted PACs (gravimetric). The correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.989. This improved DMAC method provides a simple, robust and relatively specific spectrophotometric assay for total PACs in cranberry samples using commercially available procyanidin A2 dimer as a standard. DMAC is most useful within a given type of food such as cranberries, but may not be appropriate for comparing concentrations across different food types, particularly in those cases where large differences exist among the relative amounts of each oligomer and polymer.
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Male Wistar rats were treated with chokeberry juice per os, 10 mL/kg/day, for 28 days and a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 150 mg/kg, or carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), 2 ml/kg. The level of hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), was increased in animals dosed with NDEA and CCl(4). Juice pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in TBARS by 53% and 92%, respectively. In rats administered juice alone, 50% decrease in TBARS was noted. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes were decreased in the liver of rats administered either toxicant by 29%-52% as compared to controls. Juice pretreatment resulted in an increase in the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase by 117%, 56% and 44%, respectively, only in rats challenged with NDEA. Although no response of plasma protein carbonyls to both toxicants was observed, the pretreatment with juice caused a 55% decrease of this parameter in CCl(4)-dosed rats. DNA damage in blood leukocytes induced by either toxicant was slightly reduced, by 24%, in the rats pretreated with juice and administered NDEA. The results of the study showed that pretreatment with chokeberry juice confers some protection against chemical-induced oxidative stress.