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The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of the forest on raw water quality within the framework of other land uses. On the basis of measurements of quality parameters that were identified as being the most problematic (i.e., pesticides and nitrates), we modeled how water quality is influenced by land uses. In order to assess the benefits provided by the forest in terms of improved water quality, we used variations of drinking water prices that were determined by the operating costs of water supply services (WSS). Given the variability of links between forests and water quality, we chose to cover all of France using data observed in each administrative department (France is divided into 95 départements), including a description of WSS and information on land uses. We designed a model that describes the impact of land uses on water quality, as well as the operation of WSS and prices. This bioeconomic model was estimated by the generalized method of moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity and heteroscedasticity issues. We showed that the forest has a positive effect on raw water quality compared to other land uses, with an indirect impact on water prices, making them lower for consumers.
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... The monitoring sites located within the same sub-basins were grouped together because they share similar water quality features, as can be generally seen in Figure 7, largely due to their land cover distribution (Figure 2), which has a direct effect in water quality (Fiquepron et al., 2013). The monitoring sites located in highly urban and industrial sub-basins, such as RH2Eb (with clusters H, I, J, and K), or in highly forested sub-basins, such as RH12Ed andRH12Ej (with cluster E), were clustered together, respectively, as seen in Figure 7. Forested areas are known to have a positive effect on surface water resources by the retention of pollutants and the reduction of runoff rates [33,34]. ...
... The monitoring sites located within the same sub-basins were grouped together because they share similar water quality features, as can be generally seen in Figure 7, largely due to their land cover distribution (Figure 2), which has a direct effect in water quality (Fiquepron et al., 2013). The monitoring sites located in highly urban and industrial sub-basins, such as RH2Eb (with clusters H, I, J, and K), or in highly forested sub-basins, such as RH12Ed andRH12Ej (with cluster E), were clustered together, respectively, as seen in Figure 7. Forested areas are known to have a positive effect on surface water resources by the retention of pollutants and the reduction of runoff rates [33,34]. Conversely, industrial and urban areas are prone to surface pollutant transport due to low surface permeability and increased surface runoff [35,36] as well through storm water discharge pipes or industrial discharge (legal or illegal) ...
... Cluster G is located downstream of the MAG and the El Ahogado wastewater treatment plant, which receives most of the urban wastewater and runoff produced in the MAG. Agricultural and municipal pollution are significant contributors to pollution of the Santiago River that explain the cluster patterns shown in Figure 7 [33,36,37]. Figure 7 shows that most pairs of neighboring sites were grouped within the same cluster. ...
Water quality monitoring networks in the global south often display inefficiencies because
monitoring strategies are frequently designed based on subjective professional judgments to define the temporal and spatial attributes of the networks, leading to poor cost–benefit relationships. The Lerma-Santiago Hydrological System (LSHS) in Mexico currently experiences severe environmental degradation caused by uncontrolled pollutant emissions from urban centers, agricultural, livestock, and industrial activities settled in the basin. While both the national and state authorities monitor this hydrological system, there has never been an effort to assess the monitoring efficiency of these two networks. The aim of the present study was to assess through multivariate statistical analyses the potential for coordination between these two interacting networks. For this purpose, two independent
large water quality datasets with temporal and spatial attributes measured by two different authorities (the federal and the state) were used to identify those sites where coordination should be rationalized and those parameters that should continue to be monitored. The case study herein presented highlights the duplication in efforts to monitor surface water quality in the Lerma-Santiago hydrologic system, which implies a lack of coordination between the authorities and shows that water quality monitoring networks have not been reassessed since they were first implemented. Furthermore, using the case study of the Lerma-Santiago in Mexico, we expanded on various deficiencies, such as
the use of different sampling frequencies and analytical methods by the authorities and inefficient communication among federal and state authorities. This study has revealed a large potential for coordinating two water quality monitoring networks (WQMN) in the Lerma-Santiago Hydrological System and a methodological approach that may be used to assess this potential. Coordination strategies for WQMNs can lead to significant cost reductions, extended network reach, and higher overall data quality in developing countries with limited financial resources and technical capabilities.
... Variations in water quality as a consequence of land use and coverage changes are mainly due to surface runoff of organic matter and other substances from the activities developed (residences, industries, and others) and the discharge of effluents collected or not, which flow to the associated water bodies (FIQUEPRON et al., 2013;MOKONDOKO et al., 2016). ...
... The decrease in water quality is also related to the reduction of vegetated areas, especially in riparian zones, that perform a series of ecosystem services, such as maintenance of water production, filtering of substances and organic matter, erosion control, nutrient cycling, biological control, and food production (CELENTANO et al., 2017;GUNDERSEN et al., 2010;MELLO et al., 2018;SWEENEY et al., 2004). Studies report an inverse relationship between the presence of vegetation in watersheds and the number of chemicals applied for raw water treatment and the respective financial costs, that is, the higher vegetation covers the better water quality (BRITO et al., 2018;BROGNA et al., 2017;ERNST et al., 2004;FIQUEPRON et al., 2013). ...
... Thus, deforestation has the potential to affect other ecosystems and respective services by reverbing negative impacts through diverse links, which may increase the externalities to users of water supply. We know that water quality may decrease with riparian deforestation because it promotes disturbances in hydrological and physical aspects of water bodies (e.g., sediment transport, water velocity, channel roughness), increases transference of some pollutants to water bodies by leaching and superficial runoff (riparian vegetation plays a filtering role), and induces changes in biological aquatic activities linked to aquatic chemical transformations (BROGNA et al., 2017;FIQUEPRON et al., 2013;MELLO et al., 2018;SWEENEY et al., 2004). If deforestation keeps the recent pace through the next years in the watershed, the SDGs 6.3 and 15.1 will never be accomplished. ...
We estimated the economic value of ecosystem services provided by the legally protected vegetation in riparian zones (RPA- riparian protected areas) of watercourses of the Guarapiranga Reservoir watershed (São Paulo, Brazil), considering two scenarios: (i) the value of ecosystem services provided if the RPA recovery complies with the applicable environmental legislation; and (ii) the year 2030, maintaining the urbanization rate and the loss of vegetation cover in the watershed observed between 1986 and 2010. Accomplishing the first scenario demands reforesting 5,917.5 ha of the RPA, which may reduce the annual expenses with chemicals for water treatment and save USD 181.774 per 1000 m3 of treated water. For 2030, we estimated a loss of 6,220 ha of vegetation cover in the RPA (1986 as the initial reference). The loss of ecosystem services provided by RPA would result in an accumulated increase of about USD 318 million in water treatment costs between 2011 and 2030.
... • Abildtrup, Garcia and Stenger (2013) develop a spatial econometric analysis of the effect of forest land use on the cost of drinking water supply in Vosges, France, and found a reduction in household water bills of EUR 98.93-138.46 per hectare per year (in 2008 euros) of new forest. ...
... Only in relatively rare cases is it appropriate to extrapolate these marginal values across large changes in the supply of FEGS (the notable exception is for valuing greenhouse gas flows). For instance, while Fiquepron, Garcia and Stenger (2013) show that on average 1 ha of new woodland generates a savings of around EUR 22 per year (in 2004 euros) on French standards have a specific term for this, materiality, where information is deemed material if omitting it or misstating it could influence decisions that users make. 40 Thus, if information about natural capital could influence end-users' decisions, it would be considered material. ...
The diverse resources provided by trees and woodlands contribute to the production of a wide array of benefits ranging from timber to wildlife habitats and from carbon storage to water purification. This diversity is further complicated by the fact that, while some of the goods associated with forests are traded in markets and hence have associated prices, others arise outside markets and, while valuable, lack prices. The need to make evidence-
based decisions regarding woodlands, including decisions such as how much public funding should be allocated to support the non-market benefits they generate, has necessitated the estimation of the value of those benefits. This scoping study provides a structured review of the state of knowledge regarding the economic valuation of social
and environmental benefits derived from trees and woodlands in order to support policy and practice.
... Such research indicates that, globally, at least two-thirds of ecosystem services are currently decreasing and that this trend might be exacerbated in coming decades (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005;de Groot et al., 2012). Local studies indicate that most ecosystem services, such as water regulation, carbon storage, and soil erosion control, are declining at temporal and spatial scale (Fiquepron et al., 2013;Bai et al., 2019). Furthermore, increases in some ecosystem services may cause a decline in others that are also important for human benefits, which is particularly the case for provisioning services and regulating services (Bai et al., 2011). ...
... Received 10 August 2019; Received in revised form 31 January 2020; Accepted 3 February 2020 (Lambin and Ehrlich, 1997) have markedly affected the provision of multiple ecosystem services worldwide (Polasky et al., 2011). For example, many studies have shown that land use change can decrease ecosystem services provision (Gao et al., 2017) by e.g., decreasing biodiversity maintenance (Maes et al., 2012;Bai et al., 2011;Sun and Li, 2017), degrading water availability and quality (Fiquepron et al., 2013;Gómez-Baggethun and Barton, 2013;Song and Deng, 2017), decreasing carbon storage and sequestration, and decreasing recreational and esthetic values (Nahuelhual et al., 2014;Song and Deng, 2017). Therefore, land use change is considered a significant driver of change in ecosystem services (de Groot et al., 2010;Gao et al., 2017). ...
Tourism is an expanding activity worldwide, with vital implications for local economies but also for ecosystem management. Rural tourism in particular drives land use change, which results in ecosystem services provision being altered. We performed a comprehensive temporal and spatial assessment of the impact of tourism-driven land use change on ecosystem services and sought to identify tradeoffs between tourism income and provision of multiple ecosystem services in Erhai Lake Basin (ELB), China. The results show that constructed area in ELB, especially in the lakeside zone, increased strongly from 2000 to 2015 due to a tourism boom (in which tourism revenues increased 12-fold), at the expense of farmland, grassland, and forest. With these land changes, ecosystem services also changed greatly, to the detriment of ELB as a whole and especially the lakeside zone. By 2015, soil retention had decreased and nitrogen and soil export had increased, compared with the levels in 2000, while there was only a slight fluctuation in carbon storage and water yield. The nitrogen and soil exports are impairing water quality in Erhai Lake and causing severe environmental problems. This study provides empirical evidence of the important impact of tourism-driven land use change on provision of multiple ecosystem services. For environmentally friendly tourism in ELB and beyond, a form of sustainable tourism should be established. Tourism development and ecosystem services provision should be fully weighed up and considered in future tourism planning and land use management.
... In the second experimental period (2009 to 2015) the difference was insignificant between forested and non-forested areas. Fiquepron et al. (2013) state that meadows and pastures can offer favourable conditions in relation to denitrification and water quality. Effective filters also include hedges and other linear forested areas. ...
... Forest management in generally less intensive than the management of agricultural areas, with less frequent interventions. Forest management is not neutral in terms of water quality, but many factors tend to attenuate harmful effects, particularly the fact that human interventions are less frequent in this sector than in agriculture (Fiquepron et al. 2013). There have been examples of land-use change from agriculture to forestry to promote better water quality (Hunsaker and Levine 1995;Hiscock et al. 2007). ...
Forest cover influences not only the amount of surface runoff, but also its quality. The concentrations of chemicals in surface runoff differ between forest catchments and non-forest catchments (agricultural areas). The authors investigated the chemical compositions of surface runoff in two small neighboring catchments (forest, non-forest), by analyzing and summarizing data over a period of 26 years from 1986 to 2012. During this period, the stock and absorption area of forest stands increased, air quality improved, the agricultural landscape was partly regenerated, and global climate change became apparent. The authors observed differences in surface runoff between forest-and non-forest catchments. However, these differences were not mainly caused by the influence of the forest cover, but by changes in agricultural land management. Since 2006, agricultural land has been managed without the use of artificial fertilizers, which reduced the contents of pollutants in surface runoff from the non-forest catchment. The existence of the forest as such excludes or noticeably eliminates the use of fertilizers and chemical substances that affect water quality.
... Moreover, the high demand of trees and soil biota for essential nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen leads to low leaching rates of those elements in most forest soils . Both the low load with pesticides and low leaching of phosphorous and nitrogen make forests sources of predominantly pure drinking water . Luo et al.  found in the subtropical humid Chinese Hunan Province that permanent forest cover has a high potential for erosion prevention combined with a slight increase in water yield. ...
Mankind expects from forests and forest soils benefits like pure drinking water, space for recreation, habitats for nature-near biocenoses and the production of timber as unrivaled climate-friendly raw material. An overview over 208 recent articles revealed that ecosystem services are actually the main focus in the perception of forest soil functions. Studies on structures and processes that are the basis of forest soil functions and ecosystem services are widely lacking. Therefore, additional literature was included dealing with the distinct soil structure and high porosity and pore continuity of forest soils, as well as with their high biological activity and chemical soil reaction. Thus, the highly differentiated, hierarchical soil structure in combination with the ion exchange capacity and the acid buffering capacity could be described as the main characteristics of forest soils confounding the desired ecosystem services. However, some of these functions of forest soils are endangered under the influence of environmental change or even because of forest management, like mono-cultures or soil compaction through forest machines. In the face of the high vulnerability of forest soils and increased threads, e.g., through soil acidification, it is evident that active soil management strategies must be implemented with the aim to counteract the loss of soil functions or to recover them.
... In addition, changes in physicochemical indicators are determinants of the amount of aluminum sulfate required for water treatment (Canepa, 2005). Previous studies showed that the operational costs of water treatment plants and population access to clean water decrease when water quality and forest cover in the catchment area increases (for example Forster et al., 1987;Dearmont et al., 1998;Ernst et al., 2004;Abildtrup et al., 2013Abildtrup et al., , 2015Fiquepron et al., 2013;Singh and Mishra, 2014;Donoghue et al., 2015;Vincent et al., 2016;Lopes et al., 2019;Mulatu et al., 2020). However, the magnitude and importance of the relationship between forest cover, water quality, and water purification costs is empirical and likely dependent on the location. ...
... Most previous studies have analyzed only one of the mechanisms, or the reduced-form relationship between forest cover change and water purification costs (Donohue et al., n.d.;O'Dwyer et al., 2013;Abildtrup et al., 2013Abildtrup et al., , 2015Curtis and Morgenroth, 2014;Mcdonald et al., 2016;Vincent et al., 2016;Lopes et al., 2019;Westling et al., 2020;Mulatu et al., 2020). Few previous studies have integrated the mechanisms linking forest cover change, water quality, and water purification costs (Fiquepron et al., 2013;Singh and Mishra, 2014;Cunha et al., 2016;Knowler et al., 2017;Westling et al., 2020). We use a panel data empirical strategy that allows us to isolate the effects of forest cover from the observable and non-observable features of treatment plants. ...
Forest cover improves surface water quality by minimizing soil erosion, reducing sediment in water and trapping or filtering water pollutants in forest litter. Because the amount of chemicals needed to produce potable water depends on the quality of intake water, upstream forest cover protection may help reduce the extent and cost of water treatment downstream. However, many other drivers exist for the cost of water treatment, so the magnitude and relevance of the influence of forest cover on water treatment cost is an empirical question. We analyze the impact of forest cover on the quality of raw water and the extent of water treatment required at the water treatment plants in Costa Rica, using monthly panel data in 2008-2014 from the drinking water treatment plants managed by the national public utility. We find that forest cover change during the study period statistically significantly affected the chemical use by water treatment plants. In economic terms, the estimated value of water purification service provided by forests is USD 9.5 per hectare per year. Depending on the discount rate, this results in a net present value of water purification service ranging between USD 315.4 and USD 113.9 per hectare. The results indicate that the economic value of the water purification service of forest is 1.7% of the value for recreational services; between 3.2 % and 1.1% relative to the value of forest carbon sequestration typical in Costa Rica, depending on the discount rate; and around 13% of the payments for watershed protection program by the National Forest Financing Fund. The results also show that the marginal contribution of forest, on a per hectare basis, on water quality becomes larger as the size of catchment decreases.
... Thus, runoff can result in increased pollution and sedimentation in natural water bodies, causing decreased water quality and reduced biodiversity (Barbosa et al. 2012). Increased urbanization and impervious surfaces can also raise municipal water treatment costs: decreased amounts of vegetated areas increase polluted runoff flows requiring water treatment (Fiquepron et al. 2013;Loperfido et al. 2014). ...
Climate change effects and increasing levels of imperviousness, cause many urban areas globally to experience larger rainfall runoff volumes that need to be managed to protect property and infrastructure, and avoid environmental pollution. Conventionally engineered, ‘grey’ stormwater infrastructure often is outdated and unable to control these increased runoff volumes. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) can complement grey infrastructure, but public land for its installation is limited. Consequently, municipalities often look to residential properties to install GSI at the lot-level. While many studies have been conducted in the engineering aspects of GSI, less is known about what determines residents’ decisions to install GSI on their properties. To help close this knowledge gap, we conducted a survey of social-psychological determinants of residential GSI implementation using the Theory of Planned Behavior as theoretical framework, and analyzing our data with partial least squares path modeling. Results from three neighborhoods of our case study area suggest that residents’ decisions to install GSI largely are determined by social norms and perceived control factors such as available finances and time. However, residents’ beliefs and attitudes toward the effectiveness and attractiveness of GSI did not seem to play a significant role. Neighborhood characteristics including local flooding history did not seem to affect residents’ decisions about GSI installation either. We recommend creation of effective municipal education and outreach programs regarding urban stormwater management that speak to residents’ shared responsibility and options for addressing this issue, as well as creation of financial instruments that provide meaningful subsidies for residential GSI adoption.
... Therefore, it can be stated that LULC change is the main driver of EH degradation in KMA. Previous works highlighted that LULC change substantially impacts ES supply (Fiquepron et al., 2013;Nahuelhual et al., 2014;Wu et al., 2013;Peng et al., 2016). Also, the global ES value decreases due to LULC change, especially urban sprawl (Costanza et al., 2014;Anaya-Romero et al., 2016;Kindu et al., 2016;Tolessa et al., 2017). ...
The assessment of Ecosystem Health (EH) is crucial for effective ecosystem services (ES) management and global environmental change assessment. This study aims to assess the spatio-temporal EH in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) from 2000 to 2019, based on the Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR) model. Vigor, Organization, and Elasticity were assessed using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), landscape matrices, land use and land cover (LULC) data. Local Moran’s I and Coefficient of Variation (CV) was applied to assess EH’s spatial pattern. The results showed that from 2000 to 2019, built-up areas increased by 90%. In contrast, vegetation cover decreased by approximately 57%. EH decreased from 2000 (0.62) to 2019 (0.38). Good EH decreased from 2000 to 2019, 73% to 52%, respectively. Whereas, weak EH increased to 21% in this period. Also, the spatial variability increased from 23% to 56% between 2000 and 2019, respectively. The deterioration of EH in KMA is attributed to the rapid urban expansion and vegetation cover decrease. Therefore, EH needs to be integrated into the decision-making framework for better and sustainable ecosystem management.
... Agriculture is the main source of nonpoint source pollution, and the excessive use of fertilizer increases the nutrient runoff from croplands (Berka et al., 2001). Compared to urban areas and croplands, woodlands impose a positive impact on the raw water quality because forests have a wide range of roots and the ability to absorb and filter nutrients (Fiquepron et al., 2013). The nutrients produced by humans and nature pass through soil, and eventually, most nutrients flow into streams and lakes. ...
The demonstration area in the Yangtze River Delta on ecologically friendly development is a major national strategy area, and eco-environmental protection should be a priority for sustainable development of this area. Exploring the
spatial-temporal characteristics of vegetation coverage (FVC) is conducive to accurate understanding of the ecological quality of environment, which is of great significance to regional sustainable development. In this study, the spatial -temporal variation characteristics and trends of vegetation cover during 1984 -2019 in the demonstration area were analyzed based on Google Earth Engine (GEE). The effects of different ecological factors on FVC were quantified by the boosted regression tree
(BRT). Results showed that, from 1984 to 2019, the changing trend of FVC in the study area converted from d ecreasing to increasing trend. The spatial distribution of FVC in the study area varied with both stages and regions. FVC was mainly
degraded. Compared with the year of 1984, the area of vegetation degradation and improvement in 2019 accounted for 49.8% and 12.8%, respectively. The vegetation degradation mainly occurred in the north of Wujiang, south of Jiashan and northeast
of Qingpu. The dominance of human activities severely weakened the influence of natural factors on FVC. Our findings suggested that the GEE is an effective tool for monitoring the dynamical change of vegetation coverage.
... While their differences are important, the U.S. and European ecological approaches have notable similarities. Both favor lowerintensity methods as higher logging intensity has been shown to cause greater ecosystem degradation; especially to biodiversity (Harmon et al., 1986;Herbeck and Larsen, 1998;Deal et al., 2014;Baker et al., 2016;Kok et al., 2018;Sing et al., 2018), water (Postel and Thompson, 2005;Fiquepron et al., 2013;Sing et al., 2018), and carbon storage (Jandl et al., 2007;Turner et al., 2011). But, although science has guided common development of sustainable practices for forest ecosystems, assessment of those ecosystems has shown that there is "a large gap between the rhetoric and the reality" (Lindenmayer et al., 2012). ...
The global need for ecological forestry is more important today than ever. But despite a century of technical advancements from forestry leaders—especially in North America and Europe—the world's forest ecosystem is declining at a time when carbon levels are rising, and biodiversity is at risk. Unfortunately, even the world's innovation leaders are struggling to change industry practices in their home countries. Undeterred by the lack of progress, new efforts are being attempted with Europe taking a markedly different path than the U.S. In the U.S., the pursuit of ecological forestry has embraced natural disturbance frameworks and stresses customized goals for local environments and social demands. In Europe, a broad application of low-intensity harvest protocols and canopy protection is being promoted for many forest types. The U.S. approach shows strong ecological promise at local and regional scales, but its broad adoption within the industry as a whole is limited and inconsistent. For the European approach, the broadly elevated priority of continuous canopy draws scientific critics, but their forestry industry is adopting and applying the concept. Although lower-intensity harvests are common to both regions, evidence suggests that Europe may be using low-intensity methods too broadly, while the U.S. is using them too little. The objective of this perspective is to describe the historical development of ecological forestry in Europe and the United States, and to propose research adjustments to help America pursue broader ecological forestry application. By understanding the historical precedents that influence forestry perceptions and the differences in contemporary approaches among forestry leaders, forestry scientists may be better equipped to design research and promote practices that can influence industry behavior for better ecosystem implications.
... Previous empirical works on the effect of forest cover on water quality have used both cross-sectional data (Moore and McCarl, 1987;Ernst et al., 2004;Freeman et al., 2008;McDonald and Shemie, 2014;Lopes et al., 2019) and panel data (Forster et al., 1987;Dearmont et al., 1998;Sthiannopkao et al., 2007;Vincent et al., 2016). Most of these studies emphasized the impact of land use on water quality (Fiquepron et al., 2013). Very few of them directly link the effect of land use to water treatment costs Freeman et al., 2008;Vincent et al., 2016). ...
Empirical assessment of relationships between land use and land cover and drinking water chemical treatment cost is lacking in developing countries. This study is conducted to assess the impact of forest and non‐forest cover on water purification chemical costs in Ethiopia. A panel fixed effects regression model was applied and analysed at the watershed, upstream parts of the watershed, and different buffer distances ranging from 2.5 to 30 kilometers. Findings indicated that forest cover both at watershed and upstream level has a significant effect on water treatment chemical cost. Result showed that watershed forest cover contributes significantly to reduction of treatment chemical costs as compared to non‐forest cover, but the contribution to the reduction of treatment cost declines as the buffer distance increases. Thus, the findings highlighted that protecting forest enhances water quality and reduces the chemical costs incurred to treat potable water.
... These studies highlight the profound influences of land changes, particularly from the natural ecosystems to artificial landscapes on the provision of ecosystem services. For example, land changes to agriculture and urban use are noted to negatively affect the provision of other crucial ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, climate regulation (Peng et al., 2006;Li et al., 2007), erosion control and genetic resources (Portela & Rademacher, 2001), disturbance regulation (Zhao et al., 2004;Wang et al., 2006), soil fertility (Schroter et al., 2005;Collard & Zammit, 2006), recreation opportunities (Nahuelhual et al., 2014) and water regulation (Schroter et al., 2005;Fiquepron et al., 2013), which are mainly provided by the natural ecosystems. ...
This chapter investigates how land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes under different scenarios will affect ecosystem services provisions in Nigeria using multiple data sources. The Markov and dynamics of land system models were integrated to predict future LULC changes while the value transfer methodology was adopted to evaluate the economic value of ecosystem services. The results revealed varying patterns and trends of LULC change under the baseline, forest protection priority, and sustainable economic growth scenarios. Based on the predicted LULC change, the total ecosystem services value in Nigeria will decline under the baseline and forest protection priority scenarios but increase in the sustainable economic growth scenario. The sustainable economic growth scenario showed major positive impacts on the ecosystem service functions of recreation, climate regulation, soil formation, and erosion control. This study concludes that the sustainable economic growth scenario is the best to ensure expected production while safeguarding the environment in Nigeria.
... Shifting to non-agricultural land also leads to higher costs but shifts to untilled land and tilled land with 15-30% residual have no statistically significant effect on costs. Abildtrup et al. (2013) and Fiquepron et al. (2013) evaluate the effects of land use on water rates in France, which are assumed to represent long-run average treatment costs. Both studies find forestland to be correlated with lower costs relative to agricultural and urban land. ...
For community water providers, safeguarding source waters from contamination offers an additional barrier of protection and a potential means of avoiding in-plant treatment costs. Whether source water protection efforts are cost-effective relative to in-plant treatment requires hydrologic, geologic, and climatologic knowledge of source watersheds, as well as an understanding of how changes in source water quality affect treatment costs. Quantitative evidence on the latter relationship is limited. This study estimates separate hedonic cost functions for water systems that primarily use surface water sources and those that primarily use groundwater sources using a database of United States (US) Community Water Systems. Cost functions relate annual variable treatment cost to production, factor input prices, capital stock, and source water quality, as proxied by land use within various ex-ante defined contributing areas (i.e., surrounding land areas affecting source water quality). For surface water systems, a 1% increase in urban land relative to forestland is correlated with a 0.13% increase in annual variable treatment costs. In this analysis, the relationship between costs and agricultural land is not statistically significant. Conversely, for groundwater systems, a 1% increase in agricultural land relative to forestland is correlated with a 0.24% increase in costs, whereas in this analysis the relationship between costs and urban land is not statistically significant. The cost-effectiveness of forestland preservation, based on sample means, varies considerably with the size of the contributing area, with no clear indication as to whether preservation is more likely to be cost-effective for surface water or groundwater systems.
... Forests provide a multitude of ecosystem services, sequestering carbon (Bonan 2008), improving water quality (Fiquepron et al. 2013), and regulating local and regional climates (Bonan 2008). Invasive plants pose significant threats to forest ecosystem functioning (Martin et al. 2009;Pejchar and Mooney 2009;Fei et al. 2014) by driving changes in native plant community composition (Hejda et al. 2009), nutrient cycling (Ehrenfeld 2003;Vilà et al. 2011), hydrology (Ehrenfeld 2010), and fire regimes (Brooks et al. 2004). ...
The construction, use, and maintenance of terrestrial transport corridors [roads and railroads (TTCs)] facilitate the spread of invasive plants, but the distances at which plants typically spread away from TTCs, and how that process is mediated by landscape context, is not well understood. We compiled data on the number of invasive plant species per ~ 672 m2 plot (= invasive richness) from 44,000 + forest inventory plots in the eastern USA. Using a generalized linear model framework, we investigated how invasive richness is influenced by distance from the nearest TTC, surrounding land use type, and ecological province. Invasive richness in forests decreased as distance from the nearest TTC increased. Directly adjacent to TTCs, there were an estimated 1.4 ± 0.01 SE invasive plant species per plot compared to 0.8 ± 0.01 and 0.2 ± 0.01 species at 1 and 3 km, respectively, away from the nearest TTC. Invasive richness was highest on plots associated with a combination of agriculture/development (2.1 ± 0.03 species per plot) and in the Midwest Broadleaf Forest province (2.1 ± 0.06). Our macroscale analysis also demonstrated that rates of decay in invasive richness away from TTCs were mediated by the types of land use and ecological provinces within which plots were located. The influences of TTCs and associated activities (e.g., construction, travel) on invasive plant richness were widespread across forests of the eastern USA, but the relative importance of TTCs for facilitating spread appears to be highly context dependent.
... De récents travaux ont mis en évidence l'influence de la présence de forêt comme facteur positif du prix de l'eau. Cela s'explique par les taux très faibles de nitrates et de produits phytosanitaires, qui ne nécessitent pas de traitements importants de l'eau brute pour la rendre potable (Fiquepron et al., 2013) ; -le support de la biodiversité 10 . La production du bois s'effectue dans le cadre d'une gestion durable, c'est-à-dire soucieuse de la conservation de la diversité biologique. ...
Partie du chapitre B: Effets attendus du changement climatique sur l’arbre et la forêt
... Forests in the catchment areas (floodplain forests) is a unique natural grouping as they grow under the conditions of annual periodical flooding with different duration as part of spring floods (Fiquepron et al., 2013). They are also affected by continuous stream (Langat et al., 2019;Santos et al., 2019) and alluvial processes (Guillon et al., 2019;Lanzoni et al., 2019). ...
The aim of the study was to analyze the origin of oak stands within the catchments of the Vorskla’s tributaries and to describe their state. Covering 60,900 ha, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) stands prevail and cover 51.1% of the total forest area of 119,200 ha in the catchment areas of the River Vorskla’s tributaries. The way oak stands are distributed in regards to trophotopes points at favourable conditions for their growth, as 81.7% of the area is a fresh fertile oak forest site type. Forest stands aged 41–80 years (39.8 % of the total area) and 81–120 years (50.4%) are prevailing. Natural oak stands cover almost 66.5% and planted ones grow at 33.5%. Distribution of oak stands in regards to the functional categories of forests shows a significant predominance of the protective forests. They cover 46.6% of the total area. The commercial forests cover 23.0%, the recreational ones make 18.8% and the forests with conservational, academic, historical and cultural purpose cover 11.6 %. Distribution patterns of oak forests in the catchments of the River Vorskla’s tributaries should be considered in the forest management in order to conserve their biodiversity and enhancing the performance of important environmental, protective, recreational and other functions. The article contains results of the study on the natural regeneration of Quercus robur and other wood species under the canopy of oak stands and on felling sites. The further research perspectives are a thorough study of the stand characteristics and the typological structure of forests in terms of certain wood species in the catchments of rivers all over Ukraine. It will help developing principles for the catchment and landscape zonation.
... Thus, changes in LUCC have markedly affected ecosystem services worldwide (Polasky et al., 2011). For example, LUCC modifies the surface terrestrial biogeochemical cycle (Lambin and Ehrlich, 1997), and research has been conducted on the links between LUCC and ecosystem services including nutrient cycling, climate regulation (Zhao et al., 2004;Peng et al., 2006;Li et al., 2007), soil carbon (Collard and Zammit, 2006), water availability and regulation (Schroter et al., 2005;Fiquepron et al., 2013), and recreation and aesthetic value (Nahuelhual et al., 2014). This previous research has provided vital insights and guidance to land and environmental managers (Hao et al., 2012). ...
As a result of economics and policy, land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) in China has undergone a series of complicated changes over the past three decades. However, the effects of LUCCs on ecosystem service values (ESVs) have never been previously assessed at the national scale. Thus, on the basis of three Chinese LUCC maps from 1988, 2000, and 2008, we examined changes in land-use/land-cover and consequent ESVs using a value transfer method. We found that ESVs decreased by 0.45% and 0.10% during the periods 1988–2000 and 2000–2008, respectively, and that ESV changes in China during the period 2000–2008 were relatively moderate compared to the rest of the world over a similar period. The ESVs for provision, regulation, support, and culture decreased by 0.19%, 0.48%, 0.43%, and 0.45%, respectively, during the period 1988–2000, while they decreased by 0.11%, 0.09%, 0.14%, and 0.04%, respectively, during the period 2000–2008. We also developed an elasticity indicator to assess responses in ESV change relative to LUCCs. Results of this analysis show that 1% of land conversion in China resulted in 0.15% and 0.10% average changes in ESVs during the two periods, respectively.
... Despite worldwide conservation efforts, areas covered by native grasslands, forests, and wetlands are continuously replaced by croplands, tree plantations, and urban areas, and only a few landscapes remain relatively undisturbed globally . Such changes can have a large impact on status of the world's ecosystems and the services they can provide [13,. For instance, the conversion of forest or grassland into farmland can increase the provision of food production at the expense of land capacity for carbon sequestration, indicating ecological degradation . ...
This study evaluated the effect of Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) dynamics on the value of ecosystem services in Abaya-Chamo basin over 1985–2050. The main objectives of the study were to estimate the value of ecosystem services of Abaya-Chamo basin using local and global ecosystem service value coefficients, assess how it changes over time, and develop tools to inform policy and public decision-making to protect lands and waters in the region. The study utilized observed (1985 and 2010) and predicted (2030 and 2050) LULC datasets and ecosystem service value coefficients obtained from publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The results indicated that the total ecosystem service value of Abaya-Chamo basin was 12.13 billion USD in 1985 and 12.45 billion USD in 2010. The value is predicted to increase to 12.47 billion USD by the year 2050, which is 2.84% (344.5 million USD) higher than the total value of ecosystem services of the basin in 1985. Although the total ecosystem service value of the basin showed a slight increase over the study period, it was observed that the total value of services obtained from natural ecosystems is expected to decline by 36.24% between 1985 and 2050. The losses of services obtained from natural ecosystems, such as water regulation and erosion control, are major concern as the consequence has already been reported in the basin in the form of reduced water quality and productivity of the lakes due to an increased soil erosion and sediment transport in the basin. Therefore, special attention should be given to the rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and the protection of remaining natural vegetation and water bodies to enhance natural capital and ecosystem services in the basin. A large-scale dissemination of eco-agricultural land use practices, which provide multiple ecosystem services (such as agroforestry and heterogeneous agricultural areas) in the basin, needs to be considered in the future.
... Two studies conducted in France also confirm that forests significantly reduce water treatment costs, by decreasing e.g. nitrogen run-off in surface water (Abildtrup et al., 2013;Fiquepron et al., 2013). ...
Clean water is not only the product of expensive treatment technology, but also of upstream ecosystems. Yet, the effect of land use on downstream water quality is poorly understood. We investigate the value of ecosystem water purification as an input to the production of drinking water in Sweden. We employ a recently modified empirical approach, complementing ex-ante modelling. We capture plant operator behaviour, rather than assuming rational individuals that value ecosystem services as a factor in the drinking water production function. The GMM technique is applied to estimate the marginal contributions of different land uses to water quality and chemical costs of treatment plants. The analysis is based on upstream land-use data, raw water quality, and chemical costs for a large share of Sweden’s municipal surface water treatment plants, for the period 2000 to 2012. Our results show that upstream forests lead to lower levels of E. coli (a pathogen associated with disease outbreaks) in downstream water and indicate the same effect on turbidity (not significant). We also find that turbidity increases treatment costs, but the effect of E. coli remains unclear. Consequently, in addition to water treatment equipment, decision-makers should consider investment in upstream ecosystems.
... Los tipos de coberturas que se tienen en las ciudades tienen un efecto en el régimen de evapotranspiración y en la generación e inicio de la escorrentía superficial (Fohrer et al., 2000). Es muy importante que temáticas relacionadas con el cambio de uso del suelo se discutan en las políticas públicas, en donde se aborden aspectos como; las opciones sustentables del uso de la tierra y el incentivo a la conservación del bosque, como por ejemplo, la creación de un sistema de pago por servicios ambientales urbanos, con el objeto de no perder los recursos forestales en las ciudades (Fiquepron et al., 2013;Jullian, 2016). ...
El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el potencial de escurrimiento asociado a los cambios en las coberturas de la tierra dados entre los años de 2005 y 2017 para así proyectarlos mediante la herramienta MOLUSCE de Quantum GIS (QGIS) al 2029 en la microcuenca del río Tiribí. Se espera que esto pueda conducir a la formulación de lineamientos en políticas de manejo y ordenamiento del territorio para la conservación de los servicios ecosistémicos de regulación hídrica antes de que desaparezcan.
El potencial de escurrimiento se determinó utilizando la metodología propuesta por Breña y Jacobo (2006), quienes a partir de las coberturas de la tierra, el tipo de suelo y las pendientes determinan las propiedades físicas que tienen los suelos de una cuenca hidrográfica para que se pueda infiltrar el agua antes de que ocurra una precipitación. A esto se denomina también como Número de Curva (NC) y se utiliza como base el concepto de permeabilidad para el proceso de análisis espacial. Es muy importante mencionar que gran parte del agua que no logra infiltrarse en el suelo durante una precipitación se convierte segundos después en escorrentía superficial, a la cual se le asocia con agravar problemas como: inundaciones urbanas, erosión y la reducción de la capacidad de una cuenca hidrográfica para recargar sus acuíferos superficiales y subterráneos (Ramírez, 2013; Jobbagy, 2011).
Para la caracterización de las coberturas de la tierra, se utilizaron imágenes aéreas de la NASA para 2005 y del satélite Sentinel 2A de la Agencia Espacial Europea para 2017. En ambos casos se decidió trabajar a una escala de 1:10 000, debido a que Sentinel es la imagen que tiene menor resolución espacial con 10 metros. El mapa de tipos de suelos posee una escala 1:25 000 y fue elaborado por el AyA (2013), quienes hicieron una caracterización semidetallada de los suelos para el Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica únicamente. Por último se calcularon las pendientes del área de estudio, mediante las curvas de nivel del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) a 1:25 000 para finalmente estimar el potencial de escurrimiento para los años de análisis e identificar las áreas críticas de escorrentía a una escala 1:25 000.
La proyección de las coberturas de la tierra como ya se mencionó se hizo con la herramienta MOLUSCE que fue desarrollada por la Universidad de Clark, en Massachusetts, Estados Unidos, con la cual se puede generar una predicción de las coberturas de la tierra para un año específico en la versión de QGIS 2.18.1. Es fundamental no solo conocer cuáles cambios se han dado en el territorio, sino cuáles otros se podrían dar, para así generar una herramienta de anticipación espacial, con el fin único y exclusivo de proteger y recuperar los servicios ecosistémicos de regulación hídrica antes que desaparezcan.
... Fiquepron et al. (2013) developed a cost-based econometric model to assess the benefits provided by forests in France in terms of improved water quality, estimating that on average 1 ha of afforestation would generate a saving for French domestic users of around 22€/user/year (in 2004 euros).Abildtrup et al. (2013) developed a spatial econometric analysis of the effect of forest land use on the cost of drinking water supply in Vosges, France, and found a reduction in household water bills ranging between 99 and 138 €/ha/year (in 2008 euros) of new forest.Box 5. Example of valuation of the water cycle regulation service provided by the protection of strategic groundwater resources for the future. ...
... Ces deux mécanismes régulent la quantité d'eau qui ruisselle, diminuant le risque de crue et de sécheresse. La forêt contrôle aussi la qualité de l'eau (Fiquepron et al., 2013;Vincent et al., 2016) en diminuant l'érosion du sol grâce aux racines qui maintiennent le sol en place (Myers, 1996). De plus, la présence d'un système racinaire profond et d'un humus avec une abondante micro et macro-faune augmente la porosité du sol et sa conductivité hydraulique ce qui permet de diminuer le ruissellement de surface et donc d'augmenter la filtration par le sol de ces eaux (Neary et al., 2009). ...
Dans un contexte de renouvellement de l'industrie chimique et de recherche de nouveaux débouchés pour la foresterie, les extractibles deviennent des molécules de plus en plus intéressantes, tant écologiquement que financièrement parlant. Afin d'évaluer la pertinence de ces molécules comme nouvelle ressource pour la chimie et potentiel débouché pour la foresterie, il est nécessaire de faire une évaluation préalable de la ressource. Ceci nécessite de connaître le volume des compartiments riches en extractibles, particulièrement les écorces et les nœuds. La présente étude s'intéresse donc à la modélisation des volumes d'écorce et de nœuds. Elle se concentre spécifiquement sur deux régions françaises, le Grand Est et la Bourgogne-Franche-Comté et six essences d'importance, Abies alba, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus patraea, Fagus sylvatica.Cette étude est rendue possible grâce à l'utilisation d'une grande base de données comprenant des mesures d'épaisseur d'écorce pratiquées à différentes hauteurs sur la tige de nombreux arbres. D'autre part de nouveaux échantillonnages ont eu lieu ce qui a permis d'obtenir, grâce à l'utilisation d'un scanner à rayon X, une image informatique des nœuds et d'en mesurer précisément le volume.Afin de modéliser la quantité d'écorce disponible trois types de modèles ont été construits, des modèles de prédiction du volume d'écorce, des modèles de prédiction de la surface d'écorce le long de la tige et des modèles de prédiction de l'épaisseur d'écorce à 1m30. Les premiers ont permis d'atteindre une racine de l'erreur quadratique moyenne relative (RMSErel) comprise entre 16.7 % et 27.5 % en fonction des espèces.L'étude portant sur les modèles de surface d'écorce a permis de mettre en évidence la possibilité d'utiliser un modèle indépendant du diamètre-sur-écorce mais que les modèles utilisant en entrée cet variable sont encore plus précis. Le RMSErel atteint par ces modèles de surface d'écorce varie entre 23 et 38 % en fonction de l'espèce et du modèle considéré. Ce travail a montré l'importance de l'utilisation de l'épaisseur d'écorce à 1m30 comme donnée d'entrée. Celle-ci n'étant aujourd'hui que rarement mesurée, elle a aussi été modélisée à partir du D130. Cela a permis de mettre en évidence une influence de l'altitude sur l'épaisseur d'écorce à 1m30 pour trois espèces : Abies alba, Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica. Les modèles obtenus atteignent un RMSErel allant de 26.8 % à 36 % en fonction de l'espèce considérée.Enfin, les volumes de nœuds ont commencé à être étudiés. Bien que ce travail n'ai pas été entièrement mené, il montre déjà l'importance de produire de nouveaux modèles de volume de nœuds. De plus leur quantité dans le bois semble, à ce stade de l'étude, trop peu importante pour dégager de grandes ressources en extractible, malgré leur grande richesse intrinsèque. Leur intérêt pourrait donc plus se trouver dans l'extraction de molécules spécifiques.
... The most prominent feature of urbanization is that it converts vast areas of seminatural or natural land to construction land , with corresponding impacts on ESs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that land use changes can significantly reduce ESP , e.g., by damaging regional biodiversity, decreasing carbon storage and sequestration , exacerbating soil erosion and nitrogen export , deteriorating water quality and availability , and decreasing recreational and esthetic values . Consequently, land use change has been proven to be the direct and main driving factor of recent ESs change and global environmental change . ...
Citation: Wang, R.; Xu, X.; Bai, Y.; Alatalo, J.M.; Yang
... Le modèle complet est schématisé par la Figure 1. À partir de mesures de paramètres de qualité qui ont été identifiés comme les plus problématiques (pesticides et nitrates), Fiquepron et al. (2013) estiment la relation de causalité de différentes utilisations des terres (forêt, prairies permanentes, grandes cultures céréalières, viticulture et arboriculture) mais aussi du nombre de bovins et de porcins par ha, sur la qualité de l'eau, elle-même impactant les coûts d'AEP ainsi que le mode de gestion publique ou déléguée (souvent choisi au regard de la complexité de l'exploitation du service). Cet exercice d'évaluation monétaire des externalités produites par les usages du sol, réalisé à l'échelle de la France, montre que la forêt a un effet positif sur la qualité de l'eau brute par rapport aux autres usages du sol, avec comme effet indirect la baisse des coûts de l'eau. ...
... Dudley & Stolton, 2003;Fiquepron et al., 2013;Giri & Qiu, 2016;Jackson et al., 2004;Lockaby et al., 2013). Although the total amount of forest area has stabilized in recent decades in the U.S. (D'Annunzio et al., 2015) after earlier considerable decline (Oswalt et al., 2019), forested lands are predicted to decline again in the future as the population grows (Wear et al., 2013). ...
Clean water from forests is commonly used to supply drinking water to communities both within and outside basin boundaries through inter‐basin transfers (IBTs). Here, we modified the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI) model to provide estimates of mean water yield and the proportion of mean flow originating on forested lands at the 12‐Digit Hydrologic Unit Code scale across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We accounted for the benefits of forests for drinking water supply and receiving populations through IBTs by incorporating a new IBT database, surface intake location information for public drinking water systems, and modeled water yield from forests. We compiled the new database of 594 IBTs ranging from 0.01 million m³ yr⁻¹ to 8,900 million m³ yr⁻¹, for a total transferred volume of 116,894 million m³ yr⁻¹. According to our results, forested lands comprised 28.7% of the total land area across CONUS, but contributed 46% of the total surface water yield. Approximately 125.5 million people derived more than 10% of their surface drinking water supply from forested lands, and 83.1 million people received more than 50% of their surface drinking water supply from forested lands. Of those 83.1 million people receiving more than 50% of their surface drinking water supply from forested lands, 19.4 million people obtained some (≥0.01%) of that water through IBTs. We conclude that accounting for IBTs is critical to accurately assess the contribution of forested watersheds for surface drinking water supply. Hydrologic models for assessment and decision making must include IBTs to fully account for the effects of climate change and human population dynamics on water resource availability at watershed to regional scales. Results from this study can aid water resource and forest managers in developing integrated watershed management plans at a time when climate change, population growth, and land use change threaten water supplies.
... In the hilly region country like Nepal, changes in the land use activities followed by upstream communities can contribute changes in water quality and quantity (Achet and Fleming 2006). This is because of deforestation and forest degradation can influence in evapotranspiration, water flows, water pollution (Ellison et al. 2012;Fiquepron et al. 2013). Vegetative measures where considered to be more effective for the conservation of watershed resource, but need user group involvement for long-term maintenance (Fleming 2009). ...
... For this reason, this concept's areas of interest should be clarified for each of the activities and fields that it comprises. Hence, this study focuses its efforts on relating the concept of bioeconomy to water resources, since it is seen as an opportunity both in the comprehensive management of water, and in increasing the success of bioeconomy . Therefore, this study is structured so that section 2 shall describe the methodology carried out to learn about the main research focused on water resources and bioeconomy. ...
The scarcity of natural resources as well as the increase in waste and environmental pollution are considered current challenges that must be solved. In this context in which the search for processes that ensure an improvement of the current situation prevails, the term bioeconomy arises. Said term, which is based on renewable biological resources as an alternative to fossil fuels, represents an advance in terms of sustainability. However, it is highly related to numerous sectors, such as fishing, agriculture, livestock, forestry and aquaculture, among others. In this sense, with the aim of limiting the implications and areas of interest for each of these sectors, the study focuses on analysing research trends in the field of bioeconomy and water resources. This is why the present work focuses on collecting the subject areas and keywords that define the current interests of this research line. Finally, the fundamental role of political actions to positively influence the introduction of new sustainable processes is mentioned.
... However, the gains generated are complemented by a decline in other ES that constitutes 82.4% out of the 17 individual ES considered in this research work, which is provided by the natural habitats. These findings align with numerous study reports worldwide Fiquepron et al., 2013;Kindu et al., 2016b;Nahuelhual et al., 2014;Tolessa et al., 2021) that concluded expansion of human-dominated land-uses such as agricultural land and settlement areas are negatively affecting the provision of other ES. The decline in an area of certain natural habitats could further affect the contribution of individual ecosystem services. ...
Ecosystem Service value (ESV) is a technique of assigning monetary value to the services and goods of an ecosystem. The rapid change in land-use land cover (LULC) is a major factor for the change in the capacity of Ecosystem Services (ES). Understanding LULC change and its impact on ESV is vital for decision-making processes. We quantify the spatiotemporal variation of ESV of the Kaffa biosphere reserve in association with LULC dynamics, which is part of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot areas. Eight LULC types were identified following a supervised classification using a maximum likelihood technique in ArcGIS 10.5. The ES coefficients published by Costanza and others in 2014 were used to estimate the monetary value through the benefit transfer method. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to control the effect of coefficients on the estimated ESV. The results showed declining of ESV from US$ 5818 million to US$ 5536.9 million from 1986 to 2019 and are expected to decline to US$ 5222.8 million in 2049. The change in ESV revealed a total loss of 4.8%. The reasons for the decline in ESV of the biosphere reserve were the conversion of forestland, grassland, and wetland to settlement and agricultural areas. From the land-use types, the contribution of wetland, forest, and agriculture was the most dominant land use in ESV. Genetic resources, climate regulation, water regulation, and recreation were the highest contributors to the total ESV. We conclude that the cause for the decline of ESV is a land-use change that caused ecosystem degradation.
... Apart from that, there are some initiatives regarding the restoration of religious and cultural practices. In a participatory way -including all stakeholders the local population delimited areas of worship to venerate the gods of water and forest [30,31]. There are also some places set for recreation or entertainment. ...
The Okpara dam in Northern Benin offers multiple ecosystem services (ESS) to the riparian communities living around. It is an important drinking water source for the populations of the largest nearby metropolis Parakou. Many development activities have been undertaken to increase its capacity to supply drinking water by the Benin national water Company (SONEB: Société National des Eaux du Bénin). These activities combined with climate change are drastically affecting the sustainability of ESS supply. This paper aims to analyse the determinants of changes in the provision of ESS and to assess the local innovations developed by local communities to adapt to these changes. Data collection consisted in interviewing 111 individuals in the nearby villages of the Okpara dam. It included farmers, fishermen, religious dignitaries, SONEB officials, and traditional leaders. The results show that the modernization work undertaken by SONEB has increased the capacity of the dam to supply drinking water to the Parakou’s population. On the other hand, they have deprived the local communities of many ESS such as cultural and religious spaces, entertainment and agricultural production areas. In addition to these development works, climate change and other anthropic actions are also cited as factors explaining the depletion of certain ESS around the dam. To limit the damage and safeguard agricultural production, local population have developed agricultural areas downstream of the dam with the creation of autonomous water points for market gardening. Fish farming areas have also been created for small-scale fishing. These innovations have helped not only to improve the availability of drinking water but also increase the income of farmers and fishermen and improve the social cohesion among the communities.
... Les interactions entre le cycle de l'eau et la forêt sont multiples et concernent différents services écosystémiques (Fiquepron et al. 2013 ;Nisbet et al. 2011 ;Otto 1998 ;Piégay et al. 2003). Il s'agit notamment de : ...
La publication des « Habitats d’Intérêt Communautaire de Wallonie » (HICW) est le résultat d’une collaboration entre la Direction de la Nature et de l’Eau du Département de l’Étude du Milieu Naturel et Agricole (SPW-Agriculture, Ressources naturelles et Environnement) et plusieurs services universitaires en appui scientifique à la mise en oeuvre du réseau Natura 2000 en Wallonie.
Chaque chapitre dédié à un groupe d’habitats comporte une partie introductive situant leur origine et leur intégration dans le contexte
européen et wallon, leur intérêt patrimonial et les services écosystémiques qui leurs sont associés. Sont ensuite passées en revue les conditions nécessaires à leur existence, les menaces qui pèsent sur eux, les principes de leur évaluation qualitative et les mesures de gestion et de restauration.
Chaque habitat fait ensuite l’objet d’une fiche descriptive individuelle permettant de définir sa déclinaison wallonne, son appartenance phytosociologique et la correspondance entre les différentes typologies utilisées dans les publications scientifiques. Les caractéristiques de l’habitat sont ensuite passées en revue, avec les espèces diagnostiques, la variabilité de l’habitat à l’échelle régionale et sa répartition connue. Lorsque l’habitat peut être confondu avec un autre, les différences permettant de les distinguer sont indiquées. Ceci est particulièrement utile pour les habitats forestiers où des faciès sylvicoles peuvent prêter à confusion lors de leur identification. Enfin, l’habitat est replacé dans son contexte évolutif et ses rapports éventuels avec d’autres habitats sont décrits.
Le chapitre sur les habitats forestiers décrit les hêtraies (9110,
9120, 9130, 9150), chênaies climaciques (9160, 9190), forêts de ravins et de pentes (9180), forêts alluviales (91E0, 91F0) et boulaies
... Through their multifunctionality and biodiversity, forests provide numerous ecosystem services that benefit people for well-being and increase the quality of life (Cudlin et al. 2013). Environmental and climate change over time, determined by the need to change the use of forested land, including management, have substantial effects on the services they provide (Fiquepron et al. 2013, Furst et al. 2013. The services provided by forest ecosystems and how they are affected by environmental changes have been insufficiently evaluated on a large scale in an integrated way (Cudlin et al. 2013). ...
... Vegetation restoration significantly affects the hydrological and erosion processes, thereby affecting the migration and transformation of nitrogen. Forestland has a positive effect on river water quality compared to a mix of forestland and a built environment (Fiquepron et al. 2013). ...
Non-point source pollution in rivers is an important factor affecting water quality. Quantifying the load of non-point source pollutants in the water and implementing improvement measures are critical for guaranteeing drinking water quality. In this study, the Dan River watershed, which is an important water source for Beijing, was investigated. Through a combination of water sampling and numerical simulations, the temporal and spatial distributions of nitrate nitrogen (NO3⁻-N) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4⁺-N) loads in the watershed were determined, and the effects of vegetation restoration and agricultural management on reducing nitrogen pollution in the river were predicted. The NO3⁻-N and NH4⁺-N loads in the watershed were higher during the wet season (July–September), accounting for more than 50% of the annual nitrogen output. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate the nitrogen load in the watershed. Pollution from nitrogen loading was serious in the lower reaches of the river; however, vegetation restoration can reduce the nitrogen output. Through scenario simulations, we found that an increase in forestland in the watershed would reduce the NO3⁻-N and NH4⁺-N loads. The nitrate and NH4⁺-N loads in the watershed also decreased with reduced fertilizer use and reduced irrigation application in the watershed. Thus, reasonable land planning and agricultural management measures can effectively reduce nitrogen loss, which is an effective way to control non-point source pollution in watersheds and ensure river water quality.
... Accordingly, if the situation of agricultural lands continues in this way in the future, it will contribute to the increase of underground water resources, and thus, it is expected that the water class will continue to expand. Compared to other land uses like urbanized areas or arable land, forests offer lower runoff (Adhikari et al., 2002;Fiquepron et al., 2013;Sikka & Selvi, 2005). The areal expansion experienced or likely to be experienced in the forest areas will feed the underground water resources by reducing the precipitation regime and lowering the transmission of precipitation waters to the surface flow. ...
The purpose of this study, covering the northern Ulus district of Turkey, was to analyze the forest and land use/land cover (LULC) changes in the past period from 2000 to 2020, and to predict the possible changes in 2030 and 2040, using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) together with the CA–Markov model. The maximum likelihood classified (MLC) technique was used to produce LULC maps, using 2000 and 2010 Landsat (ETM +) and 2020 Landsat (OLI) images based on existing stand-type maps as reference. Using the historical data from the generated LULC maps, the LULC changes for 2030–2040 were predicted via the CA-Markov hybrid model. The reliability of the model was verified by overlapping the 2020 LULC map with the 2020 LULC model (predicted) map. The overall accuracy was found to be 80.90%, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.74. The total forest area (coniferous + broad-leaved + mixed forest) grew by 10,656.4 ha (15.4%) in the 2000–2020 period. Examination of the types within the Forest Class revealed that the coniferous forest area had grown by 5.9% in the period 2000–2010, whereas it had decreased by 4.7% in the period 2010–2020. The broad-leaved forest area had grown by 1.2% and 3.1%, respectively, between 2000 and 2010 and 2010 and 2020. The mixed forest area had been reduced by 7.1% in the period 2000–2010 but had grown by 1.7% in the 2010–2020 period. In the Non-Forest Class, although the water area had increased in the 2000–2020 period, agricultural land and settlement areas had decreased by 11,553.9 ha (32.3%) and 34.6 ha (0.5%), respectively. According to the 2020–2040 LULC simulation results, it was predicted that there would be 3.8% and 26.4% growth in the total forest and water surface areas and 13.9% and 5.3% reduction in the agricultural and settlement areas, respectively. Using the LULC simulation to separate the Forest Class into coniferous, broad-leaved, and mixed forest categories and subsequently examining the individual changes can be of great help to forest planners and managers in decision-making and strategy development.
... In particular, the land use and land cover change (LUCC) induced by human activities influences ESs and regional environments (Pocewicz et al., 2008), by decreasing ESs provision in series of ways (Gao and Bryan, 2017). These include reducing biodiversity (Maes et al., 2012), carbon storage (Tolessa et al., 2017), recreational and esthetic values (Song and Deng, 2017), aggravating soil erosion and nitrogen export (Bai et al., 2018;Choubin et al. 2017;Tolessa et al., 2017), and degrading water quantity and quality (Fiquepron et al., 2013;Mashayekhi et al. 2010). Therefore LUCC is widely regarded as the key factor altering the function and structure of ecosystems, and the greatest and most direct driving force in ESs change and distribution over recent history (Huang et al., 2019;Xu et al., 2017a;Xu et al., 2017b). ...
Dianchi Lake Basin (DLB) is a typical and representative type of urbanization model based on the plateau lake ecosystem, with scarce land resources, deficient water resources, and a fragile ecological environment, in parallel with large-scale and rapid urbanization. To increase ecological security and maintain ecosystem services (ESs), it is essential to analyze the paths and processes for implementing sustainable urbanization. Using combined CLUE-S-Markov-InVEST modeling, the study simulated ESs changes and distribution in DLB under a natural increase scenario (NIS), an urban plan scenario (UPS), and an ecological protection scenario (EPS). EPS proved to be the best-optimized urbanization path and land use pattern that can meet land use demand for urbanization, but also maintain (or even improve) regional ESs levels. The major driving mechanisms underlying urbanization effects on ESs were found to be selection of urbanization path, scale control and layout of construction land, demarcation and implementation of ecological red line and ecological protection areas. The results indicate that DLB should follow the EPS urbanization path, an ecological red line should be reasonably delineated and observed, and ecological isolation strips should be established at appropriate locations. Additionally, the scale of construction land should be strictly controlled, constructed land should be used more intensively, and the utilization efficiency of construction land should be improved.
... Agriculture is the main source of nonpoint source pollution, and the excessive use of fertilizer increases the nutrient runoff from croplands (Berka et al., 2001). Compared to urban areas and croplands, woodlands impose a positive impact on the raw water quality because forests have a wide range of roots and the ability to absorb and filter nutrients (Fiquepron et al., 2013). The nutrients produced by humans and nature pass through soil, and eventually, most nutrients flow into streams and lakes. ...
Understanding the complexity of catchment-scale human activities, natural factors, and stream water quality is particularly important for basin water resources management. Thorough investigations on how multiple environmental factors quantitatively and simultaneously affect water quality are limited. This study employed Spearman’s correlation and ridge regression analysis (RRA) to disentangle the hydraulic geometry and land use contributions to water quality variables (WQVs). Nine and six indicators were used to describe the hydraulic geometry and land use characteristics, respectively, in the Taihu Basin. The results revealed significant correlations between the land use, hydraulic geometry, and stream water quality. Built-up land and cropland negatively impacted the stream water quality, while woodland had the opposite trend. The structure and morphological connectivity of the river network were associated with most WQVs. The hydrologic connectivity characteristics strongly influenced ammonia–nitrogen (NH3-N), permanganate index (CODMn), and dissolved oxygen (DO). Six equations that estimated the stream water quality were established through RRA. Human factors impose a greater impact on the stream water quality than natural factors in the Taihu Basin. Our findings provide quantitative insights to mitigate water pollution via reasonable management and control of the river structure and connectivity and land-use patterns.
There is increasing interest in the cost-effectiveness and economic benefits of replacing traditional engineering-based ‘grey’ infrastructure with nature-based ‘green’ infrastructure in the water sector. This study builds on the emerging literature in this field and sets itself apart in several ways. New in this study is the focus on the interrelationship between green infrastructure, water treatment costs proxied by drinking water rates, and drinking water safety. The latter refers to adverse treated water quality incidents (AWQI's) such as unsatisfactory bacteriological test results that may lead to drinking water advisories when sufficiently severe. An integrated modelling framework is furthermore developed, accounting simultaneously for possible spatial spill-over effects due to watershed land cover and potential endogeneity embedded in the relationship between water treatment costs, drinking water billing, and the occurrence of AWQI's. Data from the water- and forest-abundant and densely populated Canadian province of Ontario were used and significant negative correlations between forested land area and both drinking water rates and AWQI's are observed. While causality underlying these relationships needs further investigation, these results indicate support for the use of techno-ecological nature-based solutions in drinking water risk management.
Surface water is an important source for drinking water, which are under environmental and anthropogenic stresses. There are several evidences confirming that forest cover positively affects water quality. However, little quantitate information is available regarding the impacts of forest canopy cover on purification of drinking water quality in Iran. To achieve this, we selected several forested catchments with different ground canopy cover in Tang-e-Shool forest located in the Fars province and Water Quality Index (WQI) were measured by using physicochemical parameters. The production function of water quality service was also estimated by taking into account other characteristics of the forested micro catchments. Our results showed that the WQI in 30% crown cover is in a good quality scale. Also with an increase of 1% in the crown cover, WQI will improve by 0.8% and an increase of 1% in the area of the micro catchment causes a decline of 0.14 percent of WQI. Also, Aghajari Formation has a negative effect on WQI compare to Asmari. According to this study increasing the crown cover to protect water quality by up to 30%, will minimize treatment costs and the waters provided by these forests can be used for human drinking purposes.
Population progress is one of the main factors affecting the environment, modifying the natural dynamics of ecosystems. The Camboriú River Basin is located on the southern coast of Brazil and is strongly affected by population growth. This paper aimed to verify the space-time variation in the land use of the Camboriú River Basin by identifying changes in occupation and land use between 1986 and 2017. The rapid environmental assessment protocol was applied using the following parameters: bottom substrate, habitat complexity, backwaters quality, stability of banks, vegetative protection, vegetative cover, vegetative quality, and riparian vegetation presence. The changes in occupation and land use show rapid urbanization with a rise of 9% in 1986 to 24% in 2017. In riparian forest, higher altitude regions of the watershed show better results when compared to lower course regions, which are, thus, reflected in the environmental integrity of the stretches of stream studied. As for the behavior of urban occupation in space, it was verified that it did not occur continuously in comparison with the population, data during the studied period.
The water purification functions of forests represent one of the most frequently invoked examples of nonmarket ecosystem services that are economically valuable. This study quantifies the monetary value of forests' water purification services in the form of the ensuing cost savings of municipal drinking water treatment, using a rich panel dataset from China's Sichuan province. Moreover, this study has undertaken a novel spatial piecewise approach to investigate the spatial patterns of such cost savings delivered by forests at different distances from the water intake point. The estimation results find that forests within a 2 km radius upstream from the water intake point have the most sizeable and statistically significant cost saving effect. For forests within a 3 km radius, this effect becomes somewhat smaller but remains statistically significant. Beyond a 4 km radius, this effect becomes notably smaller and statistically equal to zero. Our analysis facilitates the optimal spatial targeting of forest conservation.
Reclamation activities can achieve considerable economic benefits, but also cause negative effects on regional ecosystems. Exploring the ecosystem services (ESs) in an economically developed but eco-environment fragile gulf region, and providing decision-making basis for the formulation of land use (LU) policies and ecological protection planning in the gulf region. Based on multi-year land use, meteorological and soil datasets, we analyzed spatiotemporal changes of ESs in Hangzhou Bay (HZB), China, and explored the impact of reclamation activities on ESs. The results showed that the LU change in HZB was marked by a fast increase of urban land and a large transfer of farmland to urban land. Per ES in HZB, water yield and carbon storage increased, while soil retention, habitat quality, and nitrogen export tended to decline. Various ESs failed to achieve coordinative development. The trade-off relationship of ESs was concentrated between carbon storage, nitrogen export, and water yield, and between habitat quality, water yield, and nitrogen export. With the intensification of reclamation activities in HZB, shoreline shrank; morphology tended to be more complicated; and reclamation activities had a significant impact on ESs. Based on the research results, four methods (policies and measures) to promote the coordination development of HZB ecosystem and social economy were proposed, so as to contribute to the high-quality development of the HZB Greater Bay Area.
Land use/cover change (LUCC) in Northeastern China (NEC) has dynamically changed over the past several decades. However, few LUCC studies have examined the value of ecosystem services (VES) in major grain production areas involved in national food production. Measuring this process and incorporating VES into agricultural management can provide a scientific basis for environmental management and sustainable agricultural development. Thus, taking NEC as an example, based on modified value coefficients, we estimated changes in VES in response to LUCC over the past 25 years (1990–2015), and changed VES over this period were incorporated into agricultural management. We found that VES decreased by 27.24% and increased by 61.57% during the periods of 1990–2000 and 2000–2015, respectively. In addition, total VES increased by 17.55%. The decrease of VES during the period of 1990–2000 resulted from cultivated land reclamation, forest and wetland degradation. VES increase was influenced by land retirement and afforestation programs implemented in NEC. When changes in VES were incorporated into agricultural management, small farms appeared to be going down remarkably compared with those for mid-sized and large farms. Prudent agricultural management should be considered for mid-sized and large farms to ensure greater ES-related benefits to humans.
Understanding the relationship between raw water quality and chemical dosage is especially important for drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) that have multiple water sources where the ratio of different supply sources could change with seasons or in a matter of weeks in response to changing hydrologic conditions. In this study, the potential for deploying machine learning algorithms, including principal component regression (PCR), support vector regression (SVR) and long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network, are tested to build predictive models. These tools were used to estimate chemical dosage at a daily time-scale. Influent water quality such as pH, color, turbidity, and alkalinity, as well as chemical dosage including sulfuric acid, ferric sulfate and liquid oxygen were used to build and test these models. An 80/20 percent data split was used for training and testing model performance using correlation coefficients, relative mean square error, relative root mean square error and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency. Results indicate, compared with PCR, both SVR and LSTM were able to capture the nonlinear relationship between chemical dose and source water quality changes and displayed higher predictive skills. These types of models have application in real-time operational support without requiring computationally expensive physics-based models. HIGHLIGHTS
A study that examines water quality and chemical use from a water treatment plant.;
Appropriate chemical dosage is essential to ensure safe potable water.;
Understanding the relationship between water quality and chemical use is a key step.;
Different algorithms are tested to build predictive models.;
Support vector machine and neural networks better capture nonlinear relationships.;
Natural water retention measures (NWRM) are a form of green infrastructure that can play an important role in catchment‐scale flood risk management. At that scale, NWRM on agricultural land and in forests can help reduce the risk of downstream flooding by enhancing or restoring natural hydrological processes (including interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and ponding), as well as improve water quality.
Water is one of the basic needs for every living thing, including humans. This study aims to determine the availability of water in the two springs, the utilization of water by the community around MMNP, the vegetation characteristics of the spring catchment areas, and the Water Use Index (WUI). Data of water availability was taken using the volumetric method. Water utilization by the community is collected by doing the interviews with the respondents. The vegetation characteristics is analyzed based on the vegetation density by using the NDVI method. Meanwhile, the Water Use Index (WUI) is obtained from a comparison between water demand and water supply. The results showed that the water debit available in the Tuk Simuncar and Tuk sipendok was 23.22 liters/second and 31.20 liters/second which were classified as class IV. The area of Tuk simuncar is dominated by high density vegetation (75 Ha), while Tuk Sipendok is dominated by moderate density vegetation (102.28 Ha). The community around MMNP uses 211 liters of water for household needs, 59 liters for livestock, and 10 liters for agriculture. The Water Use Index (WUA) of the two springs has a value of 0.3 which is included in the low level.
Remote sensing (RS) is a key tool for deepening the knowledge on the spatial
and temporal dynamics of sediment exchange between Amazon River and their
floodplains. Moreover, RS image can help to understand how both climate
change and land use and land cover changes influence the sediment exchange
between the Amazon River and floodplain lakes. In that sense, this study
investigates the accuracy of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Total Inorganic
Suspended Solids (TSI) estimates of Amazon floodplain lakes derived from
medium resolution sensors (Landsat-8/OLI, Sentinel-2A/MSI and CBERS4/WFI). Empirical and semi-analytical algorithms were calibrated and validated
through a robust Monte Carlo simulation using both in-situ simulated remote
sensing reflectance (Rrs_sim) and simultaneous TSS/TSI dataset collected over
four field campaigns in the lower Amazon floodplain lakes. For algorithm
calibration, three different datasets were evaluated: Complete dataset;
Campaign dataset and Lake dataset. After the calibration process, calibrated
algorithms were applied to an august/2017 scene of each sensor for validation
using in-situ TSS and TSI concentration measurements. Despite TSS and TSI
validation, the performance of several atmosphere correction methodologies for
OLI (L8SR, 6S, ACOLITE), MSI (6S, ACOLITE, Sen2Cor) and WFI (6S) in Rrs
retrieval were evaluated using in-situ Rrs,sim as a reference. Furthermore, the
impacts of glint correction on OLI and MSI Rrs retrieval were also evaluated.
Finally, the consistency between TSS and TSI estimates by each sensor was
accessed using near-simultaneous imagery aiming to create a virtualconstellation based on those three sensors to support the generation of
sediment products. The performance of in-situ algorithms demonstrates similar
estimates for similar spectral bands disregarding the sensor and the type of
algorithm (empirical or semi-analytical). Atmosphere correction validation
presented a dependency on the spectral bands used and better results were
obtained using 6S, although satisfactory results were also observed with other
methods. Moreover, glint correction presented good results and being
fundamental to the accuracy of the algorithms based on MSI imagery, reducing
MAPE values higher beyond 100%. Empirical and semi-analytical TSS and TSI
algorithms best results varied for each sensor when applied to August/2017
scenes: for OLI the best result was for the green band (561 nm) while for MSI
the best result was for the red-edge band (704 nm) and for WFI the red band
(660 nm) presented best results (MAPE values lower than 31% for both TSS
and TSI) using algorithms calibrated with the Complete dataset. The
comparison between TSS and TSI estimates using the near-simultaneous
overpass indicated that they allowed sediment estimates with median difference values lower than 1 mgL-1. These results demonstrated, for the first time, the
calibration and validation of empirical and semi-analytical algorithms for TSS
and TSI retrieval over lower Amazon Floodplain Lakes using medium-resolution
Vegetation change discourse in tropical Africa is characterised by assumptions of generalised deforestation and degradation. Premised on the concept of the heterogeneity of the tropical African landscape, we make a multispatio-periodic analysis of land use and land cover change (LULCC), and examine its ramifications for woody resources of a forest-savanna transition, that is characterised by assumed deforestation change discourse. Landsat data for 1985, 2000 and 2016, classified into seven (7) LULC categories were analysed for change for 1985-2016, 1985-2000 and 2000-2016: for the whole study area, and six (6) smaller localities. In 1985-2016, all woody vegetation categories of the study area experienced reduction: ranging between 60.00% and 23.61%. Reduction in woodland was higher in 1985-2000. Dense woodland cover reduced in, practically, all localities in 1985-2000. The LULCC mechanism was a complex transfer among LULC types, resulting in different emergent LULC types. Hence, change process was not a simple linear deforestation and degradation. Dense woodland that existed at the end of each period was, predominately, regenerated from pre-existing fallow, rather than remnants of ‘virgin’ or pre-existing dense woodland. When pre-existing woody cover was higher, greater amount of woody vegetation regenerates by transformation in a shorter period, whereas limited woody regeneration of woody vegetation on pre-existing fallows dominates, whereas limited pre-existing woodland cover results in limited woody regeneration, through a long processes of conversion and transformation. Therefore, maintaining higher cover of woody vegetation will promote quicker and substantial regeneration woody vegetation, and availability of woody resources for sustainable wood-based livelihoods, such as charcoal production.
The purpose of this article is to measure the effects of delegating French water utilities to the private sector, on residential water price. We apply a treatment effects approach to a sample of 3.782 French localcommunities. Our results show that a significant share of the price difference between private operators and public operators (0.33 euros per cubic meter on average) can be explained by the operating conditions faced by the private operators. The latter, on average, have to cope with more difficult operating conditions than public operators.
The purpose of this article is to measure the effects of delegating French water utilities to the private sector, on residential water price. We apply a treatment effects approach to a sample of 3.782 French local communities. Our results show that a significant share of the price difference between private operators and public operators (0.33 euros per cubic meter on average ) can be explained by the operating conditions faced by the private operators. The latter , on average , have to cope with more difficult operating conditions than public operators.
On propose dans cet article de mesurer, par une étude économétrique appropriée, l’impact des facteurs environnementaux, socioéconomiques et culturels sur la décision des ménages de boire (ou non) l’eau du robinet. L’originalité de notre approche réside d’une part, dans l’utilisation de données de consommation de ménages associées à des informations sur la qualité de l’environnement dans la commune de résidence de ces ménages, en particulier la qualité des eaux brutes, et d’autre part dans l’utilisation du coût de potabilisation de l’eau comme mesure de la "mauvaise qualité" des eaux brutes. L’estimation d’un modèle de type Probit sur un échantillon de 4 623 ménages montre que la "mauvaise qualité" des eaux brutes est un déterminant significatif de la décision de (ne pas) boire l’eau du robinet. Le rôle significatif des caractéristiques des ménages et les effets régionaux sont également confirmés. Enfin, nos résultats ne mettent pas en évidence un impact significatif du mode de gestion du service de l’eau (public/privé) sur le choix des consommateurs.
National Forests and Water Guidelines require the establishment of riparian buffers to help protect the freshwater environment from disturbance by silvicultural operations on the adjacent land. The main functions of the riparian buffer are considered to be sediment removal and erosion control, protection of water quality, moderation of shade and water temperature, maintenance of habitat structural diversity and ecological integrity, and improvement of landscape quality. This review paper assesses how these functions are affected by the design and management of the riparian forest zone, with a focus on the width of the buffer, the structure of the vegetation and species choice. It is not possible to specify a definitive riparian buffer width that will protect the freshwater environment from every potential threat. Forestry agencies usually recommend widths between 10 and 30 m. Buffer widths towards the lower end of this scale tend to protect the physical and chemical characteristics of a stream, while the maintenance of ecological integrity requires widths at the upper end. In terms of structure and species, the benefits are greatest where the riparian buffer replicates native riparian woodland with an open canopy of mixed species of varied age class. The optimum level of shade is difficult to quantify but limited work suggests that a good balance is achieved where around 50% of the stream surface is open to sunlight and the remainder covered by dappled shade. Within the management of riparian woodland there is a need to consider a stream's sensitivity and intrinsic value. Some sites will benefit from active intervention such as thinning, coppicing or pollarding, while others will be favoured by a hands-off approach. Long-term continuity of management is important to ensure that the potential benefits to the freshwater environment are realised.
Keywords: riparian woodland, riparian buffer, woodland management, freshwater environment, water quality
We model the interactions between management regimes (municipal vs. delegated) and operating costs of water supply services in order to compare their performance and pricing. We estimate the models from panel data in France. We show that the choice between management regimes at the local community level depends on costs and service characteristics, that there is a significant difference in average productive efficiency in favor of delegated services, and that municipal services appear more efficient in network returns. Under delegation, the margins realized by operators depend on service and contract characteristics.
Nous modélisons les interactions entre mode de gestion (régie ou délégation) et coûts d'exploitation des services d'eau potable afin de comparer leurs performances et la tarification. Nous estimons ces modèles sur des données de panel en France. Nous montrons que le choix de la collectivité locale dépend des coûts et des caractéristiques des services. Il existe une différence significative d'efficacité productive moyenne en faveur de la gestion déléguée, mais les services en régie semblent plus performants sur les rendements de réseau. Les marges réalisées par l'exploitant sont expliquées par les caractéristiques des services, et celles du contrat dans le cas de délégation.
Les ressources en eau, souterraines et superficielles, voient leurs caractéristiques modifiées par les activités humaines se développant dans l'aire de leurs bassins d'alimentation. Les territoires forestiers créent des caractéristiques des ressources en eau généralement favorables aux demandes des gestionnaires de ces ressources. La teneur en nitrate est l'une de ces caractéristiques. Sous les couverts forestiers, en période de croissance hors exploitation, les teneurs en nitrate issu de ces bassins sont faibles. Une enquête historique à partir de données lorraines donne une valeur moyenne de 4,2 mg NO3-/l. Aucune variation significative n'a été relevée selon la nature du couvert, feuillue ou résineuse. En bassins mixtes agricoles et forestiers, la part des surfaces forestières joue sur les degrés de liberté laissée à l'agriculture pour ne pas dégrader la ressource en eau du bassin. En Lorraine, sur 33 bassins agricoles et forestiers suivis depuis 1989, un seuil se dessine autour de 35% de forêts dans le bassin pour permettre de "co-produire" une eau de qualité potable compte tenu des pratiques agricoles pratiquées dans les systèmes agraires lorrains en cette fin de siècle. Nous observons une dégradation de la teneur en nitrate sous les couverts forestiers subissant des exploitations de type "coupes à blanc" consécutives à la tempête du 26 décembre 1999.
This article discusses how water suppliers are revisiting the idea of source protection and presents information from a study of 27 water suppliers conducted in 2002 by the Trust for Public Land and AWWA's Source Water Protection Committee that indicates operating treatment costs decreased as forest cover in a source area increased. The article discusses how many municipalities and water suppliers are considering land protection as part of a multiple‐barrier approach to providing safe drinking water. A case study of protecting the Edwards Aquifer in Austin, Texas, is presented, along with an explanation of how local and national land trusts work in partnership with local governments and water suppliers to help them permanently protect the highest‐priority lands in their source areas.
The rational method is widely used for estimating peak flows for small rural watersheds and urban drainage design throughout the world. Estimation of time of concentration (tc ) using empirical formulae and runoff coefficient (C) from available tables are the major source of uncertainty in application of rational method. The focus of this paper is to examine commonly used C values against observed flood data of four small experimental watersheds in the Nilgiris, South India, to determine the value of runoff coefficient C. Three commonly used time of concentration tc methods were compared and the values of C are presented for different methods of tc . The probabilistic rational method is also demonstrated to determine values of runoff coefficient C for different recurrence intervals. In small agricultural and forest watersheds of Nilgiris, it was found that the commonly used Kirpich formula under predicted time of concentra- tion as compared to observed tc with relative error in the range of 74% to 89%. Standard tabulated values of runoff coefficient C when used with Kirpich tc significantly over-estimate peak discharge using rational method for small agricultural watersheds, forest watersheds and watersheds with grass lands. The value of C was found to be in the range of 0.10ñ0.22, 0.01ñ0.02, 0.003ñ0.007 and 0.12ñ0.14 for agricultural watersheds without soil conservation measures, agricultural watersheds with proper soil conservation measures (inward sloping bench terraces), forest watersheds (Shola) and watersheds comprising natural grass lands with patches of Shola, respectively in the Nilgiris.
Forest land use is often associated with the protection of water resources from contamination and the reduced
cost of drinking water supply. This study attempted to measure the value of the forest on the quality
of water resources from a contingent market, namely drinking water supply, by estimating variations in
drinking water costs as a function of variations in land uses. Spatial correlations were taken into account because
of the use of different geographical scales (i.e., water service area and land uses) and the potential existence
of organizational and technological spillovers between water services. We found a significant
negative effect of forest land use on water costs. We found no evidence of spatial spillovers concerning the
management regime but did find that factors related to the scarcity of resources in neighboring water services
have an impact on water costs.
Human land use is a major source of change in catchments in developing areas. To better anticipate the long-term effects of growth, land use planning requires estimates of how changes in land use will affect ecosystem processes and patterns across multiple scales of space and time. The complexity of biogeochemical and hydrologic interactions within a basin makes it difficult to scale up from process-based studies of individual reaches to watershed scales over multiple decades. Empirical models relating land use/land cover (LULC) to water quality can be useful in long-term planning, but require an understanding of the effects of scale on apparent land use-water quality relationships. We empirically determined how apparent relationships between water quality and LULC data change at different scales, using LIJLC data from the Willapa Bay watershed (Washington) and water quality data collected along the Willapa and North Rivers. Spatial scales examined ranged from the local riparian scale to total upstream catchment. The strength of the correlations between LTJLC data and longitudinal water quality trends varied with scale. Different water quality parameters also varied in their response to changes in scale. Intermediate scales of land use data generally were better predictors than local riparian or total catchment scales. Additional data from the stream network did not increase the strength of relationships significantly. Because of the likelihood of scale-induced artifacts, studies quantifying land use-water quality relationships performed at single scales should be viewed with great caution.
Except where nitrate is added to the soil artificially, nitrate is leached from forest soils only if it is produced. Although the factors influencing nitrification have been widely studied, nitrification activity still cannot be simply predicted from ecosystem characteristics. In France, about half of the present forest area was agricultural in 1850. Previous work suggested that former cultivation could be a major factor influencing nitrogen availability in forest soils.
Using laboratory incubations, we compared the net production of ammonium and nitrate in soils from formerly manured lands planted with conifers 70–100 years ago with that in soils of surrounding ancient coniferous forests. Net nitrate production, available P content, and natural abundance of nitrogen 15, δ15N, were greater in soils from formerly manured plots than other land, whereas the C:N ratio of the soil was less. The difference in net nitrate production between previously manured sites and adjacent ancient forests was related to differences in δ15N values in the soil but not evidently to other soil properties. Because soil δ15N increases with the intensity of organic manuring, these results suggest that nitrification in forest soils depends on previous manurial practices under agriculture. In this context, the soil δ15N might be used as an indicator of both previous agricultural land use and potential nitrification. Because a significant proportion of West European forests grow on previously cultivated soils, past land use should be taken into account when evaluating the risks of nitrate leaching from forests.
Une part importante de la population française déclare lors d’enquêtes d’opinion ne pas boire l’eau du robinet, bien que la qualité de l’eau distribuée par ce canal fasse l’objet de contrôles sanitaires rigoureux et que le prix de l’eau en bouteille soit environ cent fois plus élevé que le prix de l’eau du robinet. On cherche alors à identifier les facteurs qui incitent les ménages à choisir l’eau du robinet comme eau de boisson. Sur un échantillon de ménages répartis sur la France entière, on montre que, outre les caractéristiques sociodémographiques (niveau de revenu, niveau d’éducation, type d’habitat), la qualité de l’environnement immédiat du ménage, mesurée ici par la qualité des eaux brutes, influence également sa décision de boire l’eau du robinet.
This paper studies the optimal growth when research and development are explicitly distinguished. To this end, we perform the quantitative welfare analysis of an original model based on (i) a matching process between research and development and (ii) a competitive search process that determines the sharing rule of profits between firms. The model is calibrated to reproduce the stylized facts of the post-war United-States growth. Results indicate that both research and development activities have to be supported to reach the optimal growth, but the support is stronger for the first: private research investments have to be multiplied by eight against by two for private development investments.
For several reasons the conversion of mono-species into mixed-species forests is presently a major concern of forest management
and policy in Central Europe. Although it is possible to show a clear trend in favour of mixed-species forests, private forest
owners and some forest economists have often not favoured mixed forests, assuming that they are less profitable. The trend
towards mixed forests seems mainly for ecological reasons, while sound economic analysis of mixed forests is still rare. Based
on this background the objective of the study is to answer the following four questions: (1) Does the yield of mixed-species
forests differ from that of pure forests? (2) Does the mixing of tree species influence the ecological stability of forests?
(3) Is the economic value of a mixed forest less than that of a monoculture? (4) How do forest economic models integrate the
findings on yield and ecological stability of mixed forests? To answer these questions a literature review was conducted on
the possible impacts of mixed-species forests. In comparison to pure stands a greater yield is not necessarily given in mixed
stands. Yet, mixed-species stands are better able to compensate disturbances than monocultures. Moreover, there is substantial
evidence that mixed-species stands are more resistant against biotic and abiotic disturbances. Applying an extended forest
economic model, it was possible to demonstrate that mixing large blocks of native broadleaf species into pure conifer forests
may lead to a significant reduction of financial risk. From a risk-averse perspective the economic value of a mixed-species
forest may thus be greater than that of a mono-species forest. Yet, it became clear that forest economists do not often integrate
the research findings on yield and ecological stability of mixed stands in modelling, but rather apply simple bioeconomic
modelling. Moreover, in the context of mixed forests economists also largely ignore even classical financial approaches, which
consider risk and risk preferences. We concluded that forest economics has to close substantial research gaps. Firstly, the
knowledge of how to integrate biophysical properties of mixed forests in bioeconomic modelling is still an open question.
Secondly, forest economists have to adopt the modern approaches of financial theory and management science to value mixed
Temperate forests in the Southern Hemisphere provide ecosystem services of local and global importance such as internal nutrient cycling, soil protection, biodiversity conservation, climate regulation, and water supply. Under a scenario of global climatic change, water supply represents one of the most relevant of these forest environmental services. In this paper we estimated the economic value of Chilean temperate forests as they contribute to maintain fresh water supply, which in turn supports the production of drinkable water for cities. The study was carried out in the Valdivian Rainforest Ecoregion, in Llancahue watershed, which supplies fresh water to one of the main cities in Southern Chile. Using monthly time series from January 1995 to December 2003, we applied the change in productivity method to derive economic value estimates per cubic meter of water, per household, and per hectare accounting for changes in economic value during summer versus the rest of the year. The economic values per cubic meter were USD 0.066 and USD 0.025 for summer and rest of the year, respectively. The values per household equaled USD 15.4 in the summer and USD 5.8 for the rest of the year. The economic benefits per hectare of native forests were equal to USD 162.4 for summer period and USD 61.2 for the rest of the year.
Under a scenario of global climate change, the water conservation function of Beijing's forest ecosystems has attracted considerable public attention. In this paper, the term of water conservation is described as a comprehensive regulation of forests on water resources through various hydrological processes, and grouped into three services, i.e., rainfall interception, soil water storage and fresh water provision. On the basis of Beijing's forest resource survey data and mathematical simulations, the function and the economic value of water conservation was estimated. The result showed that, the forest ecosystems of Beijing could intercept approximately 1.43 billion cubic meters of rainfall and 277.82 million cubic meters of soil water under ideal conditions, and supply 286.67 million cubic meters of fresh water, their economic values were estimated to be about 2.77 billion RMB(Chinese Currency, 8.28RMB = US$1), 2.15 billion RMB, and 315.33 million RMB, respectively. The total economic value of water conservation provided by Beijing's forests was 5.23 billion RMB, and the economic benefit per hectare was equal to 5704 RMB. Furthermore, the spatial variation of water conservation functions and the monetary values of the main forest ecosystems in different locations in Beijing were analyzed, and the effects of water conservation provided by the forest ecosystem on the development of society and economy in Beijing were discussed. This work contributes to the realization and preservation of forest resources in Beijing.
The effects of the clear-cutting of a 70-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on the chemical composition of soil solutions and on leaching of nutrients in drainage waters were observed by a continuous monitoring, six years before and three years after the cutting. Forest harvesting was made with very limited soil disturbances. Results showed that the concentration of weakly fixed solutions did not change but that the concentration of gravitational solutions of the upper soil layers drastically fell down after the cutting. The limited increase in nutrients leached with drainage waters was only due to the increase in the water flux, which is difficult to quantify because of the presence of ground vegetation. The monitoring of numerous fluxes before and after the clear-cutting could explain the specific behaviour of the soil solutions. The limited losses of nutrients the after clear-cutting in a potentially responsive ecosystem were unexpected. The initial hypothesis was that the decrease in the mineralization and nitrification rates observed after the cutting was related to a stimulating effect of Douglas-fir on the activity of soil nitrifyers.
This national-scale, watershed-level analysis provides an empirical assessment of land use impacts on water quality and aquatic ecosystems in the United States. Results suggest that the level of conventional water pollution in a watershed is significantly affected by the amount of land allocated to intensive agriculture and urban development, while the level of toxic water pollution is significantly affected by the amount of land allocated to transportation and mining. We examine the relationship between land use, water quality, and aquatic species extinction and discuss the implications of the results for the design and implementation of the water quality trading policy.
Non-contaminated drinking water may become a scarce resource in the future. In that case, forest watersheds will play a significant role in ensuring the supply of clean drinking water. However, forest management affects this supply considerably. Christmas tree production is an important income generator in Danish forestry but is also a significant contributor to non-point contamination of groundwater resources because of its application of fertiliser and pesticides. This paper analyses the decision to convert a natural or semi-natural forest into Christmas tree production, when groundwater contamination is irreversible and future returns on non-contaminated groundwater resources and Christmas tree production are uncertain. It is concluded that conventional expected net present value analysis which treats conversion as a ‘now or never’ decision, may not lead to an optimal decision rule. It is shown how the option to postpone conversion and acquire new information should be included. Application of an option value approach shows that the optimal decision strategy is more conservative when the option to postpone is recognised, i.e. option value analysis prescribes that the return on Christmas tree production should be higher to justify conversion. An empirical example shows that when using option value analysis the return on Christmas tree production should increase by more than 100% to justify conversion. Moreover, it is shown that the economic value of a natural forest may increase by more than 12% when the option value is included.
Land use change is the most pervasive force driving the degradation of watershed ecosystems. This article combines an econometric
model of land use choice with models of watershed health indicators to examine the effects of land use policies on watershed
ecosystems through their effect on land use. Our results suggest that incentive-based land use policies and property acquisition
programs can have relatively large positive impacts on watershed health, while policies that change the returns to land use
are less effective. The results suggest that there is potential for targeting these policies because their impacts vary across
watersheds with different land use mixes.
Developing Markets for Water Services from Forests: Issues and Lessons for Innovators
Johnson, N., White, A., Perrot-Maitre, D., 2000. Developing Markets for Water Services from Forests: Issues and Lessons for Innovators. Forest Trends, World
Resource Institute, The Katoomba group, p. 19.
Benefits and Costs of Forests to Water Supply and Water Quality
Willis, K., 2002. Benefits and Costs of Forests to Water Supply and Water Quality.
Report to the Forestry Commission. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, p. 24.
Mobilité touristique et population présente e Les bases de l'éco-nomie présentielle des départements Evaluation des besoins en eau d'irrigation, évapotranspiration potentielle
Terrier, C., 2006. Mobilité touristique et population présente e Les bases de l'éco-nomie présentielle des départements. Edition Direction du Tourisme, p. 128. Turc, L., 1961. Evaluation des besoins en eau d'irrigation, évapotranspiration potentielle. Annales Agronomiques 12 (1), 13e49.
The impact of forest management on water quality Land use and watershed health in the United States
J J Wu
Gundersen, P., 2007. The impact of forest management on water quality. In: Rau-lund-Rasmussen, K., Hansen, K. (Eds.), Synthesis Report on Impact of Forest Management on Environmental Services EFORWOOD Report, pp. 73e91. Hascic, I., Wu, J.J., 2006. Land use and watershed health in the United States. Land Economics 82 (2), 214e239. INSEE e Direction du Tourisme, 2005. Le tourisme en France, p. 122. Insee Références.
The option value of non-contaminated forest wa-tersheds. Forest Policy and Economics 1, 115e125 The Effect of Forest Land Use on the Cost of Drinking Water Supply: a Spatial Econometric Analysis
Abildtrup, J., Strange, N., 2000. The option value of non-contaminated forest wa-tersheds. Forest Policy and Economics 1, 115e125. Abildtrup, J., Garcia, S., Stenger, A., 2013. The Effect of Forest Land Use on the Cost of Drinking Water Supply: a Spatial Econometric Analysis. Ecological Economics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.01.004.
Répartition physique du territoire de
Agreste, 2004. Répartition physique du territoire de 1992 à 2004. (Teruti Lucas).
Les services publics de l'eau en
Coutellier, A., 2007. Les services publics de l'eau en 2004, p. 30. Eau potable Dossier
n 7, Ifen.
Mobilité touristique et population présente e Les bases de l'économie présentielle des départements. Edition Direction du Tourisme
Terrier, C., 2006. Mobilité touristique et population présente e Les bases de l'économie présentielle des départements. Edition Direction du Tourisme, p. 128.
Eau potable: diversité des services
Rebeix, G., 2001. Eau potable: diversité des services. grand écart des prix, p. 4. Les
données de l'environnement e Eau, n 65, Ifen.
Protecting the source e conserving forests to protect water. American Water Works Association 30 (5), 3e7. French Ministry of Health
Ernst, C., Gullick, R., Nixon, K., 2004. Protecting the source e conserving forests to
protect water. American Water Works Association 30 (5), 3e7.
French Ministry of Health, 2008. L'eau potable en France, 2005e2006. (Report.
The impact of forest management on water quality
Gundersen, P., 2007. The impact of forest management on water quality. In: Raulund-Rasmussen, K., Hansen, K. (Eds.), Synthesis Report on Impact of Forest
Management on Environmental Services EFORWOOD Report, pp. 73e91.