Lactobacillus surface layer proteins: Structure, function and applications

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Division of Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 3.34). 05/2013; 97(12). DOI: 10.1007/s00253-013-4962-2
Source: PubMed


Bacterial surface (S) layers are the outermost proteinaceous cell envelope structures found on members of nearly all taxonomic groups of bacteria and Archaea. They are composed of numerous identical subunits forming a symmetric, porous, lattice-like layer that completely covers the cell surface. The subunits are held together and attached to cell wall carbohydrates by non-covalent interactions, and they spontaneously reassemble in vitro by an entropy-driven process. Due to the low amino acid sequence similarity among S-layer proteins in general, verification of the presence of an S-layer on the bacterial cell surface usually requires electron microscopy. In lactobacilli, S-layer proteins have been detected on many but not all species. Lactobacillus S-layer proteins differ from those of other bacteria in their smaller size and high predicted pI. The positive charge in Lactobacillus S-layer proteins is concentrated in the more conserved cell wall binding domain, which can be either N- or C-terminal depending on the species. The more variable domain is responsible for the self-assembly of the monomers to a periodic structure. The biological functions of Lactobacillus S-layer proteins are poorly understood, but in some species S-layer proteins mediate bacterial adherence to host cells or extracellular matrix proteins or have protective or enzymatic functions. Lactobacillus S-layer proteins show potential for use as antigen carriers in live oral vaccine design because of their adhesive and immunomodulatory properties and the general non-pathogenicity of the species.

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Available from: Ulla Hynönen
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    • "Aggregation and adhesion are complex processes involving several molecules present on the cell wall surface of bacteria [i.e., teichoic and lipoteichichoic acids, (glyco)proteins] (Li et al. 2015). Several authors reported the role of SLPs in the bacterial capacity to auto-or coaggregate, and to adhere to several matrices, including gastrointestinal mucins, extracellular matrix macromolecules and epithelial cells (Sakakibara et al. 2007; Hynönen and Palva 2013; Shimotahira et al. 2013; Zhang et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: S-layers are paracrystalline bidimensional arrays of proteins or glycoproteins that overlay the cell surface of several genus and species of bacteria and archaea. As the outermost layer of several genus and species of microorganisms, S-layer proteins (SLP) are in direct contact with bacterial environment and thus may be involved in many of their surface properties, including adherence to various substrates, mucins and eukaryotic cells, aggregation and coaggregation with yeasts and other bacteria. In addition, SLP have been reported to be responsible for the bacterial protection against detrimental environmental conditions and to play an important role in surface recognition or as carriers of virulence factors. In this mini-review, we bring together the latest evidences about functional and mechanical properties of bacterial SLP from two different perspectives: (A) their role on bacterial adherence to different substrates and surfaces, and (B) their role as mechanical barriers in bacterial harmful environments.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Formerly MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)
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    • "On the surface of bacteria, the S-layer proteins attach non-covalently to cell wall carbohydrates, which are neutral or negatively charged, and some Lactobacillus S-layer proteins bind selectively to e.g. teichoic acids or non-teichoic acid polysaccharides [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The reassembly of the S-layer protein SlpA of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 on positively charged liposomes was studied by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and zeta potential measurements. SlpA was reassembled on unilamellar liposomes consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, prepared by extrusion through membranes with pore sizes of 50nm and 100nm. Similarly extruded samples without SlpA were used as a reference. The SlpA-containing samples showed clear diffraction peaks in their SAXS intensities. The lattice constants were calculated from the diffraction pattern and compared to those determined for SlpA on native cell wall fragments. Lattice constants for SlpA reassembled on liposomes (a=9.29nm, b=8.03nm, and γ=84.9°) showed a marked change in the lattice constants b and γ when compared to those determined for SlpA on native cell wall fragments (a=9.41nm, b=6.48nm, and γ=77.0°). The latter are in good agreement with values previously determined by electron microscopy. This indicates that the structure formed by SlpA is stable on the bacterial cell wall, but SlpA reassembles into a different structure on cationic liposomes. From the (10) reflection, the lower limit of crystallite size of SlpA on liposomes was determined to be 92nm, corresponding to approximately ten aligned lattice planes.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 has potential to be a probiotic strain because it can be present at high numbers in the jejunum of dog. To specifically detect LAB20 from dog faecal samples, a real-time PCR protocol was developed targeting the novel surface (S) layer protein gene of LAB20. The presence of S-layer protein was verified by N-terminal sequencing of the approximately 50-kDa major band from SDS-PAGE gel. The corresponding S-layer gene was amplified by inverse PCR using homology to known S-layers and sequenced. This novel S-layer protein has low sequence similarity to other S-layer proteins in the N-terminal region (32-211 aa, 7-39%). This enabled designing strain-specific PCR primers. The primer set was utilized to study intestinal persistence of LAB20 in dog that was fed with LAB20 fermented milk for 5 days. The results showed that LAB20 can be detected from dog faecal sample after 6 weeks with 10(4·53) DNA copies g(-1) postadministration. It suggested that LAB20 could be a good candidate to study the mechanism behind its persistence and dominance in dog intestine and maybe utilize it as a probiotic for canine. Significance and impact of the study: A real-time PCR method was developed to detect Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20, a strain that was previously found dominant in canine gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The quantitative detection was based on targeting to variation region of a novel S-layer protein found in LAB20, allowing to specifically enumerate LAB20 from dog faeces. The results showed that the real-time PCR method was sensitive enough to be used in later intervention studies. Interestingly, LAB20 was found to persist in dog GI tract for 6 weeks. Therefore, LAB20 could be a good candidate to study its colonization and potentially utilize as a canine probiotic.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Letters in Applied Microbiology
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