Article

Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Effect of Epilobium parviflorum Schreb.

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  • Herbal Analysis Services UK
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Abstract

Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. (Onagraceae) is used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its biological action is not entirely identified. This paper aims to report data on E. parviflorum with respect to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. The aqueous acetone extract of E. parviflorum showed higher antioxidant effect in the DPPH assay than well known antioxidants and inhibited the lipid peroxidation determined by the TBA assay (IC(50) = 2.37 +/- 0.12 mg/mL). In concentrations of 0.2-15.0 microg/mL the extract possessed a protective effect, comparable to catalase (250 IU/mL), against oxidative damage, generated in fibroblast cells. In the COX inhibition assay E. parviflorum decreased the PGE(2) release, so showing inhibition of the COX-enzyme (IC(50) = 1.4 +/- 0.1 microg/mL).

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... In our continuing investigation on this plant to further explore the phytochemical constitution and identify other bioactive constituents, we recently screened the stem bark of this plant. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of three new tirucallane triterpenes (1-3) together with nine known compounds (4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12). The isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against selected pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and their antioxidant properties were tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. ...
... Compounds 1-3, 5, 7-9 and 10/11 (mixture) were tested for their potential anti-inflammatory efficacies using a Parameter PGE 2 forward sequential competitive enzyme immunoassay (R&D Systems Europe, Ltd., Abingdon, United Kingdom) according to Hevesi et al. [9]. Cortisone (≥98%, Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Steinheim, Germany) was used as a reference standard. ...
... Compound 3 was thus assigned 3,4-secotirucalla-4-hydroxy-23-oxo-7,24-diene-3,21-dioic acid-21-methyl ester. The relative configurations of the chiral centers were deduced by diagnostic NOESY correlations (Fig. 5b) The anti-inflammatory potential of compounds 1-3, 5, 7-9 and 10/11 (mixture) was investigated by an in vitro PGE 2 assay method based on the sequential competitive inhibition of prostaglandin E 2 , a principal mediator of inflammation [9]. Inhibitors of PGE 2 are considered as promising therapeutics for intervention in inflammatory and pain disorders [20]. ...
Article
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Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark extract of Anopyxis klaineana was carried out by various chromatographic techniques resulting in the isolation and characterization of three new tirucallane triterpenoids, namely 3,23-dioxotirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid (1), 3,4-secotirucalla-23-oxo-4(28)7,24-trien-3,21-dioic acid (2) and 3,4-secotirrucalla-4-hydroxy-23-oxo-7,24-diene-3,21-dioic acid-21-methyl ester (3), along with nine known compounds (4-12). The structural elucidation of the compounds was performed by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS(n)), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and by comparison to literature data. Although none of the isolated compounds showed antibacterial efficacy against selected environmental and clinically important pathogenic Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, they demonstrated moderate DPPH free radical scavenging properties. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 7 exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory potential in a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) competitive enzyme immunoassay with IC50 values of 3.63μM and 10.23μM, respectively. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
... Leaves Averett et al. (1978) Epilobium angustifolium Leaves, root, flowers, herb Averett et al. (1979), Ducrey et al. (1995), Hevesi Toth et al. (2009a), Hiermann (1983Hiermann ( , 1995, Kiss et al. (2004), Slacanin et al. (1991) Averett et al. (1978) Epilobium dodonaei Leaves, flowers, root, herb Averett et al. (1979), Ducrey et al. (1995), Hiermann (1983Hiermann ( , 1995, Slacanin et al. (1991) Epilobium fleischeri Leaves, herb Averett et al. (1979) Averett et al. (1978), Ducrey et al. (1995), Hiermann (1983Hiermann ( , 1995, Nawwar et al. (1997), Slacanin et al. (1991) Averett et al. (1978), Ducrey et al. (1995); Hevesi Toth et al. (2009a), Hiermann (1983Hiermann ( , 1995, Slacanin et al. (1991) Averett et al. (1979) Epilobium parviflorum Leaves, flowers, root, herb Averett et al. (1978), Ducrey et al. (1995), Hevesi Toth et al. (2009aToth et al. ( , 2009b, Hiermann (1983Hiermann ( , 1995 Averett et al. (1978) Epilobium angustifolium Leaves, root, flowers, herb Averett et al. (1979), Ducrey et al. (1995), Hiermann (1983Hiermann ( , 1995, Kiss et al. (2004), Slacanin et al. (1991) Ducrey et al. (1995), Hiermann (1983) Epilobium fleischeri Herb Hiermann (1995) ...
... The high activity of ethanolic extracts of Epilobium parviflorum is difficult to explain as authors did not perform any phytochemical analysis of their extracts (Steenkamp et al., 2006). Infusion and acetonic extract (80%, v/v) of Epilobium parviflorum inhibited the PGE 2 release in macrophage cells RAW 264.7 at a concentration range of 0.45-25 μg/mL (IC 50 for infusion 5.5 μg/mL, IC 50 for acetone extract 1.4 μg/mL) (Hevesi Toth, 2009;Hevesi Toth et al., 2009b). Authors have suggested that this is related with the direct inhibition of COX activity (Hevesi Toth, 2009;Hevesi Toth et al., 2009b). ...
... Infusion and acetonic extract (80%, v/v) of Epilobium parviflorum inhibited the PGE 2 release in macrophage cells RAW 264.7 at a concentration range of 0.45-25 μg/mL (IC 50 for infusion 5.5 μg/mL, IC 50 for acetone extract 1.4 μg/mL) (Hevesi Toth, 2009;Hevesi Toth et al., 2009b). Authors have suggested that this is related with the direct inhibition of COX activity (Hevesi Toth, 2009;Hevesi Toth et al., 2009b). However, as inhibition of prostaglandin release is unequivocal, the mechanism of this effect is not fully explained and the direct inhibition of COX enzyme (s) seems to be questionable, while the effect of Epilobium extracts on phospholipases A2 has not not been tested till now. ...
... In our continuing investigation on this plant to further explore the phytochemical constitution and identify other bioactive constituents, we recently screened the stem bark of this plant. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of three new tirucallane triterpenes (1-3) together with nine known compounds (4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12). The isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against selected pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and their antioxidant properties were tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. ...
... Compounds 1-3, 5, 7-9 and 10/11 (mixture) were tested for their potential anti-inflammatory efficacies using a Parameter PGE 2 forward sequential competitive enzyme immunoassay (R&D Systems Europe, Ltd., Abingdon, United Kingdom) according to Hevesi et al. [9]. Cortisone (≥98%, Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Steinheim, Germany) was used as a reference standard. ...
... Compound 3 was thus assigned 3,4-secotirucalla-4-hydroxy-23-oxo-7,24-diene-3,21-dioic acid-21-methyl ester. The relative configurations of the chiral centers were deduced by diagnostic NOESY correlations (Fig. 5b) The anti-inflammatory potential of compounds 1-3, 5, 7-9 and 10/11 (mixture) was investigated by an in vitro PGE 2 assay method based on the sequential competitive inhibition of prostaglandin E 2 , a principal mediator of inflammation [9]. Inhibitors of PGE 2 are considered as promising therapeutics for intervention in inflammatory and pain disorders [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anopyxis klaineana (Pierre) Engl. (Rhizophoraceae) is one of the reputed West African folkloric medicines that has never been investigated for its pharmacological effects or phytochemical constituents. In the present study, the antiinflammatory properties of the stem-bark extracts were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in chicks. The petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts all showed a time and dose-dependent antiinflammatory effect over the 5-h observation period. Phytochemical analysis of the most active extract (methanol extract) yielded the principal constituent that was identified as methyl angolensate through extensive spectroscopic and X-ray analysis studies. Although slightly less potent (ED50 , 4.05 ± 0.0034 mg/kg, orally) than the positive control, diclofenac (ED50 , 2.49 ± 0.023, intraperitoneally n = 5), this first ever compound isolated from A. klaineana showed promising antiinflammatory activity that may account to some of the reported medicinal uses of the plant. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Chemical profiles from L. racemosa have not yet been reported, but diverse polyphenols (e.g., tannins and flavonoids) and sterols have been isolated from the Onagraceae family [6][7][8]. The main tannin isolated from this family, oenothein B, has both in vivo and in vitro antitumor activities [9][10][11][12]. ...
... Among flavonoids, isolated compounds from this family include flavonols, glycoflavones, flavones, and chalcones [13,14]. Most of the genera studied possess mainly flavonols, which include myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and remarkable amounts of various phenolic acids [6,7,15]. Furthermore, some species produce significant amount of tocopherols, compounds that have been used as chemotaxonomic markers within the Onagraceae family [16]. ...
... Moreover, a single fraction HF 11-14b showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. Diverse studies have demonstrated that different members of the Onagraceae family have selective anti-inflammatory activity in animal models [7,8,15,27] and cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines [11,12,[28][29][30]. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae). Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities.
... and E. hirsutum L. are the most well-known (Vitalone and Allkanjari, 2018), being widely used in traditional medicine to treat various infections, disorders and diseases. For instance, their extracts serve as a remedy in Chinese folk medicine to relieve menstrual disorders while in Native American traditional medicine they have been used to treat infected sores, swellings, and rectal hemorrhages (Granica et al., 2014;Hevesi et al., 2009;Stolarczyk et al., 2013). E. angustifolium, E. montanum and E. parviflorum are also used in Austrian folk medicine to cure prostate, kidney and urinary tract diseases (Vogl et al., 2013) . ...
... In consistent with being widely used in folk medicine, Epilobium spp. have been demonstrated to have various therapeutic effects such as analgesic (Pourmorad et al., 2007;Tita et al., 2001), antiandrogenic (Allkanjari and Vitalone, 2015), anti-inflammatory (Hevesi et al., 2009;Vogl et al., 2013), antimicrobial (Battinelli et al., 2001;Jones et al., 2000), antioxidant (Stajner et al., 2007;Steenkamp et al., 2006), and antitumor activity (Vitalone et al., 2003a;Voynova et al., 1991) in various in vitro as well as in vivo animal studies. Anti-proliferative effect of Epilobium extracts on healthy (PZ-HPV-7) and cancerous prostate cells lines (LNCaP) was also reported by different groups and this effect is mainly associated with its ellagitannins; oenothein A and B which inhibit aromatase and 5-α-reductase enzymes involved in etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Ducrey et al., 1997;Lesuisse et al., 1996;Piwowarski et al., 2017;Yoshida et al., 2018). ...
Article
The Epilobium species, rich in various active phytochemicals, have been widely used in folk medicine to treat several diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia. Despite being demonstrated on some type of cancer cells such as prostate cancer, their potential anti-cancerous role on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells has not been studied yet. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), colon cancer is the third most common form of cancer, resulting over 800 000 deaths every year worldwide. The present study demonstrates the anti-cancerous activity of aqueous and ethanolic Epilobium parviflorum extracts in colon cancer cell line HT-29 cells in vitro. The both type of extracts reduced the cell viability of HT-29 cells in a dose dependent manner. Gene expression analysis of HT-29 cells demonstrated an increase at apoptotic genes, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Nuclear fragmentation of apoptotic cells was also demonstrated through TUNEL assay as well as immunostaining experiments. On the other hand, same lethal concentrations of E. parviflorum extracts were not profound on non-cancerous human fibroblast cell line BJ cells. Our results indicate that E. parviflorum may also be used as a therapeutic agent against colon cancers.
... Various infections due to microbes, fungal and viral [8] . It has good antioxidant properties and has a high rate of free radicals scavenging activity than conventional antioxidants like Trolox and ascorbic acid [11] . Based on tremendous traditional uses but lack of scientific evidence, the present study was aimed to ensure the therapeutic value of E. parviflorum by evaluating pharmacological investigation as a potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic agent in high fat diet fructose streptozotocin (HFD-FRU-STZ) induced diabetic rat model. ...
... Treatment with pioglitazone and E. parviflorum substantially protect the pancreas from destruction. This effect of E. parviflorum might be due to the presence of antioxidant principles like phenol, polyphenol groups in it which boost the antioxidant defence mechanism [11] . As the DNL process took place in the liver due to fructose administration, the liver enhances fatty acid deposition and subjected to produce more amount of SGOT, SGPT and ALP which collectively led to insulin resistance in the diabetic control group. ...
... The extract has been known for its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis [11]. It also reduces the effects of cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2, which catalyze the biosynthesis of prostaglandins [11,12]. ...
... In the COX inhibition assay, E. parviflorum has strongly reduced the PGE2 secretion with an IC50 of 1.4±0.1μg/mL [12]. The aqueous extract, the essential oil and the remaining aromatic water have shown strong antimicrobial effects against a number of bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 10-40μg/ml [13]. ...
Article
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Background: Traditional medicine is inspiring in drug development research. Epilobium parviflorum extracts have shown promising therapeutic effects on prostate cancer cells. The similarities between breast and prostate cancers at molecular and metabolic levels prompted us to explore its effects on human breast cancer. Methods: The root, aerial parts and flowers of the plant were, collected and dried separately at ambient temperature and away from direct sunlight. The aquatic and methanolic extracts of each part was prepared. The effect of each extract on the growth of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells and HEK293 normal cell line was evaluated, using MTT assay. Each experiment was repeated at least three times independently. The IC50 values for each treatment time point were analyzed, using ANOVA at P
... Among them, E. angustifolium L., E. parviflorum Schreb., and E. hirsutum L. are the most well-known (Vitalone and Allkanjari 2018) and are widely used in traditional medicine to treat various infections, disorders and diseases. To illustrate, their extracts have served as remedies to relieve menstrual disorders in Chinese folk medicine and to treat infected sores, swellings and rectal hemorrhages in traditional Native American medicine (Granica et al. 2014;Hevesi et al. 2009;Stolarczyk et al. 2013). E. angustifolium, E. montanum and E. parviflorum have also been used to cure prostate, kidney and urinary tract diseases in Austrian folk medicine (Vogl et al. 2013). ...
... In consistent with being widely used in folk medicine, Epilobium spp. have been demonstrated to have various therapeutic effects such as analgesic (Pourmorad et al. 2007;Tita et al. 2001), antiandrogenic (Allkanjari and Vitalone 2015), anti-inflammatory (Hevesi et al. 2009;Vogl et al. 2013), antimicrobial (Battinelli et al. 2001Jones et al. 2000), antioxidant (Stajner et al. 2007Steenkamp et al. 2006), and antitumor activity (Vitalone et al. 2003a;Voynova et al. 1991) in various in vitro as well as in vivo animal studies. Antiproliferative effect of Epilobium extracts on healthy (PZ-HPV-7) and cancerous prostate cells lines (LNCaP) was also reported by different groups and this effect is mainly associated with its ellagitannins; Oenothein A and B which inhibit aromatase and 5-α-reductase enzymes involved in etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Ducrey et al. 1997;Lesuisse et al. 1996;Piwowarski et al. 2017;Yoshida et al. 2018). ...
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The Epilobium species are rich in various active phytochemicals and have seen wide use in folk medicine to treat several diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although their benefits have been demonstrated on certain types of cancer cells, such as prostate cancer cells, their potential antiproliferative effects on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells have yet to be studied. The present study exhibited the antiproliferative activity of aqueous and ethanolic Epilobium parviflorum extracts in a colon cancer cell line, HT-29 cells in vitro. Both types of extracts reduced the cell viability of HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A gene expression analysis of the HT-29 cells demonstrated an increase in apoptotic genes, Caspase-3 and Caspase-8. Nuclear fragmentation of the apoptotic cells was also demonstrated through TUNEL assay and immunostaining experiments. On the other hand, the same lethal concentrations of the E. parviflorum extracts did not significantly affect a non-cancerous human fibroblast cell line, BJ cells. Our results confirmed that aqueous and ethanolic Epilobium parviflorum extracts can eliminate proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro. E. parviflorum may have the potential to become a therapeutic agent against colon cancers.
... Epilobium species have medicinal properties; many have been used to heal wounds, and applied against asthma, cough, diarrhea, male health maintenance, and hormonal imbalance (Hevesi et al. 2009). The classical drug epilobii can be obtained from different species with small flowers including Epilobium parviflorum Schreb.(1771:146), ...
... The classical drug epilobii can be obtained from different species with small flowers including Epilobium parviflorum Schreb.(1771:146), E. montanum L(1753: 348), E. roseum Schreb.(1771:147) and E. collinum L. (Hevesi et al. 2009;Granica et al. 2014). The genus Epilobium has two sections in Flora Iranica, 1-sect. ...
Article
The genus Epilobium L. (Family Onagraceae) with about 200 species is taxonomically complicated due to wide inter-specific gene flow. There is no report on biosystematics of Epilobium species in Iran, therefore we studied 5 species of this genus using a combination of morphological, molecular (ISSR) and palynological data to delimit these species. All data revealed high degree of morphological and genetic overlap among the studied species. However, they could be separated when all studied features were used together. Morphological characters could delimit 3 species while genetic data separated them in two major groups. However, palynological data could delimit all five species studied. The species relationship was highly compatible in all three data sources used.
... Initially, pharmacological investigations have been restricted mostly to two species, E. angustifolium and E. parviflorum, being afterwards extended to some other Epilobium species. These pharmacological studies, both in vitro and in vivo, of extracts obtained from aerial parts of Epilobium taxa have confirmed their therapeutic properties including antiinflammatory (Hiermann et al. 1986;Juan et al. 1988;Hiermann et al. 1991;Hiermann et al. 1998;Steenkamp et al. 2006;Hevesi Tóth et al. 2008;Kiss et al. 2010), antiandrogenic (Hiermann and Bucar 1997), antimicrobial (Ivancheva et al. 1992;Rauha et al. 2000;Battinelli et al. 2001;Steenkamp et al. 2006;Borchardt et al. 2008;Bartfay et al. 2011), antimotility (Vitali et al. 2006), antifungal (Jones et al. 2000;Webster et al. 2008), antinociceptive Pourmorad et al. 2007), antiproliferative (Ducrey et al. 1997;Vitalone et al. 2001;Vitalone et al. 2003a;Vitalone et al. 2003b;Kiss et al. 2006a), antioxidant (Kähkönen et al. 1999;Shikov et al. 2006;Steenkamp et al. 2006;Stajner et al. 2007;Wojdyło et al. 2007;Hevesi Tóth et al. 2008;Kiss et al. 2010;Smirnova et al. 2010), and antitumour (Voynova et al. 1991) effects. ...
... Initially, pharmacological investigations have been restricted mostly to two species, E. angustifolium and E. parviflorum, being afterwards extended to some other Epilobium species. These pharmacological studies, both in vitro and in vivo, of extracts obtained from aerial parts of Epilobium taxa have confirmed their therapeutic properties including antiinflammatory (Hiermann et al. 1986;Juan et al. 1988;Hiermann et al. 1991;Hiermann et al. 1998;Steenkamp et al. 2006;Hevesi Tóth et al. 2008;Kiss et al. 2010), antiandrogenic (Hiermann and Bucar 1997), antimicrobial (Ivancheva et al. 1992;Rauha et al. 2000;Battinelli et al. 2001;Steenkamp et al. 2006;Borchardt et al. 2008;Bartfay et al. 2011), antimotility (Vitali et al. 2006), antifungal (Jones et al. 2000;Webster et al. 2008), antinociceptive Pourmorad et al. 2007), antiproliferative (Ducrey et al. 1997;Vitalone et al. 2001;Vitalone et al. 2003a;Vitalone et al. 2003b;Kiss et al. 2006a), antioxidant (Kähkönen et al. 1999;Shikov et al. 2006;Steenkamp et al. 2006;Stajner et al. 2007;Wojdyło et al. 2007;Hevesi Tóth et al. 2008;Kiss et al. 2010;Smirnova et al. 2010), and antitumour (Voynova et al. 1991) effects. ...
Chapter
Medicinal plants are the most important source for life-saving drugs development for the majority of the world’s population. The biotechnological tools are important to select, multiply, and conserve the critical genotypes of medicinal plants. Although used for centuries as remedies in folk medicine to treat a variety of diseases, Epilobium species have just recently been “rediscovered” as a potent treatment for a variety of male and female maladies. There are only few studies regarding the use of new technologies, such as in vitro tissue cultures, focused on increasing the amounts of the main constituents of Epilobium species. The focus of our research was to review Epilobium’s species pharmacological properties and to investigate in vitro growth and secondary metabolites production in some of these species (E. parviflorum and E. hirsutum). Micropropagation was achieved by standard in vitro culture techniques in agar-solidified or liquid medium. Plants cultured on different culture variants were compared with native plants for biomass production and accumulation of secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites identification and determination was assessed by TLC and HPLC. Our results showed that the micropropagation of both Epilobium species, performed either on gelified culture medium or especially on liquid culture medium, can enhance biomass and secondary metabolite production, especially of tannins.
... Epilobium is one of the various medicinal plants used in the treatment of BPH, although the exact mechanism of action has not yet been clarified. The activities observed in the experimental studies consist of: high radical-scavenger, antioxidant activity [53], antiinflammatory effect, analgesic property, anti-proliferative effect, inhibition of the activity of hyaluronidase and myeloperoxidase, lipoxygenase release possibly due to oenothein B content, and inhibitory effect on aromatase and 5alpha-reductase type 2 enzymes [49,50,54,55]. The radical-scavenger and antioxidant activities have been found for both ethanol and aqueous extract of E. parviflorum; these were higher (greater than that of Trolox® and ascorbic acid, used as positive controls), dose-dependent, and seem to be due to the presence of flavonoids [56]. ...
... The radical-scavenger and antioxidant activities have been found for both ethanol and aqueous extract of E. parviflorum; these were higher (greater than that of Trolox® and ascorbic acid, used as positive controls), dose-dependent, and seem to be due to the presence of flavonoids [56]. The same finding was also confirmed by other studies for other Epilobium species [53,57]. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, a potent inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 has been found in vitro for the ethanolic (rather than aqueous) extract of E. parviflorum [56]. ...
... One of the examples of herbal materials, with potential antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, antioxidant properties [1][2][3][4][5][6], beeing usefull in the prevention and complementary treatment in the early stages of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are Epilobium sp. representatives [7][8][9][10][11], especially following species: E. angustifolium L., E. parviflorum Schreb. ...
... representatives [7][8][9][10][11], especially following species: E. angustifolium L., E. parviflorum Schreb. and E. hirsutum L. [1,4,6]. Individual members of the Epilobium genus and extracts obtained from these plants are very well phytochemicaly characterized [1,6,7,11,12]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of standardized crude aqueous Epilobium angustifolium L. extract [100 mg/kg/day, p.o.] on the expression level of SRC kinase mRNA - a representatives of non-genomics xenobiotics signaling pathway in prostate ventral lobes of testosterone-induced, castrated rats. We have shown that in all analyzed groups induced by testosterone an elevation of SRC kinase mRNA transcription was observed, in comparison to control animals (not receiving the testosterone), (p<0.05). Finasteride in rats induced by testosterone caused the strongest inhibition of SRC mRNA transcription (p<0.05). In rats receiving testosterone and the plant extract a ca. 90% decrease of mRNA level was observed vs. testosterone-induced animals (p<0.05), while in testosterone-induced animals receiving concomitantly E. angustifolium extract and finasteride the observed reduction reached 87.3% (p<0.05). We did not observed, however, any positive feedback between studied plant extract and finasteride in the inhibitory activity (p<0.05). Further experimental studies should be performed in order to the understanding the molecular basis of interactions, the efficacy and safety of tested plant extract.
... Interestingly, the presence of this compound in Epilobium species is limited to the large-flowered one (Hiermann 1995; Barakat et al. 1997). However, this finding does not explain the COX-1 and-2 activity inhibition by E. parviflorum extracts ( Hevesi et al. 2008;Steenkamp et al. 2006). Simultaneously conducted studies on the anti-androgenic activity of the Epilobium extract have lead to the isolation of a dimeric ellagitannin: oenothein B ( Ducrey et al. 1997;Lesuisse et al. 1996), which seems to be widespread in Epilobium species (Ducrey et al. 1997). ...
... release ( Hevesi et al. 2008). Oenothein B appears as specific COX-1 inhibitor comparable in activity to indomethacin (Fig. 3 , as well as affect wound healing ( Dovi et al. 2004;Schäfer and Werner 2008). ...
Article
Willow herb tea or preparation are available and relatively popular in the European market, and claimed to be effective inter alia because of their anti-inflammatory activity. The present study is therefore aimed at comparing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of extracts of the three most popular Epilobium species (E. angustifolium, E. hirsutum and E. parviflorum) and at juxtaposing this activity against the dominating compounds from the following extracts: oenothein B (OeB), quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts has shown that OeB quantities vary between 20% and 35%, while flavonoids content does not exceed 2%. All extracts have inhibited the activity of hyaluronidase and lipoxygenase with IC₅₀ around 5 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml. The inhibition of hyaluronidase is related with the presence of OeB, a strong inhibitor of this enzyme (IC₅₀) 1.1 μM). Additionally, the extracts inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) release from stimulated neutrophils. OeB inhibited MPO release similarly to the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin with IC₅₀ 7.7 μM and 15.4 μM, respectively. Tested extracts significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from f-MLP and PMA induced neutrophils with IC₅₀ 5 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml, respectively. The flavonoids content seems to exert little influence on extracts' activity, contrary to OeB, whose high concentration explains the activity of extract obtained from Epilobium. Tested currently marketed Epilobium preparations are often wrongly assigned, but we should stress that the level of OeB in all tested herbs was high and always exceeded 2% in raw material.
... The anti-inflammatory effect is thought to be due to the activity of secondary metabolites contained in the ethanol extract of white turmeric, namely, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins. This is supported by the results of phytochemical screening tests which indicate the presence of these groups of compounds [25]. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a response of the body to injury or infection. When an injury occurs, the body will try to neutralize and eliminate harmful agents from the body and prepare for tissue repair. White turmeric is known to have secondary metabolites that have pharmacological activities such as antioxidants, antihyperlipidemia, antidiabetic and others. AIM: This study aims to determine the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid activity of white turmeric ethanol extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used carrageenan as an inflammatory inducer. This study was divided into 5 groups, namely the normal group, the CMCNa group, the EEKP group at a dose of 300 mg/kg, the EEKP group at a dose of 600 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg. And in this study, measurements of IC50, total flavonoids, and total phenol of white turmeric ethanol extract were carried out. The results showed that the ethanol extract of white turmeric at doses of 300, 600, and 900 mg/kgbw had anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing the percentage of inflammation and increasing the percentage of inflammation inhibition. The dose of 600 mg/kgbw had no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) with the diclofenac sodium group. RESULTS: Analysis of the results of inflammatory infiltration in gastric histopathology in groups P1, P2, P3 and P4 showed mild inflammatory infiltration compared to groups P(5) and K(+). While the description of the acinar glands on gastric histopathology showed that the P2 group gave a better picture of the acinar gland repair than the K(+), P2, P3, P4 and P5 groups. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that white turmeric ethanol extract has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
... L'estratto etanolico di Epilobium parviflorum ha mostrato un marcato effetto inibitorio su COX-1 e COX-2 e un conseguente arresto della biosintesi delle prostaglandine 433 . Epilobium ha anche attività antiossidante e inibisce la rapida proliferazione delle cellule infiammatorie a livello prostatico rallentando il ciclo cellulare 434 . Nonostante la popolarità di Epilobium parviflorum come medicinale utile per le affezioni prostatiche, non sono a tutt'oggi pubblicati studi che ne dimostrano l'utilità nel trattamento delle CP/CPPS. ...
... The anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity of Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. extracts was initially studied on cells in the context of benign prostatic hyperplasia; the analgesic, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal actions were studied in parallel [2][3][4]. Plant polyphenols represent a group of chemical substances ubiquitously distributed in all higher plants. These secondary metabolites possess free radical scavenging and antibacterial activity. ...
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The present study was carried out to develop an experimental endodontic irrigant solution based on plant extracts obtained from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. that largely replenish the properties of the usual antiseptics used in dentistry. Background: This study investigated the phytochemical contents of plant extracts obtained from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. and their potential antibacterial activity. Methods: Identification and quantification of biologically active compounds were made by UV field photo spectrometry, adapting the Folin-Ciocalteu test method. Antibacterial activity was tested on pathological bacterial cultures collected from tooth with endodontic infections using a modified Kirby-Bauer diffuse metric method. Results: Polyphenols and flavonoids were present in all plant extracts; the hydroalcoholic extract had the highest amount of polyphenols—17.44 pyrogallol equivalent (Eq Pir)/mL and flavonoids—3.13 quercetin equivalent (Eq Qr)/mL. Plant extracts had antibacterial activity among the tested bacterial species with the following inhibition diameter: White Staphylococcus (16.5 mm), Streptococcus mitis (25 mm), Streptococcus sanguis (27 mm), Enterococcus faecalis (10 mm). Conclusions: All plant extracts contain polyphenols and flavonoids; the antibacterial activity was in direct ratio with the amount of the bioactive compounds.
... The anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity of Epilobium parviflorum Schreb extracts was initially studied on cells in the context of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and in parallel the analgesic, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal action were studied [23][24][25]. Plant polyphenols represent a group of chemical substances ubiquitously distributed in all higher plants. These secondary metabolites possess free radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity. ...
Article
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For years, apical microleakage has been considered the main factor in endodontic failure therapy. Sealing abilities and antibacterial properties of root canal sealers and intracanal medicaments between appointments have been recognized as important factors for the success of endodontic treatment. Background: Apical periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease around the apex of a tooth root. The microorganisms reach the pulp by dentinal tubules especially when there is an open cavity after a coronal fracture and the pulp is in contact with the septic oral environment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the dynamics of healing by recording periapical index (PAI), after two appointment endodontic procedure with commercial or experimental intracanal medicament. Methods: A total of 40 patients with primary chronic apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were assigned randomly into four groups according to the teeth medicated with dehydrated plant extract, calcium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide mixed with chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2%, Walkhoff paste and obturated on a second visit, 7 days later. Patients were recalled at intervals of 3, 6, and 12 months to evaluate the treated teeth both clinically and radiographically for periapical healing. A 5-score scale PAI was used to evaluate stages of the periapical healing on a periapical radiography using a Kodak Dental imaging software provided by the radio-imagistic center. Results: Radiological evaluation revealed that the experimental intracanal medicament had a cumulative positive healing capacity by reducing the PAI as well as all resorbable pastes used in endodontic conventional therapy. Conclusions: The results suggest that the vegetable dry extract obtained from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb can be used as an inter-appointment medication among with the root canal filling for the positive effect on apical healing quantified by reducing the PAI.
... Increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and GSH have been found to be associated with BPH (Ahmad et al., 2012;Eze et al., 2015;Minciullo et al., 2015). Various herbal extracts reduce oxidative stress in induced BPH rats (Lopez et al., 2009;Hevesi et al., 2009). In addition; Saw palmetto extract, which is commonly used to treat BPH, has shown antioxidant effects (Belostottskaia et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases affecting aging man. In this study, we investigated the effect of Nigerian indigenous plant, Prosopis africana (PA) on BPH. We investigated the effect of Nigerian indigenous plant, Prosopis africana (PA) on BPH. BPH was induced in male rats weighing 250-350g through exogenous administration of testosterone and estradiol by subcutaneous injection. A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of the hormones for 3 weeks to induce BPH. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with different doses of PA extracts and group 3 received finasteride, all by gavages for forty-five days, while group 4 was left untreated, group 5 served as normal control. After forty-five days of treatment with PA extract, the rats were anaesthetised by short contact with trichloromethane vapour. Blood was also collected by cardiac puncture and the sera were cautiously centrifuged and used for the determination of biochemical indices. The liver and kidney were also harvested and homogenized and used for the assays of oxidative activities. The levels of CAT, SOD and GSH in the extract treated rats were comparable to normal control while in the BPH control showed a significant reduction. Similarly, the activity of TBARS in the extract treated group was comparable to normal control while showing significant (P<0.05) increase in the BPH control group. Therefore Prosopis africana seed can be used to prevent oxidative tissue damage resulting from BPH, by maintaining the integrity of the tissue as well as preventing the progression or complications that may arise from the disease.
... Epilobium a member of the Onagraceae family is a perennial herb widely distributed all over the world; it consists of over 200 species that tolerate a wide range of site and soil conditions. In past, Epilobium species have used as a preventative measure for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) [41][42][43][44] ; and many reports suggest of plant possessing antiproliferative , anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52]. More specifically, Epilobium extracts have shown noticeable effects on activities of several key enzymes including 5α-reductase and aromatase [53, 54], caspase 3 [55] and metaloproteinases [56]. ...
Article
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Alopecia or hair loss is a multifaceted disorder that results from influence of an array of different factors including heredity, androgenic hormones, micro-inflammation of hair follicles and scalp, infections, nutritional deficiency and harsh environmental conditions. The role of androgens and especially, the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have been well-established as the most important players in pathophysiology of androgenetic alopecia (AGA); and elevated DHT levels have been associated with hair loss. Current treatment regimen approved by FDA includes minoxidil and finasteride. Minoxidil, administered as a topical solution is converted to minoxidil sulfate, the active metabolite by sulfotransferase enzyme at target site and hence, individual responses to treatment vary depending on the enzyme expression. Finasteride an effective 5α-reductase inhibitor which blocks conversion testosterone to DHT is administered orally and presents significant unwanted systemic exposure. In the present manuscript, we have presented an overview of recent advancements in our understanding of pathophysiology of AGA and have discussed underlying factors that contribute to the development/progression of the disease. Ideally due to complex nature of the disorder, a multilateral therapeutic approach addressing multiple pathophysiological pathways seems more sensible in comparison to a monophasic (single-drug) one. Moreover superior targeting of hair follicles the site of action, could be achieved with least undesired effects by if the treatments are solely administrated via topical compared with that via oral route. In later part of this review, we have focused the discussion on currently available therapeutic options for management of AGA and reviewed several emerging potential targets for development of advanced therapies.
... Administration of different plants extracts and plants powder under investigation reduced MDA in BPH rats with different degrees. Various herbal extracts reduce oxidative stress in BPH rats [40][41][42] . Flaxseed is a nutritional whole grain, containing numerous chemical constituents and lignans that possess antioxidant activity 43 . ...
Article
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the beneficial effects of ethanolic extract of flaxseed, sesame seed, safflower seed and soybean in rat model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The whole powders of these plants were also evaluated. BPH was induced in castrated adult rats by subcutaneous injections of testosterone propioneate (3 mg/kg rat body weight) for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch), malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone (TS), prostate specific antigen (PSA) and acid phosphatase were determined. Plasma creatinine and urea levels were determined as indicator of kidneys function. Aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase activities were determined as indicator of liver function. All BPH rats administrated with different treatment showed significant reduction in plasma levels of T-Ch, TS, MDA, PSA as well as total prostatic and non-prostatic acid phosphatase activity compared with BPH rats. Flaxseeds powder was the most promising treatment in the reduction of total cholesterol and MDA levels, while flaxseeds ethanol extract showed the highest reduction of TS level compared with BPH control followed by sesame seeds ethanol extract. The plants' under investigation showed complete safety toward liver and kidney functions. In conclusion, the ethanolic extracts and whole powders of the studied plants' showed promising effect towards BPH in animal model.
... tri-deca-and tetra-decagalloyl glucoses in vitro: antioxidant activity in cell free assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene linoleic acid system, and hydroxyl radical) in vivo: inhibition of the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lung, down-regulation of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 mRNA expression levels in lung tissue in pulmonary inflammatory responses in a cigarettesmoke (CS)-exposed mouse model [127][128][129][130][131] ( and -3 together with the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases -1 and -2 as well as the gene expression of hyaluronidase 2 in UV-irridated human dermal fibroblasts in vivo: -reduction of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokinesPGI2 (6-keto-PGF1 α), PGE2 and PGD2 in perfused rabbit ears -analgesic properties in hot plate test and writhing test in male mice human: -decreased UV-induced erythema in volunteers [164][165][166][167][168][169][170] galloyl glucose in the blood was recovered [22], the PGG and other GTs absorption after oral administration remains questionable, and metabolic changes are possible. Indeed, after oral administration of PGG in animal study only traces of PGG glucuronide were found in blood [23]. ...
Article
The popularity of food products and medicinal plant materials containing hydrolysable tannins (HT) is nowadays rapidly increasing. Among various health effects attributable to the products of plant origin rich in gallotannins and/or ellagitannins the most often underlined is the beneficial influence on diseases possessing inflammatory background. Results of clinical, interventional and animal in vivo studies clearly indicate the antiinflammatory potential of HT-containing products, as well as pure ellagitannins and gallotannins. In recent years a great emphasis has been put on the consideration of metabolism and bioavailability of natural products during examination of their biological effects. Conducted in vivo and in vitro studies of polyphenols metabolism put a new light on this issue and indicate the gut microbiota to play a crucial role in the health effects following their oral administration. The aim of the review is to summarize the knowledge about HT-containing products’ phytochemistry and their anti-inflammatory effects together with discussion of the data about observed biological activities with regards to the current concepts on the HTs’ bioavailability and metabolism. Orally administered HT-containing products due to the limited bioavailability of ellagitannins and gallotannins can influence immune response at the level of gastrointestinal tract as well as express modulating effects on the gut microbiota composition. However, due to the chemical changes being a result of their transit through gastrointestinal tract, comprising of hydrolysis and gut microbiota metabolism, the activity of produced metabolites has to be taken into consideration. Studies regarding biological effects of the HTs’ metabolites, in particular urolithins, indicate their strong and structure-dependent anti-inflammatory activities, being observed at the concentrations, which fit the range of their established bioavailability. The impact of HTs on inflammatory processes has been well established on various in vivo and in vitro models, while influence of microbiota metabolites on silencing the immune response gives a new perspective on understanding anti-inflammatory effects attributed to HT containing products, especially their postulated effectiveness in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and cardiovascular diseases.
... As shown in Table 1, the water extract showed antioxidant activity comparable with the methanol extract (p > 0.05). The validation of antioxidant potential of herbal medicines in our laboratories is based on several in-house in vitro cell-free and cell-based assays [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44] as well as in vivo models [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]. Since the principal active constituent of the methanol and water extracts of M. stenopetala leaves is the well-characterised antioxidant and bioactive agent rutin, further biological bioassays on the extracts were not necessary. ...
Article
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The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala) and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera). It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better) antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis), which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4%) when the leaves (1 g) were boiled in water (200 mL). For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.
... One of herbal materials traditionally used in form of infusions in case of prevention and complementary treatment in early stages of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are Epilobium sp. representatives [6][7][8][9]. The most popular European species of this genus are species as follows: E. angustifolium L., E. parviflorum Schreb. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of standardized Epilobium angustifolium L. extract [100 mg/kg/day, p.o.] on the expression level of 5α-reductase type 2 (Srd5ar2) mRNA and Mapk3 mRNA a representative of non-genomic xenobiotics signaling pathway. It was shown that plant extract from the E. angustifolium showed a slight tendency to reduce prostate weight in hormonally induced animals (p>0.05) and in testosterone induced animals receiving both, extract and finasteride (p<0.05). Finasteride in rats induced by testosterone caused a smaller decrease in the level of mRNA 5α-steroid reductase 2 (SRd5ar2), than in rats treated with the hormone and studied plant extracts. In general, an increase in the amount of MAPK3 mRNAs in testosterone-induced groups of rats receiving tested plant extract with or without finasteride was observed, while the expression of type 2 5α-steroid reductase decreased (p<0.05). Further experimental studies should be performed in order to understand the molecular basis of interactions, the efficacy and safety of tested plant extracts.
... S. brasiliensis has also been used as a natural antiseptic to treat wounds and superficial mycoses (Saraiva, 2007), as well as for the treatment of veterinary zoonoses (Cardoso, 2001). Current studies indicate that many of these folk uses may have high levels of antioxidant activity (Dreifuss et al., 2010;Hevesi et al., 2009). Antioxidants inhibit the formation of damaging reactive oxygen species in the body (Velioglu et al., 1998). ...
... 29 More recent cell research with COX inhibition assays has shown E. parviflorum has significant beneficial intracellular metabolic activity and decreases PGE(2). 30 Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that lycopene consumption reduces prostate cancer risk. [31][32][33] Pre-clinical studies show that lycopene acts via various mechanisms that have the potential to cooperate in reducing the proliferation of normal and cancerous prostate epithelial cells, in reducing DNA damage and in improving intracellular metabolism. ...
... S. brasiliensis has also been used as a natural antiseptic to treat wounds and superficial mycoses (Saraiva, 2007), as well as for the treatment of veterinary zoonoses (Cardoso, 2001). Current studies indicate that many of these folk uses may have high levels of antioxidant activity (Dreifuss et al., 2010;Hevesi et al., 2009). Antioxidants inhibit the formation of damaging reactive oxygen species in the body (Velioglu et al., 1998). ...
Article
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In vitro evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity properties of extracts of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. (Anacardiaceae) This study aimed to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, the antibacterial and toxicological profile of the methanolic extract of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. (MExSb). The phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu methodology and the flavonoids content by complexation with chloride aluminum. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH method. The antimicrobial activity was tested by agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The toxicological profile was obtained using tests with larvae of Artemia salina Leach. High levels of phenolic compounds (825.65 ± 40.99 tannic acid equivalents in mg/g material) were found in MExSb, where 55% and 1.8% (in g/100 g dry weight of extract) of these corresponded to tannins and flavonoids, respectively. The MExSb showed high antioxidant capacity (EC 50 8.80 ± 0.94 µg.mL¯¹). Also a high antimicrobial activity was observed, particularly against strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, with MIC of 125 and 62.5 µg.mL¯¹, respectively. Finally, the MExSb showed moderate toxicity against A. salina. These findings allow concluding that the MExSb is a valuable source of molecules with antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity. Other studies, such as identification and quantification of major active components of MExSb are running and will evaluate the potential of the isolated compounds.
... Current studies indicate that many of these folk used, may have high levels of antioxidant activity (Dreifuss et al., 2010;Hevesi et al., 2009). Antioxidants inhibit the formation of damaging reactive oxygen species in the body (Velioglu et al., 1998). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of four species of Cnidoscolus (C. infestus Pax & K. Hoffm., C. pubescens Pohl, C. quercifolius Pohl and C. urens [L.] Arthur) used as ethnopharmacologicals in the Caatinga. The total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant activity (AOA) was measured using the qualitative antioxidant assay (QAA), the free-radical scavenging assay (DPPH assay) and the ferrous-ion chelating (FIC) assay. The extract of the leaves of C. pubescens had the highest levels of TPC, TFC and TTC. Extracts from the roots of C. infestus showed the highest antioxidant activity, while extracts from the roots of C. pubescens showed the highest level of chelating activity. The AOA was correlated with TPC, TFC and TTC, but these were not statistical. The parties cited by the population had on average high levels of TPC, TTC, TFC and AOA, while the parties non-cited had high levels of FIC. The results show that the antioxidant activity of plants of the genus Cnidoscolus, specifically of the Caatinga, appears to be associated with levels of phenolic compounds and these may explain its popular use.
... 29 More recent cell research with COX inhibition assays has shown E. parv- iflorum has significant beneficial intracellular metabolic activity and decreases PGE(2). 30 Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that lycopene consumption reduces prostate cancer risk. [31][32][33] Pre-clinical studies show that lycopene acts via various mechanisms that have the potential to cooperate in reducing the proliferation of normal and cancerous prostate epithelial cells, in reduc- ing DNA damage and in improving intracellular metabolism. ...
... Polyphenolic compounds have been re-ported as potential inhibitors of enzymes (5-reductase types 1 and 2) associated with these conditions and thus should be useful in the prevention of BPH or as an integral part of the treatment of androgen-dependent disorders [5, 6]. BPH is the major neoplasm occurring in men population45678. In men with age of 60, the prevalence of BPH is over 50% with a tendency to increase with age. ...
Article
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A novel transient ITP-CZE for preconcentration and determination of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, and vanilic acid) was developed and validated. Effects of several factors such as control of EOF, pH and buffer concentration, addition of organic solvents and CDs, and conditions for sample injection were investigated. Sample self-stacking was applied by means of induction of transient ITP, which was realized by adding sodium chloride into the sample. The CZE was realized in 200 mM borate buffer (ws pH 9.2) containing 37.5% methanol, 0.001% hexadimethrine bromide, and 15 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD. Under the optimal conditions for analysis, analytes were separated within 20 min. Linearity was tested for each compound in the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg/mL (R = 0.9906-0.9968) and the detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 11 ng/mL (protocatechuic acid) to 31 μg/mL (syringic acid). The validated method was applied to the ethanolic extract of Epilobium parviflorum, Onagraceae. The method of SPE was used for the precleaning of the sample.
... [23][24][25] Various herbal extracts reduce oxidative stress in testosterone-induced BPH rats. [26][27][28][29] In addition, saw palmetto extract, which is commonly used to treat BPH, has shown antioxidant effects. 30 Therefore, antioxidants can be considered good candidates to suppress the development of BPH. ...
Article
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown aetiology characterized by prostatic enlargement coincident with distinct alterations in tissue histomorphology. Instead of therapeutic agents that can cause severe side effects, plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH. In this study, we investigated whether the Melandrium firmum methanolic extract (MFME) improves BPH, using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Castration was performed via the scrotal route under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. BPH in castrated rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of TP (3 mg kg(-1)) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. MFME was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) for 4 weeks, along with the TP injections. The control group received injections of corn oil subcutaneously. At the scheduled termination of the experiment, all rats were killed and their prostates weighed; the relative prostate weight (prostate/body weight ratio) was calculated, and histomorphological changes in the prostate were examined. Additionally, we measured the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and the prostate. Experimentally induced BPH led to marked decreases in the relative prostate weight and the DHT levels in the serum and the prostate. Histologically, BPH was evident in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and MFME treatment suppressed the severity of the lesions. These results indicate that MFME effectively inhibits the development of BPH induced by testosterone in a rat model. Further studies will be needed to identify the compound(s) responsibility for inducing the protective effect against BPH and determine its mechanism of action.
Article
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In the present study, methanolic extracts from 30 plant species collected on Galichitsa Mt. were evaluated for their antioxidant properties using CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) assay and total phenolic (TP) content according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant properties and total phenolic content differed significantly among the selected plants. The total phenolic content of the tested plant species varied from 10.90 to 123.41 mg Galic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (DW). The CUPRAC assay ranged from 0.052 to 1.068 mmol Trolox Equivalents (TE)/g DW. Among the examined plant species, Origanum vulgare exhibited the strongest antioxidant potential (>1 mmol TE/g DW). In the Folin-Ciocalteau method, extracts of O. vulgare, Epilobium dodonei and E. hirsutum demonstrated remarkable contents of total phenolic compounds (>80 mg GAE/g DW). A positive linear correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolics indicates that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of tested plants.
Article
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance The Onagraceae is a widely distributed family of flowering plants comprises about 17 genera and more than 650 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees. Onagraceae also common as willowherb family or evening primrose family is divided into two subfamilies; Ludwigioideae (mainly genus; Ludwigia) and Onagroideae. Family Onagraceae is characterized by its numerous traditional uses as treatment of hormonal imbalances, urinary system ailments, prostate health maintenance, and antimicrobial effects. Aim of the study This review aims to introduce a holistic overview on the phytochemical composition, economical importance and ethnopharmacological value of different species of family Onagraceae. Materials and methods Literature review was performed using different data bases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Reaxys searching for articles focused on phytochemical composition, bioactivity and ethnopharmacological history of Onagraceae species. Results Different species of Onagraceae were reported to have a great variety of phytochemicals including flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, triterpenoids, saponins, and volatile/fixed oils. Onagraceae exhibited several health benefits and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic and analgesic, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial. Conclusions Family Onagraceae is an extremely important family with diverse phytochemical composition which enriches their pharmacological importance and hence it's commercial and economical value.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Epilobium species are generally known as “Yakı Otu” in Turkey, which mens “plaster herb” in English. Young shoots of Epilobium angustifolium L., Epilobium stevenii Boiss., and Epilobium hirsutum L. are consumed as salad or meal. These species have been used as a poultice for the treatment of mouth wounds in traditional medicine. An ointment prepared from leaves is used for skin disorders in children. Aim of the study We aimed to evaluate the ethnopharmacological use of Epilobium angustifolium, E. stevenii, and E. hirsutum by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models, and to identify the active wound-healer compound(s) and to explain the probable mechanism of the wound-healing activity. Materials and methods Evaluation of wound healing effects of plant extracts was performed in rats and mice by linear incision and circular excision wound models. Determination of total phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacities, which are known to promote the wound healing process, were carried out through Folin-Ciocalteau method and 2,2 Diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay as well as determination of total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) on the treated tissues. The active ethyl acetate (EtOAc) sub-extract of E. angustifolium was fractionated by different chromatographic separation techniques. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated via detailed analyzes (NMR and LC/MS). In addition, in vitro collagenase, hyaluronidase, and elastase enzymes inhibitory activity tests were performed on the isolated compounds to discover the activation pathways of the samples. Results Among the methanol (MeOH) extracts, E. angustifolium had the highest wound healing activity. Among the sub-extracts, EtOAc showed the highest wound healing activity. Thus, EtOAc sub-extract was subjected to chromatography to isolate the active compounds. Five known flavonoids namely hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside) (1), kaempferol (2), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamno pyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamno pyranoside (4), and quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabino pyranoside (5) were isolated from the EtOAc sub-extract of E. angustifolium. In vitro tests showed that hyperoside could be the compound responsible for the wound-healing activity by its significant anti-hyaluronidase, anti-collagenase, and antioxidant activities. Conclusion The EtOAc sub-extract of the aerial part of Epilobium angustifolium displayed remarkable wound-healing activity with anti-hyaluronidase, anti-collagenase, and antioxidant activities. Hyperoside was detected as the primary active compound of the aerial parts. According to the results, we suggest that EtOAc sub-extract of E. angustifolium and hyperoside may be a potent nominee to be used for the improvement of a wound-healing agent.
Article
Epilobium is a medicinal plant; its extracts are widely used traditional medicine due to their broad range of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Its most prominent feature is its therapeutic effects on prostatic diseases. The aim of this study is preparation of controlled release system of Epilobium parviflorum, and determination of its potential of anticancer applications. For this purpose, Epilobium parviflorum extract (EPE) loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared with ionic gelation method to increase the bioavailability of the extract. The nanoparticles were investigated in terms of size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and release profile. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the nanoparticles. Moreover, Ames/Salmonella test was used to determine the mutagenicity of EPE, and it was shown that it had no mutagenic effect. It was found that EPE loaded chitosan nanoparticles were with 64.47 nm in average size, 0.168 PdI and 15.2 mV zeta potential. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were found as 92.46% and 8%, respectively. Finally, DNA binding assay and in silico molecular docking studies were performed between EPE and DNA in order to contribute to design of plant based controlled release system for use in cancer therapy.
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The Epilobium species and their extracts are very popular in folk medicine, for a wide range of applications. The purpose of this review is the analysis of the pharmacological properties of Epilobium spp, considering whether their effects (e.g., anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial, analgesic, and antiandrogenic) could rationally justify the use of Epilobium as a treatment of numerous diseases. Even if numerous preclinical studies have been reported, randomized controlled clinical trials (for the evaluation of safety and efficacy), and eventually cost‐effectiveness studies (to estimate the long‐term cumulative costs), are still needed to confirm the usefulness of these medicinal plants in human diseases.
Article
Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease that is related to age. Known therapeutic agents used in the treatment of BPH are associated with toxicity. Therefore, chemoprevention could be an effective approach. We investigated the ameliorative effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH in castrated rats. Castration was performed by removing both testes through the scrotum sack under ketamine anesthesia. Rats were assigned into seven groups of seven animals each: non-castrated control, castrated control, castrated rats that received TP, castrated rats that received TP and MeJA, castrated rats that received TP and finasteride, castrated rats that received MeJA, and castrated rats that received finasteride. Results indicate that BPH rats had significantly (p < 0.05) elevated prostate weight and relative weight of prostate relative to control. Also, BPH rats had significantly (p < 0.05) increased activities of prostatic acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of zinc, and malondialdehyde. Further, levels of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidative indices were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in BPH. Histology of prostate revealed hyperplasia of transition lobe, increased expression of PSA, and Ki67 in BPH. Treatment with MeJA and finasteride attenuated the activities of the phosphatases and levels of antioxidants in BPH. Overall, MeJA ameliorates BPH via antioxidative mechanism. Copyright
Article
As part of our continuous efforts in screening the bioactivities of Saudi Arabian plants, we here characterize the in vitro cytotoxicity of Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori on the human melanoma A375 cell line with the SRB [1] and Alamar Blue [2] methods, its inhibition of melanogenesis by mushroom tyrosinase enzyme [3] and its free radical scavenging activity against the synthetic stable radical DPPH [4]. The active secondary metabolites were dereplicated by means of HPTLC analyses. Only the chloroform extract of G. tenax had significant inhibitory effects on the cytotoxicity assays (IC50= 45 – 83 µg/ml). Cell cycle analyses showed that this extract arrested the cell cycle at S phase as well as inducing the activity of caspases 3/7. The inhibitory activity upon tyrosinase enzyme was restricted to one of the fractions of the hexane extract (IC50 = 59 µg/ml). HPTLC analyses confirmed that it contained lupeol (main component) and beta-sitosterol (minor amounts). Lupeol is here described in this plant species for the first time and is already a known inhibitor of this enzyme5. Based on the results of the DPPH assay the hexane and chloroform fractions were devoid of any radical scavenging activity and only one of the fractions of the methanol extract demonstrated a significant activity (EC50 = 10 µg/ml). Further studies are carried out to identify further active principles and opportunities for the use of this popular herbal medicinal plant in the context of this research.
Article
The antioxidant status, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level and hematological parameters in prostatic rats fed leaves of Celosia argentea L. were investigated in this study. A total of twenty five animals were divided into five experimental groups consisting of five animals each. The groups included a Control (C), Negative Control (NC), Positive Control (PC), test I and II. All the groups except C were induced with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) by daily injections of testosterone propionate in olive oil. Positive Control (PC) was treated with finasteride. The C, NC and PC groups were fed a normal diet while test I and II were fed 5 and 10% Celosia argentea-Supplemented Diet (CASD), respectively. At the end of the experimental period of twelve weeks, the weights and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) of the animals were measured. Antioxidant markers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were determined. Hemoglobin and White Blood Cells (WBC) levels were also determined. A histo-pathological examination of the prostate of the animals in all the groups was carried out. The results obtained showed that PSA levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) in groups fed with CASD. The SOD, GST, CAT and GSH levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in the groups fed CASD. Hemoglobin and WBC levels were increased in the NC and PC groups. The animals in the groups fed with CASD had the highest increase in weight. The histological studies showed a considerable improvement in the prostate histology of the groups fed CASD. These findings indicate that consumption of Celosia argentea-supplemented diets may prevent or suppress the development of BPH in rats.
Article
Evaluation of the influence of the standardized extract from the herb of Epilobium angustifolium on ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA expression in rat ventral prostate tissue and free serum estradiol level. Rats were divided into 6 groups with 10 animals. ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA expression in rat ventral prostate tissue level was performed using real-time PCR method in Light Cycler system. Serum-free estradiol was evaluated using immunoenzymatic technique. In our experimental model there was an increase of ERa mRNA level by 9% and decrease by 36% of ERbeta mRNA level in ventral prostate tissue in rats administrated with testosterone and E. angustifolium extract, in comparison with testosterone alone administrated animals. E. angustifolium standardized extract influenced the expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta mRNAs in differential manner which may suggest its potentially therapeutic properties or causing of adverse effects in pharmacotherapy of estrogen-related disorders. More complex studies should be undertaken to evaluate safety and to improve the efficacy of using this herbal extract.
Article
In this paper, we reviewed plants being effective in treatment of BPH for the purpose of finding new sources of pharmaceutical agents. All pertinent literature databases were searched. The search keywords were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH, and prostate. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were evaluated. According to the studies, some of the substantial effective constituents of the plants in treatment of BPH are oenothein B, icaritin, xanthohumol, diarylheptanoid, 2,6,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, emodin, fatty acids, atraric acid, n-butylbenzene-sulfonamide, curbicin, theaflavin-3,30-digallate, penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose, lycopene, sinalbin, β-sitosterol, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, genistein, apigenin, baicalein, and daidzein. Besides, Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Curcubita pepo, and Urtica dioica as the most prevalent plants used to treat BPH. S. repens in human studies showed equivalent effectiveness to tamsulosin and in combination to U. dioica revealed equal effects to finastride with less side effects. There are numerous plants that have beneficial influence on BPH although the mechanisms of action in some plants are not well understood yet. Active ingredients of some of these plants are known and can be used as lead components for development of new effective and safe drugs.
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In the present study the chemical composition and bioactivity of water-methanolic extract prepared from aerial parts of Circaea lutetiana were determined. The HPLC-DAD-MS3 analysis revealed the presence of 14 different compounds comprising phenolic acids, ellagitannins and flavonoids. The antioxidant assays showed that investigated extract has strong scavenging activity towards DPPH., O22- and H2O2 (SC50 33.1 ± 3.1, 4.0 ± 2.3 and below 2 µg/ml, respectively). The enzyme based studies proved that Circaea lutetiana extract has the ability to inhibit hyaluronidase and lipoxygenase activity (IC50 13.3 ± 2.4 and 44.7 ± 1.4 µg/ml, respectively). These results can support the traditional usage of Circaea lutetiana.
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The major unexplained phenomenon in fibrotic conditions is an increase in replicating fibroblasts. In this report we present evidence that oxygen free radicals can both stimulate and inhibit proliferation of cultured human fibroblasts, and that fibroblasts themselves release superoxide (O2.-) free radicals. Fibroblasts released O2.- in concentrations which stimulated proliferation, a finding confirmed by a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation by free radical scavengers. Oxygen free radicals released by a host of agents may thus provide a very fast, specific and sensitive trigger for fibroblast proliferation. Prolonged stimulation may result in fibrosis, and agents which inhibit free radical release may have a role in the prevention of fibrosis.
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Molyneux, P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity
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Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is used in traditional medicine, as a culinary herb and a well-known source of flavouring principles. Total antioxidant activity in 23 Iranian basil accessions was determined as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique, based on the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, according to the method of Spanos and Wrolstad [Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 38 (1990) 1565] and calculated as gallic acid equivalents GAE/g dw. Total antioxidant activity varied from 10.8 to 35.7 μM Trolox, and total phenolic content ranged from 22.9 to 65.5 mg gallic acid/g dw in “Dezful I” and “Babol” accessions, respectively. A linear positive relationship existed between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic acids content of the tested basil accessions (R2=0.71). Iranian basils possess valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use.
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Oxygen radical injury and lipid peroxidation have been suggested as major causes of cancer, atherosclerosis and the aging process. We examined in vitro the effect of garlic on H2O2-induced oxidant injury in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC). After overnight preincubation with Aged Garlic Extract (AGE, from Wakunaga Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Japan) or S-allyl cysteine (SAC), PAEC monolayers were exposed to H2O2 for 3 h. Cell viability (MTT assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and lipid peroxidation (TBA-RS) were measured to assess oxidant injury. AGE (1-4 mg/ml) pretreatment significantly reduced the loss of cell viability induced by 50-100 microM of H2O2. AGE and SAC exhibited dose dependent inhibition of both LDH release and TBA-RS production induced by 50 microM of H2O2. The results show that AGE and SAC can protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidant injury. Numerous garlic compounds could be involved in the antioxidant properties of garlic, while there could be some prooxidant compounds derived from garlic. It is important to keep an array of antioxidant compounds to develop good herbal preparation, like AGE.
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This study examined whether various species of Epilobium, a phytotherapeutic agent used in folk medicine as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia, may have an antiproliferative effect in PZ-HPV-7 human prostatic epithelial cells in-vitro. The MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) test, [methyl-(3)H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and flow cytometry analysis were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Ethanolic extracts of E. spicatum, E. rosmarinifolium and E. tetragonum inhibited DNA synthesis in PZ-HPV-7 cells. While at high concentrations all extracts were cytotoxic, DNA synthesis was also decreased at levels that caused no or little cytotoxicity. Treatment of cells with Epilobium extracts did not result in a formation of DNA fragments (evaluated by the TUNEL assay) or chromatin condensation (assessed by Hoechst staining). Flow cytometry analysis indicated that Epilobium extracts inhibit the progression of the cell cycle from the G(0)/G(1) phase. These results suggest that extracts of Epilobium inhibit proliferation of human PZ-HPV-7 cells in-vitro by affecting progression of the cell cycle. This study provides some initial biological plausibility for the use of Epilobium extracts in benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Article
Oxygen radical injury and lipid peroxidation have been suggested as major causes of cancer, atherosclerosis and the aging process. In this study, we determined in vitro the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and one of its components, S-allyl cysteine (SAC), on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidant injury using bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC). After overnight preincubation with AGE or SAC, PAEC monolayers were exposed to H2O2 for 3 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and lipid peroxidation were measured to assess oxidant injury. Pretreatment with AGE at 2–4 mg/mL or SAC at 4 mg/mL significantly reversed the loss of cell viability induced by 50 and 100 μm of H2O2. AGE or SAC also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of both LDH release and lipid peroxidation induced by 50 μM of H2O2. The results show that both AGE and SAC can protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidant injury. The data thus suggest that these compounds may be useful for retardation of the aging process and for prevention of cancer and atherosclerosis.
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Benign enlargement of the prostate gland is extremely common with increasing age. The incidence of gross enlargement of the gland has been reported as 40% in 70 year-old males. Microscopic foci can be found in 80%. The disease seems to be most common in blacks, Caucasians, and Jews, but less frequent in males from the Far East. Epidemiological studies are subject to many pitfalls, and the data have to be interpreted with great caution. The data from the World Health Organization indicate a marked drop in deaths from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) during the last 12-year period. Increasing age and an intact androgen supply seem to be prerequisites for BPH development. Apart from that, no other risk factors have been identified uncontrovertedly.
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The aim of this work was to compare macro- and micromorphological characteristics and flavonoid composition of some Epilobium species and commercial willow-herbs for their authentication and quality control. In order to determine the flavonoid composition of extracts, the flavonol-glycosides were also hydrolised quantitatively to their aglycones. Before and after hydrolysis flavonoid fingerprints were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography using two different gradient mobile phase systems. Flavonoid composition was found to be suitable for the authentication of Epilobium species and commercial willow-herbs as an alternative to the current phytochemical study and time-consuming microscopic procedures [1]. The combined HPLC analysis of free flavonoid-aglycones and glycosides, developed in our laboratory can be used for the quality control of willow-herb samples and various commercial preparations.
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The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.
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Antioxidant activities of pure chemicals and food additives were compared with that of herb extracts using a method based on the Fenton reaction for screening natural antioxidants. This method detects antioxidants classified as free radical terminators, that may compete with linoleic acid for scavenging OH radicals. Of the 39 products investigated, 19 were commercial products and 20 were aqueous and ethylic herb infusions. Commercial phenolic and flavonoid products, both hydrophilic and lipophilic, showed strong antioxidant activities, while indole, alkaloid and fs-cyclic products showed no antioxidant activity, as determined by this method. Aqueous infusions of all herbs showed antioxidant properties. Mild oregano, strong oregano, rosemary, sage and mint showed as strong antioxidant properties as pure commercial chemical and food additives, such as hydroquinone, rutin, phenidone, catechol, epicatechin, morin and BHA, in both aqueous and ethylic infusions. Also, the results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the aqueous extractions of short duration yielded larger quantities of active compounds by reducing the degradation of their antioxidant properties.
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Analysis of the flavonol glycoside patterns of 13 Epilobium species was carried out by thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (TSP/LC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector (LC-UV). Mass-data and UV spectra recorded online, before and after post-column addition of shift reagents, provided useful structural information on the different compounds present in crude extracts. Nineteen flavonol glycosides were identified by this means. In order to confirm the on-line assignments, 13 of the compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated. They were all 3-O-glycosides of kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses microsomal lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a complex process known to occur in both plants and animals. It involves the formation and propagation of lipid radicals, the uptake of oxygen, a rearrangement of the double bonds in unsaturated lipids, and the eventual destruction of membrane lipids, producing a variety of breakdown products, including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and ethers. Biological membranes are often rich in unsaturated fatty acids and bathed in an oxygen-rich, metal-containing fluid. Lipid peroxidation begins with the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from an unsaturated fatty acid, resulting in the formation of a lipid radical. The formation of lipid endoperoxides in unsaturated fatty acids containing at least 3 methylene interrupted double bonds can lead to the formation of malondialdehyde as a breakdown product. Nonenzymic peroxidation of microsomal membranes also occurs and is probably mediated in part by endogenous hemoproteins and transition metals. The direct measurement of lipid hydroperoxides has an advantage over the thiobarbituric acid assay in that it permits a more accurate comparison of lipid peroxide levels in dissimilar lipid membranes.
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The major unexplained phenomenon in fibrotic conditions is an increase in replicating fibroblasts. In this report we present evidence that oxygen free radicals can both stimulate and inhibit proliferation of cultured human fibroblasts, and that fibroblasts themselves release superoxide (O2.-) free radicals. Fibroblasts released O2.- in concentrations which stimulated proliferation, a finding confirmed by a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation by free radical scavengers. Oxygen free radicals released by a host of agents may thus provide a very fast, specific and sensitive trigger for fibroblast proliferation. Prolonged stimulation may result in fibrosis, and agents which inhibit free radical release may have a role in the prevention of fibrosis.
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Several extracts from Epilobium parviflorum, a plant used in Central Europe for the treatment of prostate disorders, were evaluated in a biochemical assay with 5-alpha-reductase. The aqueous extract displaying inhibition of the enzyme was analyzed, the fraction responsible for this activity was purified, and the active compound identified as a macrocyclic tannin, oenothein B (1).
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Cultured human skin cells are a potentially useful model for skin irritancy testing. We have investigated the use of human skin fibroblasts for in vitro screening for skin toxicity. To assess the cytotoxic effects of surfactants, cell viability was measured by the NRU (neutral red uptake) assay and AB (Alamar blue) assay as in vitro methods. The skin irritation potential of surfactants by human skin patch test was assessed as in vivo methods. The close relationship was found between AB assay with human skin fibroblasts and human patch test (r=0.867). There was a relatively good agreement between the NRU and in vivo patch test (r=0.648). These results suggest that AB and NRU assay using cultured human fibroblast could be predictable methods for the irritancy of various surfactants in human.
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An aqueous extract of Buddleja globosa leaves, used traditionally in Chile for wound healing, was tested for the ability to stimulate growth of fibroblasts in vitro and for antioxidant activity in the same fibroblast cell system challenged with hydrogen peroxide. Low concentrations of the extract gave an increase in fibroblast growth which was not statistically significant but cytotoxicity was observed at concentrations greater than 50 microg/ml. The extract showed strong antioxidant effect and fractionation led to the isolation of three flavonoids and two caffeic acid derivatives, each of which was shown to contribute to the antioxidant effect at concentrations below 10 microg/ml. These activities would accelerate the healing of wounds.
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This study was designed to investigate the effect of IL-1alpha-induced up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) secretion and the subsequent phenotypic effects of PGE(2) on epithelial cells. The effect of IL-1alpha on COX-2 expression was investigated in the T24 bladder epithelial cell line following treatment with 0, 0.05, 0.5, 1 or 10 ng/ml IL-1alpha for 1, 2, 4 or 6 h. Quantitative PCR confirmed up-regulation of expression of COX-2 with maximal expression observed following treatment with 0.5 ng/ml IL-1alpha for 1 h. Co-treatment of the cells with 0.5 ng/ml IL-1alpha in the presence or absence of 100 ng/ml IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) abolished the up-regulation in COX-2 expression confirming that the effect of IL-1alpha is mediated via its membrane-bound receptors. Treatment with 0.5 ng/ml IL-1alpha resulted in a time-dependent increase in PGE(2) secretion with maximal secretion detected at 24 and 48 h after stimulation with IL-1alpha. Co-treatment of the cells with IL-1alpha and IL-1RA or the COX-2 enzyme inhibitor NS398 abolished the IL-1alpha mediated secretion of PGE(2). Treatment of T24 cells with 100 nM PGE(2) resulted in a significant elevation in cAMP generation confirming the expression of functional PGE(2) receptors. Finally, the effect of exogenous treatment with PGE(2) on apoptosis of T24 cells was assessed using cell death detection ELISA. T24 cells were treated with camptothecin to induce apoptosis in the presence or absence of 50 or 100 nM PGE(2) or 10 microM forskolin. Treatment of T24 cells with increasing doses of camptothecin alone resulted in a significant increase in the induction of apoptosis (P<0.01). However, co-treatment of the cells with 50 or 100 nM PGE(2) or 10 microM forskolin resulted in the inhibition of induction of the apoptotic pathway by camptothecin. These data demonstrate that PGE(2) inhibits apoptosis of epithelial cells possibly via cAMP-dependent pathway.
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The neutral red in vitro cytotoxicity assay was used to evaluate the comparative responses of human cells isolated from tissues of the oral cavity to olive oil phenolics. The cell lines used included normal gingival fibroblasts, immortalized, nontumorigenic gingival epithelial cells, and carcinoma cells from the salivary gland. No differences in the relative sensitivities to the phenolics amongst the three cell types were noted. In general, for all cell types, the sequence of increasing cytotoxicity was: oleuropein aglycone>oleuropein glycoside, caffeic acid>o-coumaric acid>cinnamic acid>tyrosol, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid. Cytotoxicity was noted only at phenolic concentrations far exceeding those attainable after habitual consumption, thus indicating that consumption of phenol-rich olive oil is safe.
Article
Epidemiological studies indicate that dietary antioxidants can influence the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Among them flavonoids have been proposed to be effective cytoprotectors. Consequently, herbs with a high concentration of these compounds such as Achyrocline satureioides, Ginkgo biloba and Epilobium parviflorum are of special interest. In this context a comparative study of the cytoprotective capacity of infusions from the three plants against an oxidative insult was performed. Hence, the cytoprotective activity of each infusion against H2O2 injury to PC12 cells was tested and the antioxidant capacity was assessed by the ABTS*+ radical bleaching assay. Free and glycosylated flavonoids contained in the infusions were identified by HPLC and the cytoprotective effect of some of these individual flavonoids was tested. The analysis of the flavonoid content of the infusions revealed different profiles. Epilobium parviflorum infusion showed the highest antioxidant capacity but only Achyrocline satureioides infusion proved to be cytoprotective. Moreover, the free flavonoids quercetin and luteolin contained in this infusion were also cytoprotective. In conclusion, the free radical scavenger capacity did not correlate with the cytoprotective profile of the infusions. The special mixture of unglycosylated Achyrocline satureioides flavonoids could be a clue to explain the unique effect of this plant.
Article
Antioxidant capacity for a wide range of natural or synthetic polyphenolics was comprehensively evaluated by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) assay using free blue/green ABTS radicals. The polyphenolics tested are grouped into the following categories: vitamins (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin A, and vitamin C), phenolic acids (benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, cinnamic acid, and their derivatives), flavonoids (anthocyanidin, flavanol, chalcone, flavanone, flavone, flavonol, isoflavone, and their derivatives), synthetic food additives (BHA, BHT, TBHQ, and PG), and other miscellaneous polyphenolics (ellagic acid, sesamol, eugenol, thymol, etc.). A positive linear relationship between VCEAC and the number of free OH groups around the flavonoid framework was found, whereas, for phenolic acids, the linear relationship was not as good as with the flavonoid aglycones. Groups of chemicals having comparable structures generally showed similar trends. Polyphenolics commonly showed a higher VCEAC compared to monophenolics. Compounds like gallic acid with 3 vicinal hydroxy substitutions on the aromatic ring in phenolic acids or like epigallocatechin with 3 vicinal hydroxy substitutions on the B ring in flavonoids showed the highest antioxidant capcity among the groups. In the flavonoids, 2 characteristic chemical structures were very important, the catechol moiety in the B ring and the 3-OH functional group in a chroman ring. Glycosylated flavonoids showed less potent antioxidant capacity than their aglycone alone. Synthetic antioxidant food additives (BHA, TBHQ, and BHT) conventionally used in the food industry were less effective antioxidants than ascorbic acid. Other naturally occurring polyphenolics tested followed the expected general trends of phenolic acids and flavonoids.
Article
Endometriosis is a common, chronic and estrogen-dependent gynaecological disorder associated with pelvic pain and infertility. In addition to, or perhaps as a consequence of, immune, environmental and genetic factors, endometriotic lesions show high estradiol (E2) biosynthesis and low E2 inactivation compared with normal endometrium. Current medical therapies of pain, which aim to lower circulating E2 concentrations, are not effective in at least half of these patients. We and others recently demonstrated the expression of a few steroidogenic genes in endometriosis. The most important genes in this group are steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase. Both are essential for E2 production. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most potent known stimulator of both StAR and aromatase. PGE2 production in endometriosis is up-regulated by increased levels of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in this tissue. COX-2 in turn is stimulated by E2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and PGE2 itself in endometrial and endometriotic cells. Thus, there is a positive feedback loop that favours continuous formation of E2 and PGE2 in endometriosis. These basic findings led to recent phase-II studies employing aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of endometriosis. Aromatase inhibitors treat both postmenopausal and premenopausal endometriosis at least as effectively as the existing medical treatments. In premenopausal women, we and others administered aromatase inhibitors in combination with an ovarian-suppressant treatment. In this review, we emphasize the most recent basic studies in detail and provide a short summary of recent clinical trials.
Article
Crude water and ethanolic extracts of five herbal remedies reported in the literature for traditional treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and/or prostatitis were investigated for their effect on hydroxyl scavenging activity, antibacterial activity and their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis. Both the water and ethanol extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Epilobium parviflorum inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. All 10 extracts scavenged the hydroxyl radical but with various potencies (32-93%). Ethanolic extracts were the most active in inhibiting COX-1 catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis. The ethanolic extract of Epilobium parviflorum showed inhibitory effects on both the COX-1 and -2 catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis, inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and exerted antioxidant activity. Although these results support the traditional use of Epilobium parviflorum for treatment of prostatitis and BPH, further investigation is required, for this promising plant.
Article
We undertook the present study to investigate the possible alteration of oxidant/antioxidant status in the circulation of patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels were estimated in the erythrocytes of 25 non-metastatic prostate cancer patients, 36 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls). TBARS concentrations were significantly increased, while erythrocyte GPX and SOD activities were significantly decreased in the prostate cancer group versus controls (P < 0.001) and BPH group (P < 0.05). Zn levels were lowered in prostate cancer patients versus controls (P < 0.01) with no significant changes between BPH and cancer groups. Similarly, lipid peroxidation was increased (P < 0.05) with decreased SOD activity and Zn level (P < 0.05) in BPH versus controls. These results reveal an alteration in the lipid peroxidation index, with concomitant changes in the antioxidant defense system in prostate cancer patients compared to BPH patients. We hypothesize that an altered prooxidant-antioxidant balance may lead to an increase in oxidative damage and consequently may play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis.
Article
Phytomedicines are becoming more popular all over the world. Prostate cancer patients and those with benign prostatic hyperplasia are increasingly exploring the use of complementary alternative medicine especially due to the risk of mortality and long-term morbidity associated with surgical procedures. The incidences of prostate diseases are continually rising and the effect of phytomedicines already tested do provide relief, are well comparable with that of traditional forms of treatment. This paper reviews the phytomedicines used in Africa, Western countries and China as a treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and prostate cancer. Herbals which hold potential promise are mentioned, although much research is still required.
Determination of Tannins in Herbal Drugs European Pharmacopoeia Supplement 5.0. 2005. Determination of Flavonoid Content in Solidago virgaureae herba Identifica-tion of Epilobium species and willow-herbs (Onagraceae) by HPLC analysis of flavonoids as chemotaxonomic markers
  • Balázs A Hevesi Tb
  • V Vukics
  • É Szoke
  • Kéry
European Pharmacopoeia Supplement 5.0. 2005. Determination of Tannins in Herbal Drugs. EDQM: Strasbourg, France. Vol. 1: 221. European Pharmacopoeia Supplement 5.0. 2005. Determination of Flavonoid Content in Solidago virgaureae herba. EDQM: Strasbourg, France. Vol. 2: 1682. Hevesi TB, Balázs A, Vukics V, Szoke É, Kéry Á. 2006. Identifica-tion of Epilobium species and willow-herbs (Onagraceae) by HPLC analysis of flavonoids as chemotaxonomic markers. Chromatographia 63: 119–112.
DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES AbD Serotec – alamarBlue 2007. www.ab-direct.com, catalog No Cytoprotection by Achyrocline satureioides (Lam) D.C. and some of its main flavonoids against oxidative stress
  • Copyright
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Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytother. Res. 23, 719–724 (2009) DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES AbD Serotec – alamarBlue 2007. www.ab-direct.com, catalog No.: BUF012 Arredondo MF, Blasina F, Echeverry C et al. 2004. Cytoprotection by Achyrocline satureioides (Lam) D.C. and some of its main flavonoids against oxidative stress. J Ethnopharmacol 91: 13–20.