" # $!%
! & $ '
' ($ ' #%%
)%*%' $ '
'! # $,
. %%% %
*!5 !& 6 !7%6689 8& %)-
"3 " &9=8?
1. Introduction 1-2
2. Review of Literature 3-25
i. Ayurvedic Review
ii. Modern Review
iii. Prakratri Review
3. Materials and Methods 26-28
4. Observations and Result 29-72
5. Discussion 73-91
6. Summary and Conclusion 92-95
7. Bibliography i-xi
This work i s reflection of the rays of mercy fr om almighty, with whose s hower of bles sing thi s task ventur ed
without any hin drance. With a deep sense of devotion I bow and pray to the feet of Baba Vishwanat ha. Who blessed me
to get an opportunity to study in this holy city Kashi especially in Banaras Hindu University.
My infinite gratitude and great reverence to Pt. Madan Mohan Malviyaji, who has established this multi
dispciplinary Inst itute. With great plea sure and a deep sense of grat itude I wish to acknowled ge the immense and
invaluable help of all my distinguished teachers and dear colleagues whose constant guidance and inspiration made this
thesis of mine to come into shape.
Words fall short in expressing my deep sense of gratitude and profound thanks to my learned teacher and guide
Dr.N.S.Tripathi, MD (AY), Ph.D, Assistant Profess or, Department of Kriya Sharir, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of
Medical Sci ences, Ban aras Hindu Uni versity. His i nvaluable su ggestions an d constant guid ance has been a source of
encouragement for me and enabled me to complete the work. I venerate him and wish that his blessings will remain
with me throughou t my life.
I am immensel y grateful to my le arned Co-super visor Dr. P. S. Byadgi Assistant Professor, Department of
Vikriti Vigyan, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU. He has very affectionately extended his learned suggestions from
time to time which were also the source to update knowledge regarding this field. His attitude makes me more
enthusi astic during per iod of my stud y.
It is a pleasing privilege for me to express my sense of gratitude and respect to Dr. Sangeeta Ge hlot ,
Associate Professor and Head, Department of Kriya Sharir for her valuable suggestions and evaluations during
I am sincerely grateful to my teacher Dr. Kishor Patward han, Assistant Professor Depart ment of Kriya Shari r
IMS, BHU, Varanasi for his valuable suggestions and evaluations during research work.
I am sincerel y grateful Dr. B.M. Singh, Associate Professor and He ad, Department o f Bala Roga IMS , BHU,
I al so ow e m y reg ard s to Dr A.C.Kar, Head Department of Vikriti Vi gyana for his ki nd permissi on to carr y
This work w ould not have c ome to an end without t he help and gui dance of Dr. Gi rish Singh as he helped me out
with many proble ms regarding dif ferent aspects.
It is my great pleasure to acknowledge indebtness to all teachers of PG and UG for encouragement and inspiration.
I feel happy and lucky to express my profound sense of gratefulness to an enthusiastic, affectionate, inspiring
Dr.Sushma Tiwari, whose emotion al support and guidan ce helped me a l ot in accompli shment of the pr esent stud y.
I am also thankful to al l my seniors, especiall y Dr. Piyush Tripathi, Dr.Rahul Banker, for their support
during my thesis work.
I offer my sincere thanks to my friends Dr. Kavita Patel, Dr.K.B.Singh, Dr. Shiv Shanker Pathak, Dr.
Naveen Chauhan, Dr. Amit Gupta and my juniors Dr. Sunil Chaudhary, Dr. Himanshu , Dr. Mahesh, Dr Ravi
Shukla, Dr. Rapolu Sunil,
I offer my sincere thanks to my loving students of batch 2009 and all students of 2010 batch for
participating and co-operated me in completing this study.
No work can reach up to t he excellen cy without t he moral support of fa mily members. I feel shor t of words
when I record my gratitude to my grandmother. I am highly indebted to my father Shri Mahesh Singh, my moth er
Smt. Sheela Singh and my uncle Shri S.B.singh. They have played a key role in moulding th oughts toward higher
studies with constant enthusiastic and affectionate push.
A warm heartily my affections for my life mate Dr. Nitu Singh, whose attitude ever helped me to sail through
many troubles ome situati ons. Words cannot expre ss my feelings for her kind support durin g my thesis work.
My happiness is multiplied many folds as I think of my family that stood by me at all times and each and every
member of who has been my source of inspiration. I thank my Loving and c aring famil y members Mr Rajesh Si ngh,
Smt Seema Singh, Mr R .P.Si ngh, Smt Re kha Singh, Akhil esh Singh, R agini Si ngh because without their patience,
encouragement and painst aking efforts, achieving this goal would have been a much difficult task for me.
And of course I am very thankful to my younger brother Amod singh for his support in this work.
I am very much thankful to loving baby Arpit ,Angel, Kuhu for their minted support dur ing this work.
I am also thankful to the entire laboratory staff, Department of Vikriti Vigyana for their support during
I extend my th anks to Mr Imran Khan, Neelam Gupta, Dulare Ji, Sohan Ji, Shiv mohan Ji and all the
members of Kriya Sharir Departme nt for their help and co-operation during my study.
I want to ex press my thanks t o Mr. M ukesh kumar for his helping and co-operative attitude.
At last but not least I want to express my feeling and gratitude to all my well wishers.
Dated: Dr. Pramod Kumar Singh
Ayurveda, a system of medical science is based on many centuries of experience in medical
practice. Ayurvedic medicine system originated in the early civilizations of India some 3,000-5,000 years ago,
making Ayurvedic medicine the oldest existing medicinal system in the world. Ayurveda is considered as "The Science
of Life" and it engross the care of physi cal, mental and spir itual health of human beings. Ayurveda is not onl y limited to
body or physical heal th but also gives a compreh ensive knowledge about spiritual, mental and social health. Thus
Ayurveda is a qualitative, holistic science of health and longevity, a philosophy and system of therapeutic that curing
the body as well as mind. The two principle objectives of Ayurveda are maintenance of health in healthy individual and
cure of disease i n diseased persons.
Accordin g to Ayurvedic prin ciple, ther e are strong corre lation betwee n body, mind, an d consciousnes s.
Therefore, the concept of health must address al l of these as pects. The b est prevent ive medicine an d support o f the
natural healing process is a diet and lifestyle specific to once constitutional needs along with seasons and cycles of
nature. Tridosha is considered as basic humors which are r esponsible for h ealth and diseas ed condition. Besi de this,
there is des cription of dif ferent roga (disease) which occur in a particular season and their treatment for maintenance of
health along with this pathya-apathya is indicated. Ayurvedic literature emphasizing the ritucharya, greater importance
is given to ahara and vihara according to particular ritu, ti me of vitiation of doshas as per season and time of
pacificati on of dosh as along with this importance of daily regimen for a particular season is also described.
Season has been defined as the natural periods in which the year is divided, which vary by weather conditions,
daylight hours and temperature. The seasons result from the earth's axis being tilted to its orbital plane; it deviates by an
angle of ap proximately 23. 5 degrees. Hen ce at any given t ime during su mmer or winter, one part of th e planet is more
straight exposed to t he rays of the sun . This exposure alternates as th e earth revolves in its orbit. Therefore, at any
given time in spite of season the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. The effect of axis tilt
is recognizable from the change in day length, and altitude of the sun throughout a year.
Nature has blessed us with the different types of the seasons. These seasons have great influences on human
beings. Seasons le ave an impact on the doshas due to ups and downs in temperature, humidity and all other climatic
factor s. Human beings are in a continuous struggle against the ever changing environmental conditions to maintain
optimum health throughout the day and in all seasons of the year. The survival of the human body depends on the
continuous interaction in between the internal environment and external factors. When this interaction is in a state of
equilibrium the human being enjoys health and when this fails either due to innate deficiency or hostile environmental
factors, the balance is distur bed and leads to dise ases or disharmon y. Environmental factors include t he nature of the
land, water and various atmospheric phenomenon s such as temperature, hu midity, wind, rain, sn ow etc. All these
factors are contin uously changing.
The influence of the solar cycl e, or the time i t takes for the earth to compl ete one orbit ar ound the sun, can be
divided into two equal periods, each of which begins and ends with the winter and summer solstice. Ayurveda
recognizes these two periods, calling them dakshinayana (southern mo vement) and uttarayana (norther n movement),
each corresponding to the shift in the position of the earth relative to the sun. Weather also changes according to season.
These changes in the atmosphere af fect all living beings. Some changes are bene ficial, while ot hers are harmful. In
order to achieve maximum benefits from the good qualities of the atmosphere and protection from the bad effects,
Ayurveda has pr escribed certai n guidelin es about diet an d life style call ed seasonal r egimen i.e ri tucharya
According to ayurveda year is divided in t o six seasons (ritu), in which three seasons shishira, vasanta and
greeshma is known as aadana (uttarayan) when the sun takes n orth way cours e. Other three seasons varsha, sharada
and hemanta is considered as visarga with the sun following its southern course. Visarga is saumya due to
predominan ce of soma (moon). On the other h and aadana is agneya due to predominance of agni.The human being
experiences debility in beginning of visarga and end of aadana kala, medium strengt h in mid of visarga and mi d of
aadana kala, max imu m stre ngth in end of visarga an d beginnin g of aadana kala.
Variations of doshas take place in various seasons , age, da y and night etc. which sligh tly influenc es the bod y
physiological fun ctions. Accumulat ion, exacerbati on and pacification of vat a, pitta and kapha occurs in respect ive
seasons i.e. kapha i s aggravated i n spring (mi d February to mi d June), pi tta in summer (mid June to mid October) and
vata in autumn and wi nter (mid October t o mid Februar y). One who follow s seasonal re gimens never su ffers from
severe disor der caused by seasonal i nfluences.
Different types of diseases are influenced by different seasons. For example fever (kaphaj jwara) aggravates
during autumn. The fever arising in spring and autumn can be treated easily. Pittaja jwara get aggravated in spri ng,
vataja jwara in rainy season. In kapha dominating jwara (in spring) fasting is indicated. The intelligent physician
should treat the patient of fever in autumn and spring taking in to consideration of potency and weakness of doshas.
Prakri ti is defined as inherent characteristic property of individual refers to the genetically determined physical
and mental makeup and is determined by sperm and ovum; season and condition of uterus, food and regimens of the
mother and nature of five great elements comprising the fetus. Seven varieties of physical constitution are described
namely vat ta, pit ta, kapha, vata-kapha, vata-pitta, vatta-kapha and sannipataja. These can be diagnosed by using
various ph ysical, ph ysiological an d psychologic al character istic.
Blood group is also det ermined genetical ly. Different resear ches suggest the rel ation of blood group and
disease occurren ces e.g. recentl y it was considered t hat the li fe expectancy of the h olders of the blood group O is less
than that of other blood groups, and generally blood group O individuals are more prone to various diseases. But
present resear ches are not suffi cient to explai n the influence of season on differ ent blood group individuals.Some
researchers (mainly in western countries) have tried to find out some physiological variations in different season but no
effort has been mad e to access the physiol ogical variati ons accordin g to prakriti.
Keeping the above facts in mind present study entitled “study of physi ological vari ations in young healthy
individuals in differe nt Ritus (seasons) with special refere nce to Prakriti” has been designed to find out the possible
physiological variations in healthy individuals of different prakriti groups. The stu dy may throw some ray of h ope to
understand physiological variations among different prakriti individuals in respect to seasonal variations.
Present study was conducted on 54 young healthy volunteers (age 18-30years) for observing the different
physiological variations in three different seasons. Prakriti of all the volunteers were ass essed based on the proforma
designed by our department to understand various prakriti. It is found that all the volunteers are grouped under vataja
(vata-pittaja and vata-kaphaja), pittaja (pitta-va taja and pitta-kaphaja) and kaphaja (kapha-vata j and kapha-pittaja)
based on the fulfillment of predominan t criteria mentioned against each prakriti.
We do not know any l arge scale monit oring studi es on potenti al seasonal dif ferences in various prakrit i and
blood grou ps. The present st udy has been carried out in three seasons namely Januar y-February ( shishira ritu), May-
June (greeshma ritu) and September - October (sharad ritu).
Comparison between prakriti and blood gr oup in various seasons has n ot been present ed previousl y. We
hypothesize that considerable physiological variations observed among pittaja and kaphaja prakriti in compari son to
vataja prakriti in all the three seasons. Thus, the influen ce of seasonal variations ma y affect pittaja and kaphaja prakriti
individuals at a faster rate than vataja prakriti individuals. Fu rthermore, w e hypothesize t hat influe nce of seasons on
blood groups A, B and O is greater than AB blood grou p.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Since ancient time, Ayurved a is the science of life. The aim and objectives of Ayurveda is of two fold.
1. Prevention of health in healthy individual.
2. Cure of the disease in diseased person.
To fulfill the first aim different Acharayas have described dincharya, ritucharya, sadvritta etc. In Brihatrayi
there is separate description / chapters for ritucharya. So It is relevant to review the description available in the
ayurvedic text books in relation to “Study of physiological variations in young healthy individuals in different Ritu
(season) with sp ecial reference to Prakriti ”.
Ritu ( ri+tu,kit) means- mausam , yugararbha, nischit kala , artava, ritusrava , garbhadhan ke liye upayukta
kala ( VS Apte Dictionary ). Any settled point of time, fixed time, time appointed for any action, right or fit time, kala,
season, the menstrual discharge, the time after the course (M.M.Willams Dictionary).
Kala is considered as year as well as the status of patient, year is divided into two, three, six, twelve or even
more according to the nature. For the purpose of evacuation therapy this is divided as hemanta (early winter ), greeshma
(summer) and varsha (rai ny) season, charact erized by cold, heat an d rain. In between them pravrit (early rain ), sharad
(autumn) and vasanta (spri ng) rit u are also described (Ch.S.Vi.8/125).This divisi on is made f or specific pu rpose of
elimination of doshas.
Each season consists of two month, in this way year is divided into six seasons, out of them magha-falguna
make shishira (late winter), chaitra- vaishakh make vasanta (spri ng), jyestha-ashadha make greeshma (summer),
shravan-bhadrapada make varsha (rainy season), ashwina-kartika make sharad and margshirsha-pausha make
hemanta (early-winter) (Ch.S.Su.6/4), (Su. S.S u.6/ 6), (A.S.Su.4/5), (A.H .Su.3/1 -3). These di visions have been made for
normal condition and origin of rasas. Kashyapa has mentioned five seasons (Ka.S.Sha.1/1).
Ritu Hindi month Predominance of Rasa
Shishira (Ja n-Feb) magha-falguna tikta
Vasanta (Ma rch-April) chaitra-vais hakh kashaya
Greeshma (May-June) jyestha-ashadha katu
Varsha (July-Aug) shravan-bhadrapada amla
Sharad (Sep-Oct ) ashwina-kartika lavana
Hemanta (Nov-Dec) margashisha-pausha madhura
During commentary on Ch.S.Vi.8/25, chakrapani has elaborated division of year as two t ypes i.e. uttarayana
and dakshinayana; three types as winter , summer and rai n, six types a ccording to seas on, twelve types ac cording to
months, t wenty four types according to fortnight (paksha).
Charaka has described tha t various t ypes of diet l eads to promot ion of stren gth and comple xion if one know s
the wholeso meness acc ording to di fferent season d epend on beh avior and di et regimens (Ch.S.Su.6/3).
VISARGA AND AADANA KALA
According to Ayurveda year is divided in to six seasons, in which three seasons shishira, vasanta and
greeshma are known as aadana (uttarayan) when the sun takes north way course. Other three seasons varsha, sharad
and hemanta is considered as visarga with the sun following its southern course (Ch.S.Su.6/4), (A.S. Su. 4/5- 6).
Visarga is saumya due t o predominance of soma (moon).On the other hand aadana is agneya due to
predominance of agni. Thus the sun, the wi nd and the moon ar e responsible for appearance of time, season, rasa, dosha
and bodily strength to the nature (Ch.S.Su.6/5). Sushruta has also described visarga (releasing) and aadana (recei ving)
karma of soma and sun (Su.S.Su21/8) respectively.
BALA (STRENTH) DURING VISARGA AND AADANA KALA
The human being experience debility in beginning of visarga and end of aadana kala, medium strength in mid
of visarga and mid of aadana kala, maximu m str engt h in end of visarga and be ginning of aadana kala (Ch.S.Su.6 /4-8)
(Ka.S.Khi.7/5-6). Similar description is also available i n Ashtanga Sangraha (A.S.Su.4/5-8). For explanation of this
verse Charaka has descri bed that d uring aadana kala sun draws up unctuous portion of nature and due to drying by
sharp and r ough win d, roughness is produ ced in shishira, vasanta and greeshma in progressive order. Due to getting
tikta, kashaya and katu ra sa (having roughness), causes weakness in human being. While in varsha, sharad and
hemanta seasons moon is having unhindered strength, as a result of heavily water, temperature of nature having been
cool down. The amla, lavana and madhura rasa increases which leads to support of strength in human being
(Ch.S.Su. 6/6-7) (Su.S. Su.5/7) (A.H.Su.3/ 6). In Ashtanga Hridaya, it is mentioned that during sheetakala the strength of
individual is maximum during vristi(rainy) and ghana ( hot) season, it is minimum an d in rema ining seas ons, stren gth
is moderate (A.H.Su.3/7).
Ritucharya means ‘mode of living in different season’
Describing hemanta ritucharya Charaka has mentioned that in strong person the agni becomes stronger and
capable of consuming eve n those arti cles which are heav y in nature and quantity. W hen winter begi ns one shoul d avoid/
mini mize vata increasing factors, light food and drinks, intake of cold drink and strong wind (Ch.S.Su.6/9-18).
Hemanta and sh ishira ritu have minor difference (shishira has more roughne ss). Hence re gimen of hemanta is
applicable to shishira also (Ch.S. Su.6/19-21). Mild massaging of body, wrestling with the trained wrestlers to half of its
strength is advised (A.H.Su.3/ 9-10). Bu tter mil k (takra) has been recommended in cold (shishira and hemanta) season
During Vasanta ritu (spring) due to strong rays of sun, vitiation of accumulated kapha causes many diseases.
Hence duri ng this seas on evacuati ng procedu res like vomi ting etc. s hould be a pplied. Diet which is heavy, sweet , sour,
fatty and s leeping dur ing day t ime should be avoided. For the d uration of vasanta one should use e xercise, medi cated
smoking (dhumpana), gargle & bath with warm water (Ch.S.Su.22/26).
During greeshma (summer) ritu sun draws up moisture of nature that’s why sweet, cold, liquid, fatty food and
drinks are u seful. Da y sleep may b e advised. Win e is indi cated in smal l quantit y with plent y of water or sh ould be
avoided. Exc essive sal t, sour, pun gent, hot th ings, physi cal activity and sexual int ercourse shou ld be avoid ed
During varsha ritu (rainy season), due to earth vapour, humidity and amla paka of water, digestion becomes
poor and vata is aggravated. During this period one should use diet having predominance of sour, salted and fatty
articles , and should eat old barley whe at and rice. Use of food and drink mixed wi th honey is als o indicated. Person
should avoi d cold drin k, day sleep, d ews, river w ater, physica l exercise , exposure to sun and sexu al intercour se
(Ch.S.Su. 6/33-40). After doing purification aasathapana vasti is advised in varsha ritu (A.H.Su.3/45).
Due to dominance of pitta in sharad one should advice to take sweet, light, cold, slightly bitter and pitta
pacifying food, drinks and hansodaka (type of water). Ghee medicated with bitter drugs, purgative and bloodlett ing is
advised. During sharad ritu fat, oil, dew, meat of aquatic and marshy animals, alkali, curd, day sleep and exposure to
eastern wi nd should be avoided (Ch .S.Su.6/4 1-48).
Harita has also descri bed six types of ritu (season) i.e. varsha, sharad, hemanta, shishira, vasanta and
greeshma, and characteristics of different seas ons has been descr ibed (Ha.S.Ps.4/63). The aggra vation, ac cumulation
and pacification of doshas according to season is mentioned in 5
chapter (Ha.S. Ps.5/50,51 ). Curd’s (dadhi)
characteristi cs, its indication s and contraindications i n different seasons h ave been also descri bed (Ha.S.Ps.8/40-49).
Buttermilk (takra) should not be taken in hot season and autumn (Ha.S.Ps.8/45).In rainy season, dreams seen after noon
take six months to manifest its effect (Ha.S.Ds.2/3-4).
In this way what one should use and avoid in every season is described in different Samhita. Person who
follows this re gimen in each seas on never suffers from severe disor der caused by seas onal factors (Su.S.Utt.64/35). In
Ashtanga Hridaya, it is mentioned that habit of using all six rasas daily is ideal for maintenance of health, excluding
during special season when rasas referred to re spective se ason shoul d be taken mor e (A.H.Su.3/54) (A.S.Su.4/60). In
Ashtanga Sangraha during descri ption of ritucharya, it is mentione d that the r ules and regi men described for each
season is mean t only for healt hy person (A. S.Su.4/62) . The effect of day and n ight on body has been also ment ioned in
Ashtanga Sangraha (A.S.Su.11/64 -68).
EXERCISE (VYAYAM) ACCORDING TO SEASON
Sushruta has mentioned to pract ice exercise only up to hal f of the strength daily. Exercis e is especially
beneficial during sheeta and vasanta seasons (Su.S.Chi.24/46-47). Vagbhatta has explained that in sheeta and vasant a
seasons indi viduals shoul d practice ex ercise up to half of the strength while in rest of the seasons one should practice it
mini mall y (A.H.Sh.2/ 11-12).
Time of seven days at t he end and commencement s eason is known as ritusandhi. Dur ing this peri od regimen
of previou s season shoul d be discont inued grad ually and th at of subsequ ent season sh ould be adopt ed gradual ly
Sharangadhara has mentioned that movement of sun from one stellar constellation to other makes for the six
seasons dur ing which tridosha undergo ac cumulation, aggr avation and pacific ation (Sha.S.Pkh.2/24). The relationship
between ri tu and rashi is established by Sharangadhara (Sha.S.Pkh.2/25,26).The last eight days of kartika and the first
eight days of agahana is described as yamdanst ra kala, during t his period it is advised to str ictly follow s easonal
regimen and sh ould take small quan tities of food(Sha.S.Pkh.2/29).
TRIDOSHA AND SEASON
Charaka has mentioned that one should evacuate accumulated doshas in first month of vasanta (spring),varsha
(rainy se ason) and sharad (autu mn). After who have got body oleat ed, fomented sh ould administer emetic, purgati ve
and enema; and after that one wh o knows time sh ould admini ster rasayana and aphrodisiac preparation, so that dhatus
having been stabilized in normal condition and diseases do not arise(Ch.S.Su.7/46-50).On commenting on this verse
Bhattar-Harishachandra has slightly different opinion as he intepretated ‘sahasya’ as the form of’ saha’ and thus takes
kartika instead of margashirsa in autumn. This view is also supported by Vagbhata. Chakrapani and Gangadhara has
suggested the lat er month of spring, rai ny and autumn season for evacuat ion.
Sushruta al so has also mentioned that kapha should be eliminated in spring while pitta in autumn and vata in
rainy season pr ior to emergence of di sorder (Su.S.Su.6/38). It is also described that day and night also shows features of
year; as forenoon having features of spring, mid day like summer, in after noon those of early rains, in early night like
rainy season, midnight those of autumn and at dawn like early winter. This day night also follows the pattern of
accumulat ion, aggravat ion and pacif ication of doshas (Su.S.Su.6/14).
Charaka has divided bala as sahaja, kalaja and yuktikrita bala. Yuktikritabala is due to division of season and
different stages of li fe (balyavastha, yuvavastha, vridhavastha)(Ch.S.Su.11/36). Charaka has also described trividha
rogayatan (causes of di sease), which consist o f excess of specific ch aracter of indriya, ka rma and kala (season) and
also deficient occurr ences and perverted occurrence o f indriya, karma and kala (Ch.S.Su. 11/37,42)(A. H.Su.1/34,3 5).
Tridoshas are described as tristambha (vat a, pitta and kap ha) of body, but accumulation, vitiation and
pacificati on of vata, pitta and kapha occurs i n different season (Ch.S.Su.17/114) (Su.S.Su.6/ 12,13) (Su.S. Su21/22,25 )
(A.S.Su. 21/913) (A.H.Su.12/24) (Sha.S.Pkh.2/27,28) (K.S.Khi.7/4-15). This conditioning is expected by effect of
season. In brief these th ree doshas destroy, sustain and maintain the body when th ey are abnormal and normal
respectively (A .H.Su.1/6 ).Predominan ce of doshas has been also described during last (predominance of vata), middle
(predominance of pitta) and first periods (predominance of kapha) of life (A.S.Su.1/25).
Dosha Chaya Prakopa Prasamana
vata greeshma varsha
pitta varsha sharad hemanta
kapha shishir a vasant a greeshma
RELATION BETWEEN BLOOD AND SEASON
Blood pla ys important role in home ostasis of b ody. During sharad ritu (autumn) blood becomes naturally
impure (Ch.S.Su.24/10) (Sha.S.Ukh.12/24). Gangadhara commented on this verse and sai d that the defect of blood
means abnormality in its normal composition, diminution or aggravation. Sushruta has stat ed that in cloudy, wi nd and
cold weather blood become thick and n ot comes out or co mes in small quantity on shiravedha (bloodletting).
CHARACTERISTICS OF RAIN WATER ACCORDING TO SEASON
The characteristi cs of fresh rain water have been also described in Ayurveda e.g. rain water of autumn season is
indicated even i n delicate person and king. (Ch. S.Su27/203 -208)(Ha.S.Ps.7/19-28)(Ka.S.Khi.23/1-4). Sushruta has
described that in rainy season or in spring water of rain should be used as it has great merit. He has also recommended
that in aut umn season all type s of water may be used because of bei ng purified. Wat er of lake and tan k should be used
in early winter. In spring and summer water from well or waterfall should be used. Water from shallow well, old tank
and lake should not be taken in early rain (Su.S.Su.45/8 ). Doshas and s easons shoul d be kept i n mind duri ng intake of
different rasas (Su.S.Chi.24/102). In rainy and autumn se ason water sh ould be taken in small quanti ty, during win ter
and spring hot water and in summer cold water should be taken as desired; sidhu and arishta should be taken in winter
and spring. Cooled milk after boiling is advised in summer. In early rain meat soup, vegetarian soup in rainy season
and in autumn cold water should be taken. These regimens have been described for healthy and in diseased it should be
based on cond itions of doshas and food t aken (Su.S.Chi.24/103-106). Harita has also describ ed the characteristi cs of
water fallen with rain along with i ndications an d contraindi cations (Ha.S.Ps.7/19-28).
SNEHAPAN ACCORDING TO SEASON
Ghrita is indicated i n sharad (autumn), vasa and ma jja in vaishakh and taila in pravrit ritu. Sneha shoul d not
be taken in seasons of extreme cold and hot. (Ch.S.Su.13/18) (A.H.Su.16/11-14) (Ka.S.Su.22/ 10) (A.S.Su25/15-16).
Sushruta has advised to take sneha in pravrit, sharad and vasanta (Su.S.Chi.24/107).One who has predominance of
vata-kapha and in cold season sneha should be taken in day time. While in hot season and in abundance of vata-pitta it
should be taken in night (Su.S.Chi.31/22) (Su.S.Chi.37/51) (Sha.S.Ukh.1/16). If thes e indications are not followed it ma y
lead to different complications (Su.S.Ch.31/23). Sharangadhara has also advis ed that sneha can be gi ven with f ood
during summer(Sha.S.Ukh. 2/19).
SEASON AND PURIFICATION
The season havin g common character (sadharana ritu) is important because evacuat ion therapy such as emesis
etc. shoul d be appli ed in thes e seasons, du e to modera te cold, heat and rai n the seas on having co mmon charact er are
most convenient and unharmful to body and drugs. While due to excessive cold, heat and rain other seasons are
inconvenient an d harmful to body and drug. Theref ore the evacuation therapy like emesi s etc. are stopped in season
ending wit h early winter, summer and r ainy season e xcept in case of emergency, i n emergency t herapy shoul d
administer car efully after modifyin g the seasonal ef fects by artificial means (Ch.S.Vi.8/126-127)(A.H.Su.13/33-
36)(A.S.Su.23/9-11).Sharangadhara has advised that emesis and purgation therapies should be done in sharad, vasanta
or pravrit seasons(Sha.S.Ukh.3/1).
The physici an should man age evacuat ing remedy ta king into accou nt of season in case of h ealthy person and in
disease according to morbidity (Ch.S.Si.6/6).
NASYA KARMA & SEASON
Nasyakarma (time f or nasal medication) i s also indicated ac cording to season as Vagbhata has advised to take
nasyakarma in forenoon during autumn and spring season, during mid day in cold season, during evening in summer,
and during rai ny season when there i s cloud free atmosph ere (A.H.Su. 20/13-15)(A.S.Su. 29/15). It is also mentioned that
anjana should also be used according to sea sons (Sha.S.Ukh.13/73)(A.S.Su.32/16).
EFFECT OF VISHA (POISON) ACCORDING TO SEASON
At some stage in description of visha (poison) it is mentioned that due to watery source it gets liquified and
flows like jaggery in rains and then it is destroyed by emergence of agastya constellation in sky and turn into mild in
action after rainy season (Ch.S.Chi.23/7-8).Chakrapani has suggested that origin of poison from water indicates its
aggravation in rainy season and its pacification by water.
BANDHA (BANDAGE) AND SEASON
Sushruta has described that bandage should be removed on third day in early and late winter and in spring
while in autumn, summer and rainy season it should be done on second day (Su.S.Su.5/40) (A.S.Su.38/45).
RELATION OF AGNI KARMA AND SEASON
Agni karma (cauterization), an imp ortant measure in shalyakarma (surgery) advised in all seasons except
autumn and summer(Su. S.Su.12/5).
RAKTA VISHRAVAN ACCORDING TO SEASON
Rakta-vishrava na (blood-letting) is also contraindicated in conditions like cloudy weather, cold and direct
exposure t o wind; because blood being t hick and does n ot come out (Su.S.Su.14/28) (Su.S.Sh.8/7). If blood-lett ing
performed in too hot sea son and after excessive s udation i t may lead to ma ssive blo od flow which can give rise t o
headache, defect in vision, convulsion, burning sensation, hemiplagia, localized disorder etc. which finally may leads to
death. The refore bl ood-lettin g should be performed i n moderate season (Su.S.Su.14/31).Suitable time for vein puncture
are durin g rainy season i n sunny d ay, in summer w hen heat is least and i n noon throu ghout wint er. Sharngadhara has
advised bloodl etting in sharad to be free fr om skin d isease (sha.s.ukh.12/2). Sharngadhara has contraindicated
bloodlett ing during c old season, very hot se ason, befor e sudation t herapy and after exces sive sudati on
There is descripti on of aggravation, accumulation and pacification of doshas according season in different
ayurvedic literatures. By aggravation of doshas produces needling pain, movement of wind in bowels, acidity, thirst etc.
(Su.S.S u.21/27). This can be used as diagnostic tools in treatment. The physician who follows the method based on time
etc. steadily eliminates t he group of disorders (Su.S.Su.35/50).
TIME OF FOOD TAKEN ACCORDING TO SEASON
During season in which nigh t is longer one s hould take f ood consisti ng of plenty o f its contrari es in morni ng
itself. In longer day one should take food prescribed i n that season in aftern oon. In whi ch season da y and night are of
equal durat ion one should take food i n evenly divided in day and night (Su.S.Su. 46/468-470 ).
COLLECTIONS OF MEDICINES ACCORDING TO SEASON
Charaka has mentioned that one should obt ain the frui ts grown in proper time, mature rasa and potency,
relished wit h sun, air, shade, and w ater in respective season ( Ch.S.Ra.Pada.1/37). In second pada he has also mentioned
bhallataka should be taken in jy estha and asadha month.
RELATION OF DISEASE AND SEASON
In di fferen t samhita there is description of different diseases which are influenced by season. Fever (kaphaj
jwara) a ggravates during autu mn (Ch.S.Ni.1/27).The natural fever arising in spring and autumn can be treated easily.
Pittaja jwara get aggravated in spring, vataja jwara in rainy season. In kapha dominating jwara (in spring) fasting is
indicated. The intelligent physician should treat the case of fever in autumn and spring taking in consideration of
potency and weakness of doshas (Ch.S.Chi.3/40-41).
In vasanta ritu kaphaja dise ase, du rin g sharad ritu pittaja and in duration of varsha rit u mainl y vataja disease
takes plac e (Ch.S.Shi.30/309).During rainy season, autumn and spring fever arising from vata, pitta , kapha respectively
are natural while other are unnatural and difficult to cure (A.H.Ni.2/50-52)(A.S.Ni.1/51)(Ma.Ni.2/55).In rainy season
vata produces fever supported by pitta and kapha, in autumn season pitta prod uces fever su pported by kapha. So if
patient does not take any food there is no harm, fever in vasanta (spri ng) due to kapha i s supported by vata and pitta
In rainy season, on e who dips into water i nfected by putrificat ions of insects, uri ne, feces etc. or dri nks dirty, poisoned
or fresh water is attacked by external disorder (like s kin disease) and i nternal disorders ( like udara-roga) etc; they are
caused respectively by bath and drinking (PV Sharma’s commentary on Su.S.Su.45/9-19 ). The commencement and
exacerbation o f all fever happen at their particul ar time when the dosha causing fever is predominant i.e. particular
period of t he day, night, season ,digestion of food etc (A.H .Ni.2/22- 23).
KALPA (FORMULATIONS) ACCORDING TO SEASON
Different ka lpa (formul ations) for pur gation is d escribed accordi ng to season and some other formulations are
prescribed for all season (Ch.S.K.7/56-64). Differen t types of virechana kalp a (purgati ves) accordi ng to seas on is als o
described (A.H.Ks.2/24-28). Si x differe nt mukhalep a kalpa according t o season is also described in Ashtanga Hridaya
Bhavaprakash has described haritaki like a mother. It is mentioned that for better result haritaki should be
taken wit h different anupana in different seasons (D.G.Vi.by P.V Sh arma).
Prakri ti is made up of two word ‘Pra’ means ‘beginning’ or ‘commencement ’ or ‘source of origin’ and
‘kruthi’ means ‘to perform’ or ‘to form’. Thus prakriti means ‘natural form’ or ‘original source’ or ‘original form’.
Predominance of doshas decides prakriti of human beings in intra uterine life. Prakriti is consid ered as sum total of
morphologi cal, physi ological an d psychologi cal traits i n human beings.
Prak riti of a man has genetic as wel l as acquired asp ect, the genetic as pect depends upon shukra and shonita
(Su.S.Sha. 4/36) and acquired constitution develops in relation to environmental factors like climate, season, time factor,
age, race, familial inheritance(Ch.S.In.1/5). Prakr iti can never be changed t hroughout life. Due to t hese factors
different t ypes of prakriti have been described .
Prakri ti of a pers on is not only depen dent on shukra and shonita, but also dependent on the kala, dietetic
regimen, be havior of mother , nature of garbhasaya as well on the mahabhutas (C.S.Vi. 8/95). Vagbhata has also
mentioned that prakriti is dependent not only on shukra and shonita but also on diet and behavior of t he pregnant
woman, nature of garbhasya and kala (A.H.Sha. 3/83).
Qualitative and quantitative predominance of dosha from birth to death is cal led as prakriti. Prakriti is decided
in intra uterine life according to predominance of doshas. Prakri ti plays important role during prognosis and treatment
of diseases. Vata prakriti is considered as heena among all th e types of prakriti because i ndividuals of vata prakri ti are
very susce ptible to dif ferent kind of diseases.
DETERMINATION OF PRAKRITI
Dominant doshas during u nion of shukra and shonita determines prakriti of an indi vidual (Su.S.Sh.4/62).
Kashyapa has explained that identical type of prakriti of human being is formed from embryonic life because fetus is
nourished by mother. These prakriti are of three types ha ving predominance of vata, pitt a and kapha as pillars (Ka.
In A yurvedic literature there is description of many factors which take part in determination of prakriti as well
as developmen t of fetus. Si x bhava i.e. matraja, pitraja, aatmaja, satmyaja, rasaja and satvaja are descri bed as
determinant in development of human personality, (Ch.S.Sha.3/3) (Su.S.Sha.3/31). Charaka and Vagbhata have also
described some factors which plays important role in prakriti determination these factors are; jati prasakta (racial
peculiarities), kulaprasakta (familial predisposition), deshanupatini (demograph ic), kalanupatini (seasonal effect),
vayonupatini (natural changes accordi ng to age), pratyatmaniyata (personal habits and individuality, idiosyncrasy)
(Ch.S. In.1/5)(A.S. Sha.8/17). Factors describe d by Vagabhata are shukra (sperm), shonita (ovum), kal a (time or season) ,
garbhasya prakriti (condition of uterus), mata aahar (diet of mother) and mata vihara (behavior of mother) and pancha
Defect of s ex gamete (spe rm and ovum) , action associ ated wit h soul, stat us of uterus, time, food and regimen
of mother are factors affect ing fetus. All of these fact ors vitiate dosha and this vitiation results in impairment of shape,
color, sensory and motor organ of fetus (Ch.S.Sha.2/29).
TYPES OF PRAKRITI
Different ayurvedic acharya’s have described se ven types of sharirika prakriti according to combinations of
doshas which includes ekadoshaja (due to singe dosha), dvidoshaja (due to combination of two doshas) and
samaprakriti (due to combination of all three doshas) (Su.S. Sha.4/61)( Ch.S.Vi.89 5)(A.H.Sh a.3/83). Bhela has
mentioned sannipataja prakriti instead of samaprakriti ( Bhe.S.Vi. 4).
According to panch mahabhutas five types of prakriti have been also descri bed which are vayu, agni,and jala
prakriti are just the same as the vata , pitta, and kapha sub types of doshaja Prakriti. Body of a person of parthiva
sharira is sthira, vipula and he is sahamashila in his temperament , the person of nabhas sharira is pavitra, dirghayu
and the aperture of their nose ear etc. is larger in size (Su.S.Sha.4/79).
According to charaka, prakriti is also divided as follows
(i) Jati Prasakta
(ii) Kula Prasakta
(D) Kashyapa classified prakriti on the basis of yuga.
(i) Prakri ti of a person born in krita yuga was narayana type.
(ii) Prakri ti of a person born in tretayuga was of ardh narayan type.
(iii) Prakri ti of a person born in dwaparayuga was of kaishka type.
(iv) Pra kriti of person born in kaliyuga was of pradnaptipisheeta type.
(E) MANAS PRAKRITI
(F) OTHER CLASSIFICATIO NS
Another classification of prakrit i is neurogenic, vasogenic and histogenic based on of relative preponderance
of three princi ple neurotrans mitters namely acet ylcholine catechol amine and hista mines respectivel y and very much
correspond with vati ka , paittika and kaphaja (Udupa et al 1975). Shel don et al (1 940) has described Ectomorphy =
cerebrotonia = Vattika, mesomor phy = s omatotonia = Paittika; Endomorphy = viscerotonia = Kaphaja Prakri ti
QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF PRAKRITI
Charaka has mentioned t hat the ekadoshaja prakriti is rare an d persons ha ving these prakriti can be sic k while
person havi ng samdoshaja prakriti should be healthy (Ch.S.Su. 7/40). Shushruta has explained that: ‘the insect born in
the poison does not die d ue to its own poison and in the same way; dosha that is dominant according to one’s prakriti
does not harm the individual’ (Su.S.Sh. 4/78). While commenting on Shushruta, Dalhana has stated that th ere are two
types of dominance of dosha: (1) prakrita (2) vaikrit a. Doshas that are d ominant at th e time of pra kriti formation are
prakrita in nature, so they do not harm the individual (Dalhana’s commentary on Su.S.Sha.4/62). Chakrapani has
explained that utkatata of dosha is of three types i.e heena , madhyama and uttama . If utkatatata of dosha at the time of
prakriti formation is ‘heena,’ it will not harm the individual. Vagbhata has mention ed that the pers on having vata, pitta
and kapha predominance are sai d to be inferior, average and su perior correspondingl y (A.H.Su.1/27). Kashyapa
suggested t hat individu als of sama prakri ti are always healthy and of vatika etc. always remain ill (Ka.S.Su. 18).
Deha prakriti or doshaja prakriti denotes the psycho ph ysiologic al typology foun ded on princi pal of tridos ha.
Tridos ha are not just group of symptoms, but they represent definite natural process that take place inside the body. The
vata, pitta and kapha are the essential factor for human organ ism (Su.S.Su. 21/23). The deha prakriti (body
constitution) of persons is named according to the dominance of doshas. In some individual vata, pitta and kapha are in
state of equ ilibrium, while some i ndividuals ar e dominat ed by vata , some by pitta and some by kapha from the time of
CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DEHA PRAKRITI:
In different literatures characteristics of di fferent types o f deha prakriti is described.(Garudapurana 1/168/32-
35) (Agnipurana utt. page no. 1833) (Ch.S.Vi. 8/96-98)(Su.S.Sha.4 /66) (A.H.Sha.3/84-103)(Sha.S.Pkh.6/20-
22)(Bh e.S.vi.4)(Ha. S.Ps. 5/17-2 2).
Charaka has described the feat ures of prakriti bas ed on the att ributes (guna) of a dosha whereas Sushruta has
described the characteristics of prakrit i on t he basis of mor phological, behavioral and other aspe cts. The dehaprakriti
(body constitution) of persons is named accord ing to the domin ance of doshas.
View of Charaka on prakriti assessment is methodical and scientific than other samhitas. Charaka h as given
more emphasi s on the physical cha racterist ic although p sychological have been also men tioned. Sushr uta and
Vagbhata have described similarity of prakriti with the nature of different animals and description of dreams is found in
relation to prakriti (Su.S.Sha.4/63-74).
FEATURE OF VATA PRAKRITI INDIVIDUALS
Charaka describes that vata is ruksha, laghu, chala, bahu, sheeghra, sheeta, parusha and vishada. Due to
ruksha guna individuals of vata prakriti are having ruksha and emaciated body. Their voice is ruksha and of low
intensity, manda and ja rjar. Owing to chala guna there is much mo vement in joi nts, bones, eyebrows, chi n, tongue,
head, shoulders and extremities. Due to having bahu guna vata prakriti individuals are talkati ve, and are having
prominent veins sprea d all over body. Owin g to sheeghra guna these individuals are quick initiative in nature, easily
become upset , memorize and for get things eas ily, having sh ort term memory, prone to diseas e. They cannot bea r
excessive cold. They are often having tremors, stiffness in body. Due to parusha guna these individual shows ex cessive
roughness in their body parts like hairs, nails, teeths, mouths, hands etc. They are having cracked body organs and
sounds are often produced from their joints. Vata prakriti persons are of low body strength, having low life span and
less number of progenies. (Ch.S.Vi.8/98).
Sushruta has descr ibed that t he durat ion of slee p in vata pakriti per sons is l ess than oth er pra kriti individuals.
They are also much i nterested in cold object ives, have cracked body or gans, rough hairs, n ails, and teeth. Havin g
emaciated body, unsteady mind, are talkative in nature, and having less patience. Also having non pleasant look, hate
others and are having qualities of goat, rabbit, camel, dog, crow and donkey (Su.S.Sha.4/63-66).
Emaciated an d tall body, e yes round shaped sl ightly re main open durin g sleep, take frequ ent large meal s.
Seeing dream of wandering on the mountains, residing on trees, moving in the sky, desire (in behavior) of music,
humor, hun ting and gambl ing ,desire of sweet, sou r, salty and h ot food. Beha vior resembl es with anim als such as th e
dog, jackal, camel, vulture, rat and crow (A.H.Sha.3/84-89). Sushruta has described that habit of nail biting, ungrateful,
impatient with fickle friends hip are the features of vata prakriti persons (Su.S. Sha.4/64- 65).
FEATURES OF PITTA PRAKRITI:
Pitta pra krIti indivi duals are courageous, having too much hunger, consume more food and can bear the
sadness and difficulty. Joints and muscles of pitta prakriti persons are soft and loose and they produc e excessive sweat,
urine and faeces due to having drava guna. Because of visra guna they produce exce ssive bad odour fr om their body.
Due to katu and amla guna of pitta these individuals having less quantity of semen, having less sexual power and less
number of of fspring as w ell as having medium body stren gth and knowledge (Ch.S.Vi.5/97).
Sushruta has mentioned that pitta prakrti individual s are having exc essive sweat and give out foul smel l from
the body. Bod y organs are yellowish and so ft and their nails, eyes, tongue, li ps, palate, pal m and sole are cop per
colored. There is premature graying of hairs, alopecia and early wrinkling of skin, having excessive hunger, thirst,
become easil y irritated and are impatient . These individuals are intelli gent and are in formal speakers and seeing drea m
of enlightening things. These individuals have medium body strength and medium life span. They are having similar
the features like those of snakes, owl, cat , monkey, lion and mongoose (Su.S.Sha. 4/68-70).
Vagbhata has described that pitta prakriti i ndividuals are having fair complexion, warm body, l iking for s weet,
astringen t, bitter, cold food. They ha ve mentioned als o features of pittala as disliking for sunlight, eyes become red
quickly by anger, drinking wine and exposure to sun light, feel comfort in cool. During sleep these individuals see
dreams of flowers like kankara and pal asha forest, fire meteors, lightening/thunder bolts, bright sunrays. Good
behavior, clean, loving to dependents is feature of individuals having pittala prakriti. Their behavior lo ok like animals
like tiger, bear, ape and cat (A.H.Sha.3/90-95).
Pitt a is having ushna, teekshna, drava, visra, amla, and katu gunas. Because of ushna guna individuals of pitta
prakriti do not like hot environment, have bright skin texture excessive moles. They feel more hunger and thirst, having
premature graying and fall of hairs and wrinkling of skin. Their hair are soft and of kapila varna, as a res ult of teekshna
guna of pitta.
FEATURES OF KAPHA PRAKRITI
Kapha having snigdha, slakshna, mridu, madhura, sara, sandra, manda, stimita, guru, sheeta, picchila and
accha guna. Due to snigdha guna, kapha prakriti individuals are having smooth body organs, as a result of mridu guna,
they are good looking, and are of fair complexion. Owing to madhura guna, kapha prakriti individuals have good
sexual capa city and copious quantity of shukra dhatu, having high number of progeny. Individuals are having well
nourished body organs due to Sandra guna. Owing to manda guna, kapha prakriti individuals are having low initiative
power and low activity, take low amount of diet. Individuals are not very intense to initiate work, having slow and
steady gait due to stimita guna. Owing to sheeta guna, they have reduced hunger , thirst, s weating and low bo dy
temperature. Becau se of picchila guna individuals are having compact body joints and are having good body strength.
As a result of accha guna these individuals having good looking eyes, face and body parts. Kapha prakriti individuals
having very good bod y strength, ojas, calm and longer life spans (Ch.S.V i.8/96).
Person of kapha prakriti predominant constit ution posses color of any on e of durva (green grass), indivara
(white lily) nishtrimsha (durva gra ss), arisataka (round soapnut) sharkanda. They have good looking face, having
proporti onate body, keen on eat ing sweet mater ials, gratef ul and cour ageous .They have their voice similar t o the
thundering of clouds or roaring of lion. They often dream of ponds, lakes, rivers and whitish things. They have good
body physi que, body stre ngth and sou nd knowledg e and have good ability to t olerate sorr ow and troubl es. They have
the qualities like Brahma, Rudra, Varuna, horse, elephant, ox and Garuda (Su.S.Sha.4/71-75).
Sushruta has described some other characteristics of kaphal prakriti these are long arms, long forearm, big an d
elevated chest , large and white sh ining eyes, black curl y hairs, Liking for ast ringent, bitter, pungent, hot and dr y food,
consume food in less quantity and still remain strong. Watching of clouds in dreams, reservoirs of water full of lotus
and rows of bird , sleeps more. Do not cr y much in childhood. Th ese individuals ar e Grateful, shows fast friendship,
delayed acquisition, good memory, precise in choosing sentences and words and having predominance of sattvaguna
(Su.S.S ha.4/74-75 ).
PANCHABHAUTIKA PRAKR ITI
According to the dominace of mahabhutas Sushruta has described five types of prakriti. pavana, dahana, and
toya prakriti are due to dominance of vayu, agni and jala mahabhuta correspondingly. Individuals having prakriti due
to the dominance of prithvi and akasha mahabhuta are having bi g and porous body respecti vely (Su.S.Sha.4/79).
The psyche is of three types shudha, rajas and tamas. The shudha prakriti is said to be devoid of defects due to
having beneficial fraction, where as rajas and tamas are defective because of fr actions of agitation.
(A) SHUDHA PRAKRITI
Shudha prakriti is of seven t ypes.
(I) BRAHMYA SATVA
1. Purity, love for truth and self controlled.
2. Power of discrimination, material and spiritual knowledge.
3. Power of exposition, reply and memory.
4. Devoid of passion, anger, greed, ego, ignorance, jealousy, dejection and intolerance.
5. Favorable d isposition equally for al l creatures ( Ch.S.Sha.4/36).
(II) ARSA SATVA
1. Devotion to sacred rituals, study, sacred vows, oblation, and celibacy.
2. Devoted to guest s.
3. Freedom from pride, ego, attach ments, hated, ignorance, gre ed and anger.
4. Intellectual excel lence and eloquence.
5. Endowed with power of understanding and retention (Ch.S.Sha.4/36).
(III) AENDRA SATVA
1. Lordship and authoritative speech.
2. Performance of sacred ritu als.
3. Bravery, s trength magni ficent and impressive a ppearance.
4. Freedom from mean a cts.
5. Fore sightedness.
6. Devotion of virtuous act, earning of wealth and proper satisfaction of desires (Ch.S.Sha.4/36).
(IV) Y AMYA SATVA
1. Observanc e of propriet y of action.
2. Acting in opportune moment.
4. Readiness for initiating action.
5. Memory and lord ship.
6. Freedom from attachment, envy, hatred and ignorance (Ch.S.Sha.4/36).
(V) VARUNA SATVA
1. Bravery, patience, pur ity and disli ke for impuri ty.
2. Observance of religious rites.
3. Fondness for aquatic sports.
4. Aversion for mean act .
5. Exhibiti on of anger and pleasure i n proper place (Ch. S.Sha.4/36).
(VI) KAUBERA SATVA
1. Possessi on of position , honor, l uxuries and att endants.
2. Constant liking for virtual acts, wealth and satisfaction.
3. Purit y.
4. Liking for pl easure in r ecreation
5. Manifest an ger and favor ( Ch.S.Sha. 4/36).
(VII) GANDHARVA SATVA
1. Fondness for dancing, singing, music and praise.
2. Expertness in poetr y, stories, historical n arrations and epics.
3. Constant fondness for scents, garlands, unguents, apparels, association of women and passion (Ch.S.Sha.4/36).
(B) RAJASIKA PRAKRITI
Six types of rajasika prakriti have been described in Charaka Samhit a.
(I) ASURA SATVA
1. Bravery, cruel ty, envy, lordsh ip, movement in disguise, terrifying a ppearance and rut hlessness.
2. Indulgence in sel f-praise (Ch.S.Sha.4/37).
(II) RAKSHASA SATVA
1. Intolerance, constant anger, violence at weak points, cruelty, gluttonous habit and fondness for non- vegetarian
2. Excessive sleep and physical exertion.
3. Envious di sposition (Ch.S.Sha.4/37).
(III) PAISACH SATVA
1. Gluttonous habit.
2. Fondness for women.
3. Liking for st aying with women.
4. Unclear habit, disliking for cleanliness.
5. Cowardice and terrifying disposition.
6. Resorting to abnormal d iet and regimen ( Ch.S.Sha.4/37).
(IV) SARPA SATVA
1. Bravery when wrathful di sposition and t imid otherwi se.
2. Sharp reaction.
3. Excessive indolen ce.
4. Walking, talki ng, food and resort ing to other regi mens with a fearful di sposition (Ch. S.Sha.4/37) .
(V) PRETA SATVA
1. Excessive desire for food.
2. Troubleso me conduct, behavi or and management .
4. Action without discrimination, excessive greediness (Ch.S.Sha. 4/37).
(VI) SHAKUNA SATVA
1. Attachment with passion.
2. Constantly indulged in food and pass time.
3. Unsteady, ruthlessn ess and unacquisitiveness (C h.S.Sha. 4/37).
(C) TAMASIKA PRAKRITI
Three types of tamasika prakiti has been described.
(I) MATSYA SATVA
1. Cowardice, unwise, greediness for food, u nsteadiness, constant passi onate and anger.
2. Fondness for constant movement and desire for water (Ch.S.Sha.4/38).
(II) PASHAVA SATVA
1. Forbidding disposition.
2. Lack of intelligence.
3. Hateful conducts.
4. Excessive sexual i ndulgence and sleep (Ch.S.Sha.4/38).
1. Idle, indulgence food, deficiency of all the intellectual faculties and devoid of body action.
2. Ignorance is co mmon feature among all the types of tamas satva (Ch.S.Sha.4/38-39).
RELATION OF PRAKRITI WITH STATE OF AGNI
There are four types of agni according to intensity such as teekshna (intense), mand (mild), sama (regular) and
vishama (irregular). Among them, the vishamagni can tolerate all sort of improper regimens while mild one has got the
cont rary c har acters . Th e samagni gets a ffected by i mproper regi men but othe rwise remai ns normal, the vishamagni has
got the charact er contrary to samagni. These four types of agni are found in four types of persons. The person having
normal constitution with vata, pitta and kapha in eq uilibrium ha ve samagni. In per son havi ng vati ka constitution have
vishamagni. Person of paitika constitution have teekshnagni. Persons having kapha prakriti have mandagni.
IMPORTANCE OF KNOWLEDGE OF PRAKRITI
The importan ce of prakriti examination in patient as well as in healthy has been greatly emphasi zed in
ayurveda. Charaka has ment ioned that person sh ould follow different r egimen acc ording to prakriti (Ch.S.Su.7/41).
Sushruta and Kashyap have su ggested th at patient s hould be tr eated by the physician acc ording to prakriti of a pers on
(Su.S.S ha.4/96) ( Ka.S.Su.18/ 11). The Prakriti i s determined by her edity, famil y, age, climate, season, peri odic factor,
and idi osyncrasy. Thes e factors are r esponsible for individu al variation among persons (C h.S.In.1/5). Prakriti pariksha
and satvapariksha are the components of dashavidha pariksha (Ch.S.Vi.8/94).The clinical and therapeutic utility of the
knowledge of prakriti has been vibrantly described by the Charaka, where the detailed regimen that is to be followed
by different dosaja prakriti individuals and treatment according predominance of doshas is mentioned (Ch.S.Vi.6/15-
18). Prakr it i is not changeable; if it changes it indicates death of an individual within six months (A.H.Sha.5/64).
Prakri ti has prime importance in both healthy and diseased persons i.e. importance of prakriti in prescribing dietary
regimen and li fe style management in healthy individual s and treatment poin t of view in diseased ind ividuals.
1. By understanding the constitution of every individual, we can advice which type of food and drink and what
type of job and exercise are suitable.
2. Prakrit i is also important for preventive measures for example the kapha prakriti persons can be advised mor e
exercise, laghu aahara and they should avoid divaswapna, whereas vataja prakriti persons are advised to take
nutritious and heavy food (guruahara), less exercise and can enjoy divas wapna. In this way by adopting
dincharya and ritucharya healthy person can mai ntain their healt h.
3. By prakriti examination su sceptibility of diseas e can be expected as kaphaja persons are more prone t o
kaphaja vikara . Similarly pitta and vata prakrti person s are mor e prone to pittaja and vataja vikara
4. Prakrit i shoul d also be ke pt in mind du ring manag ement, for e xamples in amaja vyadhi like jvara we can
adopt langhana chikitsa in kaphaj individuals, whereas in case of vataja pe rson langhana should be avoid.
5. Much of the drug associated adversities can be prevented through the application of prakriti in identification of
possible drug sensitivity in an individual. This can also be valuable in choosing the right medicine for right
person to wor k in best hormony.
6. Through examination of prakriti prognosis of disease can be made easily.
In this way we can understand the importance of prakriti to maintain the health of healthy individuals and in
treatment of diseased person.
Some reash erches have proposed tha t every basic constitu tion has an ass ociated id entification organ, a
measured pr operty or mar ker, a soma an d some psyche g eneral ten dencies sugges ting speci fic behavior or r ecurrent
conduct. Thr ee basic extr eme genopsych o-somatotypes or birth const itutions ar e enunciated: mesomorphic or andrus
(pitta), endomorphic or thymus (khapa), and ectomor phic or th yrus (vata). The method further predicts that male andrus
constitution across races shares similarities in androgen (An) nuclear receptor behavior, whereas thymus constitutions
are mainl y regulated by T -cells (Tc) nu clear recept or behavior. Moreover, it suggests t hat thyrus cons titution s share
similarit ies in thyroxine (Th) n uclear recept or behavi or (Rizzo-Sierra CV 2011).
Study by Ghodke Y and Joshi K(2009) observed correlations between CYP2C19 genotypes and prakriti with
fast and sl ow metabolis m being one o f the major dist inguishing an d different iating char acteristics an d suggest ed
significant impact on phenot ype-genotype cor relation, drug discovery, phar macogenomi cs and personaliz ed medicine.
Prasher B, Negi S(2008) have found that Individuals from the three most contrasting constitutional types show
striking differences with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters and at genome wide expression levels.
Biochemical profiles l ike liver fun ction test s, lipid prof iles and he matological parameters l ike hemogl obin showed
differences between different prakriti. Functi onal categori es of gene s showing di fferent e xpression
among prakriti types wer e significan tly enriche d in core bi ological pr ocesses lik e transport, regulation of cyclin
dependent protein kinase activity, immune response and regulation of blood coagulation. An imperative enrichment of
housekeeping, disease related and hub genes were observed in these intense constitution types.
Patwardhan B & Bodeker G(2008) showed relationship between HLA alleles and prakriti typing, and
concluded that the findings of a genetic basis for both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese medicine classifications
indicate a commonality between Asia's great medical traditions in their diagnostic typologies and a genetic basis for
Asian traditional medicine's theory of discrete and discernable groupings of psycho-physiologic differences.
Patwardhan B and Kalpana J 2005 showed the complete absence of the HLA DRB1*02 allele in the vata type
and of HLA DR B1*13 in the kapha type are significant . HLA DRB1*10 had higher allele frequency in the kapha type
than in the pitta and vata types. Phenotypic and genotypic relationship is suggested by them.
On the basis o f recent studi es it may concluded t hat prakriti is probably a deciding factor for morphological,
physiologic al and psych ological traits presen t in human beings. This i s decided on t he basis of do minant gen otypic and
phenotypic char acters.
Season has been defined as the natural periods in which the year is divided, which vary by weather conditions,
daylight h ours and temper ature (Tucker and G illiland, 2 007).
A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology and hours of day light. Seasons
result from the yearly revolution of the earth around the sun and the tilt of earth axis relative to the plane of revolution
(Khavrus, V 2010). In temperate and Polar Regions, the seasons are marked by changes in the intensity of sunlight that
reaches the earth 's surface (David Thomson 1995).
The seasons result from the earth's axi s being tilted to its orbit al plane; it deviates by an angle of approximatel y
23.5 degrees. Hence at a ny given ti me during su mmer or wint er, one part o f the planet is more stra ight exposed to the
rays of the sun . This exposure alternates as the earth revolves in its orbit. Therefore, at any given time in spite of season
the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. The effect of axis tilt is recogn izable from the
change in day length, and altitude of the sun throughout a year.
Seasonal weather d ifferences between he mispheres are furth er caused by the elliptical orbit of eart h. E art h
reaches closest to the sun in January and it reaches farthest point from the sun in july. Even though the effect this has
on earth 's seasons is minor, it does noticea bly soften th e norther n hemisphere 's winters and summers. In the south ern
hemisphere, th e opposite effect is observed.
Seasonal weather changes also depend on factors such as pr oximity to oceans or other large bodies of
water, currents in those oceans and other oceanic cycles and prevailing winds (David Thomson 1995).
The northern hemisphere is exposed to more direct sunlight in May, June and July because the hemisphere
faces the sun. The southern hemisphere is exposed to more direct sunlight in November, December and January
because it face s the sun. The ti lt of the earth caus es the sun to be higher in the s ky during the summer months which
increases the solar flux. On the other hand due t o seasonal lag, June, July and august are the hottest months in the
northern hemisphere and December, January and February are the hottest months in the southern hemisphere.
In temperate and subpolar regions, generally four calendar based seasons are accepted that is spring (vernal),
summer (est ival ), autumn (autumnal) and winter ( hibernal). However, ecologists are incre asingly using a six seas on
model for temperate climate regions that incl udes pre-spring (prevernal) and late summer (serotin al) as distinct
seasons along with the traditional spring (vernal), summer (estival), autu mn (autumnal) and win ter (hibernal). In other
tropical areas a three w ay division into hot, r ainy, and cool season is u sed.In some parts of the w orld, special "seasons"
are loosely defined b ased on important event s such as a hurricane se ason, tornado season or a wil dfire season.
In the hindu calendar, there are si x seasons (ritu) . These are vasanta (sprin g),
greeshma (summer), varsha (monsoon) and sharada (autumn), hemanta (pre-hibernal), shishi ra (winter).
There is a lot of l iterature devoted t o the impact of variable cl imate on human well- being.
IMPACT OF WEATHER ON HUMAN MORTALITY AND WELL-BEING
1. Weather has a deep effect on human he alth and well being. It has been demonstrat ed that weather is associated
with changes in birth rates and sperm counts with outbreaks of pneumonia, influenza and bronchitis, and is
related to other morbidity effects linked to pollen concentrations and high pollution levels (Kalks tein, L. S.,
and K. M. Valimont 1987).
2. Temperature extre mes (both hot and col d) appear to incr ease mortalit y, although there is d isagreement a bout
which sex, age group, or race seems to be most affecte d.
3. Low relative humidities in winter appear to be directly related to frequencies of various illnesses and mortality.
4. Winter sn owfall accumul ations appear to corresp ond with peri ods of high mor tality.
5. Rapid changes in the weather often induce a series of negative physiological responses from the body.
Extremes of hot weather appear to have a more substantial impact on mortality than cold wave episodes
(Kalkstein, L. S., and Valimont K. M. 1987).
Th e importanc e of influent ial role of weather on human healt h cannot be ignored. Re ports of lar ge increases
in mortality du ring heat and cold wa ves are usual; for ex ample, the Nation al Oceanic and Atmosph eric Administrat ion
(NOAA) estimated that 1,327 fatalities in the United States were directly attributed to the 1980 heat wave; fatalities in
Missouri alone accounted for over 25% of the total excess deaths (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1980). During a heat
wave in 1963, more than 4,600 deaths above a computed mean occurred in June and July in the eastern United States
(Schuman et al., 1964). The impact of weather on hu man well-being goes beyond mortality; even birth rates and sperm
counts app ear to be a ffected by meteorolo gical phen omena (C alot and Blayo, 1982; Tjoa et al., 1982; White, 1985),
(Kalkstein, L. S., and K. M. Valimont 1987). Morbidity attributed to pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis, and probably
many other illnesses is also weather related (White, 1985).
Humidity has an important effect on mortality as it contributes to the body's ability to cool itself by
evaporation of per spiration. Humidi ty has also a significan t influence on morbi dity in the winter becaus e cold, dry air
leads to excessi ve dehydration of nasal passages and the upper respiratory tra ct and increased chan ce of viral and
microbial infection. (Kalkstein, L. S., and K. M. Valimont. 1987)
THE IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE ON MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY
The impact of temp erature on morbid ity and mortalit y can be assess ed at both the seas onal and daily le vel. The
variabili ty in occur rence of various il lnesses is linked to s ome extent expected seasonal t rends in temperatur e
(Persinger, 1980), although signi ficant year-t o-year variat ion may occur. Medical disord ers such as bronchi tis, peptic
ulcer, adrenal ul cer, glaucoma, goiter, eczema an d herpes zoster are related to se asonal variations in temperature
(Tromp, 19 63). Heart fail ure (most often myocardial infarction ) and cerebrova scular acci dents represen t two genera l
mortality cat egories that have been corr elated many times with ambient monthl y temperatures (Persinger, 1980).
Complications from these disorders can be expected at higher temperat ures since the bod y responds to ther mal stress by
forcing blood into peripheral areas to promote heat loss through the skin. This increases central blood pressure and
encourages constr iction of blood vessels near the core of the bod y. However, increased in heart di sease are also noted at
very cold t emperatures as well. St rong negative cor relations have been found between wi nter temperatur e and deaths in
certain North American, northern Asian, and European countries (Persinger, 1980).
Katayama and Mo miyama-Sa kamoto (1970) report ed that countries w ith smaller seasonal temperature ranges
show steeper regr ession lines in temperature mortal ity correlati ons than countries wi th greater te mperature ranges.
Maximum death rates i n warmer countries are found at below normal temperatu res, and in cooler countri es similar
temperatures will produce no appreciable rise in mortality.
IMPACTS OF HOT WEATHER
Much of the temper ature mortalit y research has concentrate d on heat and cold wave epis odes. It appears th at
hot weather extre mes have a more consid erable impact than cold, and many "heat stress" indices ha ve been developed
to assess the degree of impact (Q uayle and Doehring, 1981; Kalkstein, 1982; Steadman, 1984).
Daily fluctuations in temperature can increase mortality rates by up to 50% in certain cities. This has been
corroborated in a detail ed study of New York City mortalit y where large increase in total and elder ly mortality occurr ed
during the 1980 heat wave( Kalkstein and Davis 1985).Most research indicates t hat mortality rates du ring extreme heat
vary with age, sex and ra ce. Oechsli and Buechley (1970) found that mortality rates during heat waves increase with
age. This i s also support ed by the wor k of Bridger et al., 1976, and Jones et al., 1982.
IMPACT OF COLD WEATHER
A lot of studies support that mortality rates increase during periods of cold weather. In most cases, total
mortality is a bout 15% higher on an a verage winter da y than on an average su mmer day (National Center for Health
Statistics, 1978). The impact of cold on human well-bein g is highly variable. Not only cold weather is res ponsible for
direct causes of death such as hypothermia, in fluenza, and pneu monia, it is al so a factor in a number of i ndirect ways
like death and injury from fall s, accidents, carbon monoxid e poisoning and house fires are all partially attributable t o
cold (U.S. Depa rtment of Commerce, 1984 )
According to another research the metabolic and temperature response to mild cold were investigated in
summer and winter in a moderate oceanic climate. Subjects were 10 women and 10 men, aged 19–36 years and BMI
17–32 kg/m2. Metaboli c rate (MR) and body temperat ures were measured cont inuously in a climate cha mber. The
average metaboli c responses during cold exposure, measured as the i ncrease in kJ/min over ti me, was significantl y
higher in win ter as compared t o summer. The te mperature respons e was comparable i n both seasons. The metabolic
response in winter was significantly related to the response in summer. Total heat production during cold exposure was
inversely related to the temperature response in both seasons. ( Van Ooijen et al. 2004).
Hypothermia occurs when the cor e body temperature falls below 35 de gree centigrade (Cent ers for Disease
Control, 1982). Cert ain region of t he populat ion appears more pred isposed to h ypothermi a than others . Most su fferers
are of the f ollowing cat egories: t he elderl y, newborns, the unconsci ous, alcohol ics and peopl e on medicat ions
(Fitzgerald and Jessop, 1982; Lewin et al., 1981; Hudson and Conn, 1974; Bristow et al., 1977; Massachusetts General
Hospital, 1982). As well, malnour ishment, i nadequate h ousing, and h igh blood eth anol levels increase th e occurrence o f
hypothermia (Centers f or Disease Contro l, 1982).
Sex and race a ppear to be rel ated to susce ptibility to h ypothermia. Nonwhite el derly men genera lly represen t
the highest risk group, while white women comprise the lowest risk group (Rango, 1984; Centers for Disease Control,
1982). Women are less susceptible to hypoth ermia; they are more susce ptible to peripheral cold in juries such as
frostbite (Graham and Lougheed, 1985).
Age appears to have still greater impac t upon hypoth ermia sensi tivity than gen der, and th e elderly displ ay the
highest mortality rat es of all groups. Vas oconstricti on and shiver ing, two pr imary cold adaptive m easures, a ppear to be
reduced in many elderly persons (Collins et al. 1977; Collins and Easton et al. 1981; Wagner et al., 1974).
It appears that ad aptation to cold t emperatures can oc cur through repeated e xposures. Men wh o had bathed in
15 degree centigrade water for one-half hour over nine consecutive days before a trip to the Arctic showed less signs of
cold-induced str ess than non-treated men. There appears t o be a cold-adaptive mechanism influenci ng mortality as well
(Radomski and Boutelier 1982).
Kalkstein, 1984 showed that a lag time of two to three days exists between the offending cold weather and the
ultimate mortality response. Deaths did not necessarily rise on the day of the coldest temperatures, but in many cases,
the sharpest increases were noted three days after the coldest weather occurred. A similar lag time was not noted after
extremely hot su mmer days; the cont act appears more immedi ate in summer.
EFFECT OF HUMIDITY
Humidity has an important impact on mortality since it influences the body's ability to cool itself by means of
perspiration’s evaporation. In addition, humidity affects human comfort, and the perceived temperature by humans is
largely dependent upon atmospheric moisture content (Persinger, 1980). Humidity has also a significant influence on
morbidity in the winter because cold, dry air leads to excessive dehydration of nasal passages and the upper respiratory
tract and increased ch ance of viral and micr obial infection. (Kalkstein, L. S. and K. M. Valimont. 1987). Days with low
relative humidities appear to increase mortality most dramatically (Kalkstein 19 86).
The effects of low hu midity can be especiall y dramatic in wint er, when low moisture conten t induces stress
upon the nasal pharynx and trachea. When very cold, dry air passes through these organs, warming occurs and air
temperatures in the pharynx can reach 30degree Fahrenheit. The ability of this warmer air to hold moisture increases
considerably and moisture is extracted at a remarkable rate from the nasal passages and upper respiratory tract, leading
to excessi ve dehydration of these or gans (Richards and Marriott, 1974). It increases the chance of microbial or viral
infection since a rise in the viscosity of bronchial mucous appears to reduce the ability of the body to fight offending
microorganis ms that may enter the body from the atmos phere.
In the summer, high moisture content during hot periods can diminish the body's ability to evaporate
perspiration, possibly leading to heat stress. Recent weather/mortality models developed for the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration indicate that dew point temperature is directly related to mortality in several eastern cities
when temperat ures are very h ot (Kalkstein, 1985). Study by Persinger 1975 indicat es that mental wel l-being may al so
be influence d by summer relati ve humidity. .
Fast change s in temper ature are li kely to prod uce a number of physiol ogical chan ges in the b ody. Rapid dr ops
may affect blood pH, blood pressure, urination volume, and tissue permeability (Persinger, 1980).
A Canadian Climate Center study (1981) found that migraine was most likely to occur on days with falling
pressure, rising humidity, high winds, and rapid temperature fluctuations.
EFFECT OF SUNSHINE & CLOUD
The reduction of solar radiation by cloud cover may also have effects on well-being. By increasing the
brightness level, th e autonomic n ervous syste m is affect ed by constri ction chang es in the eye pupil. Acc ording to
Persinger (1 980), this increases the rate of physical activity and leads to a general feeling of well-being. Wolfe (1981)
noted that the sun's rays cause chemical changes in neurotransmitter or hormone synthesis in the brain, perhaps
stimulat ing producti on of the h ormone epin ephrine, wh ich stimula tes the min d and bod y. On the other hand, ver y low
light intensiti es are often associat ed with states of relaxation , tiredness, and sleepiness.
There is a great need to enumer ate a large extent of the subjecti ve and insightful information that h as been
published on climate/mor tality relati onships. Weat her and healt h relationshi ps should be unc overed in the near future
considering the huge amount of mortality and morbidity data presently available from the National Center for Health
Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control, and other ag encies, more precise. Possibl y one of the greatest challenges an d
areas of future research is determining the n ecessary cost to society to pre vail over climate stress. Changes in interior
environments may be needed to conquer potential direct climate change impacts on living and working environments.
Indirect impacts (e.g., the loss of productivity resulting from new climate conditions and increased insurance costs)
have not been esti mated. These impact s indirectly associ ated with human heal th/climate stress t hat remains importan t
areas of research.
RECENT ADVANCES IN THE STUDY OF SEASONAL VARIATIONS
Seasonal variat ion is measured in ter ms of an index, called a seasonal index. It is an average that can be us ed to
compare an actual observation relative to what it would be if there was no seasonal variation. An index value is attached
to each period of t he time series within a year.
The eating habits of workers may vary according to the season of the year and corresponding work schedule.
Some study aiming at verifying the changes in their diet in summer and winter, as well as the nutritional status of work
fixed shifts, was conducted. The distribution during the 24 hours in the quantity of calories and macronutrients ingested
and the circadi an rhythm of cal ories consumed w ere also anal yzed. A study was c onducted on 28 w orkers subject t o
three fixed work (morning, afternoon, and night) shifts at a transport company in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Their
food intake was as certained by t he use of a 3-day d ietary record, and their nutritional status was evaluat ed by their bod y
mass index (B MI), both in w inter and summer . Result (shi ft and seas on) showed food c onsumption measured in
calories/24 hours was significantly higher in winter than summer. No seasonal difference in BMI was detected. Study
showed circadian r hythmicity in cal ories consumed by mor ning as well as aftern oon shift workers, both in the wi nter
and summer. Ci rcadian rh ythmicity in cal ories consu med by night wor kers was found onl y in summer (Pa squ a
IC, Moreno CR.2004).
Flouris AD et.al (200 9) examined t he effect of birth season on fetal de velopment and longevit y of all Gree k
citizens that were born (total: 516,874) or died (total: 554,101) between 1999 and 2003. They found significantly
increased birth weight, gestational age and longevity in individuals born during the autumn and winter seasons of the
year. These individuals also established statistically significant lower prevalence rates for fetal growth restriction and
premature birth. Also, they observed increased t emperature at birt h associated with ad verse effects on fetal de velopment
and longevit y.
On 694 healthy subjects (aged 18 -60 years) the effects of biological variations of platelet counts were
investigated in three cities of China. Platelet counts in healthy subjects were significantly higher in summer than in
winter, while concluding the study suggests that the platelet counts could be greatly influenced in healthy subjects by
biologica l variations such as geographical, seasonal and lipi d variations (Peng L, Yang J et.al 2004).
In another study of plat elet count, platelet vol ume, fibrin ogen, factor V II, core bod y and ambie nt temperat ures
was assessed in 54 healthy community dwelling elderly volunteers over a period of 1 year. This study suggests that
significant seasonal variati on in fibrin ogen, mean platelet volu me and core body temperat ure all of which peaked
synchronously in May/June, in a year with an atypically mild winter and hot summer. But platelet total and factor VII
did not exhibit a seasonal rhythm (Crawford VLetal2003).
Cotter D (1996) studied the effect of season of birth and the risk of schizophrenia and expected periods of
maximal ri sk during Febru ary - march an d minimal ri sk during Augus t - September.
EFFECT OF SEASON ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Study on 25 Dutch young adults healthy volunteers (10 men and 15 women) between the ages of 20 and 30
years shows th at Physical acti vity level (PAL) was h igher in summer t han in winter and the difference was higher for
men than for women. This study suggests that the extent of the changes in PAL is of physiological significance, and
seasonali ty in physical activity shou ld be taken int o account when s tudy plan on ph ysical acti vity patterns or
relationships between physical activity and health (Guy Plasqui etal.2004).
P. Tucker and J. Gilliland (2007) found that levels of physical activity vary with seasonality, and the
subsequent effect of poor or extre me weather has been identified as a barri er to particip ation in ph ysical activity a mong
Season and climate conditions have a significant effect on physical activity. This study provides a description
of the influence of season and climate conditions have on meeting the recommendations for physical activity among
adults in the United States. Promoting a higher percentage of the population meeting the recommendations for physical
activit y needs to go beyond providing inf ormation abou t potential health benefit s that may resul t. Populati on based
interventions need to provide information about choices for physical activity that are tailored by season and climate
conditions and address concerns related to convenience, accessibility, safety, and aesthetics (Ray M. Merrill,2005).
SEASONAL VARIATIONS AND BLOOD CLOTTING TIME
Rubio-Poo C. (1998) found significant differences on blood coagulation between spring-autumn and spring-
winter in mouse. The short est values of blood clotting times were recorded during spring and the longest in winter .
Seasonal shifts in hemostasis were evaluated in 3200 healthy subjects (aged 18-40) it was recognized
that coagulation rate is the highest in spring. Natural lysis of the clot and euglobin fibrinolysis proved more demanding
in spring, while least demanding in winter. Frequency of clot lysis inhibition varies with season. In winter the inhibition
is observe d in 45%, in spring in 21.6 %, in summer i n 41% and aut umn in 36.2% of total subjec ts. This stu dy suggests
the more active hemostasis in spring and less active fibrinolysis in winter (Skipterov VP, Martynova VV 1993).
SEASONAL VARIATION OF SKIN DISEASES
A retrospecti ve study was performed at the Om Hospital and Research Center, Kath mandu, Nepal between
January and Dece mber 1999. Data wer e collected from t he hospital outpati ent records and an alyzed. The total n umber
of patients with skin diseases was 1746, in which 793 males and 9553 females. Majorities (28.6%) of the visits are in
spring and the three most commo n diagnoses in cluded fungal i nfections, acn e and melasma. All skin diseases sh owed
statisticall y significant seasonal variation (Jha A K 2006).
VARITION IN HbA1c ACCORDING TO SEASON
Some s tudy suggest s that th e HbA1c was hi gher in coole r months an d lower in th e warmer month s in both
northern and southern hemispheres. According to this study difference in HbA1c over a year appears to be related to the
difference in t emperature (Trefor Higgins 2009).
VARIATIONS OF PLASMA CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS
Plasma cholesterol and tr iglyceride levels wer e assessed in 11 h ealthy subjects, mont hly over a 12 month s
period. An alysis of t he monthl y samples show s seasonal variation that is chol esterol was hi ghest in the winter months
and lowest in October, whereas triglyceride was highest in January and February and lowest in may and December ( G.
Russell Warnick and John J. Albers).
Ira S. Ockene, Worcester, and colleagues (200 4) investigated the seasonal variation in cholesterol among 517
healthy volunteers were investigated from health maintenance organization serving central Massachusetts. Data were
collected quarterl y over a twelve-mont h period on diet , physical act ivity, exposu re to light , general behavior al
information, and cholesterol levels were also measured. The researchers found that cholesterol levels were increased in
men and women, wi th a peak in December and Janu ary respectively. The research ers found that the incre ase was greater
in participants who had high cholesterol levels to begin with. Overall, 22 percent more participants had total cholesterol
levels of 240 mg/dL or greater (high cholesterol) in the winter than in the summer.
SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
In a study 26 normal volunteers had monthly blood samplings during one calendar year for determination of
number of r ed blood c ells (RBC) and platelets , hemoglobi n (Hb), hemat ocrit (Ht ), mean corpu scular volu me (MCV),
MC Hb (MCH), MC Hb c oncentration (MCHC), RB C distribution wid th (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), pl atelet
distri bution width (PDW), platel etcrit (PC T), and plasma fibrinogen c oncentrati ons. The major ity of the h ematologic
variables sh ow seasonal r hythms. The pe ak-trough d ifferences in the yearly var iations in number of RBC, Ht, MCV,
MCH, MCHC and RDW w ere very low. Nu mber of platelet s and plasma fibrin ogen values showed a high amplitude
yearly variat ion. All hemat ological variables, exce pt MCHC, show a hi gh inter individ ual variabil ity which exce eds by
far the intra individual variability (Maes M, Scharpe S 1995).
SEASONAL VARIATION OF HORMONES
Hormone secret ions are periodic variation release that may be influen ced by seasonal vari ation (Gyton and
Hall). Few studies suggest annual or seasonal variations in hormone concentrations in man. This study examines the
components of biological variation, including seasonality, study designed to measure monthly plasma TSH, total T3
(TT3), free T4 (FT4), PRL, cortisol and testosterone in healthy volunteers. Study showed significant annual, four-
monthly and biannual rhythms in serum TSH; the lowest TSH values were observed in spring. A significant annual
rhythm was observed in TT3, with lower values in spring and summer than in the other seasons. (M Maes, K
SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF LIVER FUNCTION TEST
Study by Miya ke K and Miyake N (2009) suggested that t he liver function tests show seas onal variations.
According to them Seru m levels of test results t ended to increase in th e winter. The increase in AST and A LT was
about 6% in men and women, and was greater than that in cholinest erase (ChE) , alkaline phos phatase (A LP) (in men
and women) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) (in men). In contrast, total bilirubin (T-Bil) increased by
3.6% (men) and 5.0% (women) in the summer. The total protein and albumin concentrations did not change
VARIATION OF URIC ACID AND TRIGLYCERIDES
Another study shows that uri c acid was higher in summer c ompared to fall by 5 % in the case of women aged
30–39 and by 7% in the case of men aged 30–39. Triglycerides were 6% higher during spring compared to fall for
women aged 30–39, but surprisingly, 22% higher in winter compared to fall in the case of men aged 30–39 (Guy
Letellier and France Desjarlais 1982).
SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN OXYGEN CONSUMPTION, VENTILATION, LUNG
Some study was car ried out to investi gate seasonal va riations i n oxygen consumpti on, ventilat ion, lung volumes
and their relationships in healthy adult inhabitants of West Siberia. Thirty healthy male adult volunteers were studied 4
times during a year: in summer, autumn, winter, and spring under the same conditions in a room at rest.
Oxyspiro graphy, pneumot achography and the helium dilu tion method were use d. Oxygen consu mption (VO2),
breathing frequency, vital capacity (VC) and inspiratory capacity were adjusted to be the same during the year. Minute
ventilation (Ve), VO2-Ve ratio, residual volume (RV) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) to RV ratio had dynamics
concurrent with seasonal temperature dynamics. Tidal volume, ERV, functional residual capacity, forced 1-s expired
volume (FE V1) and FEV1/VC also changed, but t heir dynamics w ere different from the previ ous parameter s. The
minimum value of these parameters was found in the spring and the maximum--in the autumn, or summer and autumn.
Correlations between respiratory para meters also changed du ring the year. This stud y suggests that the oxyge n
consumption is provided by reorganization of pulmonary tissue in winter.( Gultyaeva V V et.al, 2001 )
A study was per formed on 49(age bet ween 18 to50 ) asthmat ic indi viduals in L os Angeles t o know res pirator y
status. During the summer (M ay-September) and win ter (November-March), subjects measured their l ung function two
to four times daily for one week periods, and every hour recorded their symptoms, medication, and activity hourly in
diaries. Most subject’s lung function and symptoms varied diurnally, and were worst in early morning. Also it was
noticed that Lung function was similar in summer and winter, but symptoms and medication use decreased in winter (
Shamoo DA 1994).
SEASONAL VARIATION IN BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) AND WAIST
A health survey carried out between 1 june 1993 and 31 may 1997 in the Netherlands to compare the time trend
and season al variati on in body mass index (BM I) and wai st circumfer ence. It i s reported that levels of BMI and waist
circumference increased between 1 june 1993 and 31 may 1997. Among women, the time trend in abdominal obesity
was stronger than that in obesity. Further, levels of BMI and waist circumference were higher in winter than in summer
seasons. The seas onal variation was lar ger for abdominal obesity than for obe sity, among both men and women.
Surveys on BMI and waist circumference are only comparable if season is taken into account . Furthermore, th e waist
circumference is a more sensitive indicator of variations in lifestyle and body composition than is body mass index
(Visscher TL, Seidell JC 2004).
SEASONAL VARIATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE
Some study suggests that systolic and diastolic blood pressure values differed significantly across the four
seasons and according to the di stribution of outdoor temper ature. The higher the temperat ure, the greater the decrease i n
blood pressu re. This st udy shows aver age systoli c blood pres sure was 5 mmHg h igher in w inter than i n summer. These
changes in bl ood pressure we re greater in subjects 80 yea rs or older than in younger part icipants ( Alperovitch A,
Lacombe J.M, Han on O, et al2009).
When blood tra nsfusion fr om one person to a nother per son were first at tempted , th e transfusion w ere
successful only in some instances .O ften immediate or d elayed agglutin ation and hemolysis of r ed blood cells(RBC)
occurs, resulting in typical transfusion reaction that often led to death. Soon it was discovered blood of different people
has different antigenic and immune properties, so that antibodies in plasma of one blood cells reacts with antigen on the
surface of red blood cells of another blood. If proper precaution was taken, one can determine ahead of time whether the
antibodies and anti gen present in the d onor and re cent bloo ds will cau se a trans fusion rea ction. At least 30 c ommonl y
occurring antigens and hundreds of rare antigen have been found in human blood cells especially on the surface of cell
membranes. Most of them are weak and therefore of importance principally for studying the inheritance of gene to
establish parentage. Two particul ar groups of antigens are more likely tha n the others t o cause blo od transfus ion
reactions. They are O- A-B system of anti gens and Rh system (Guyton & Hall ).
O-A-B BLOOD GROUPS
A AND B ANTIGEN (AGGL UTINOGENS)
Two antigens-type A and type B occur on the surface of red blood cells in large propotion of human beings. It
is these antigens (agglutinogens) that cause most blood transfusion reactions. Because of the way of these agglutinogens
are inheri ted, peopl e may have n either of t hem on th eir cells, they may ha ve one, or th ey may ha ve both simul taneousl y
(Guyton & Hall).
MAJOR O-A-B BLOOD TYPES
Depending on presence and absence of the two aggl utinogen s, A and B the bl ood of donors and recipi ent blog
group is n ormally classified into four major O, A, B and AB blood types. When neithe r A nor B aggl utinogen is present
the blood t ype is O. When onl y type A aggluti nogen is pres ent, the blo od type is A. When only type B agglutinogen is
present, the blood is type B When A and B agglutinogen is present, t he blood is type AB (Guyton & Hall).
GENETIC DETERMINATION OF AGGLUTINOGENS
Two gen es, one on ea ch of two pair ed chromoso mes, determi ne the O-A-B blood type. These two g enes are
allelomorphic genes that can be any one of three but only one type on each chromosomes; type O, type A or type B . The
type O gene i s either fun ctionless or almost function less , so that i t cause no si gnificant type O agglut inogen on t he
cells. Conversely, the type A and type B do cause strong agglutinogens on the cells (Guyton & Hall).
When type A aggluti nogen is not present in a person’s red blood c ells, ant i bodies kno wn as anti -A aggluti nins
developed in plasma. Also, wh en type B agglutin ogen is not present in the red blood cell s, antibodies kn own as anti- B
agglutin ins develop in develop i n plasma. Group O blood, although cont aining no a gglutin ogens, does con tain both
anti- A and anti- B agglutinnis. Group A blood contains t ype A agglunogens and anti- B agglutinins. Group B blood
contains t ype B aggl utinogens and type anti- A agglutinins, finally group AB contains both A and B agglutinogens but
no agglunins (Guyton & Hall).
BLOOD GROUPS AND DIS EASES
Recently it w as consi dered that t he life expectancy o f the holders of the blood group O is less than that of other
blood groups, and generally blood group O individ uals are more prone to various dis eases. Rec ent study r evealed
that blood group A and B make people more resis tant to chole ra. Blood group O individuals have no immuni ty
against c holera. Blood group B shows weaker prote ction against pl ague. Blood group A is more resistant to
plague, but suffe r from a higher rate of heart dise ase because their bl ood is more li kely to clot. Blood group O is
slightly p rotective ag ainst cardi ovascular pr oblem, but more prone to de veloping d uodenal and pept ic ulcers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
For the purpose of present study 54 volunteers (23female and 31male) aged between 18 to 30 years were
randomly selected. Prakriti was deter mined and categori zed as vataja(vata-p ittaja and vata-kaphaja), pittaja(pitta-
vataja and pitta-kaphaja) and kaphaja (kapha-vataja and kapha -pittaja).
Subjects were not using any medication and were nonsmokers and not addicted to any bad habits which
interfere in physiological functions. The volunteers were provided with detailed information concerning purpose and
methods used in the study, before written consent was obtained. The Ethical Committee of Institute of Medical Science,
Banaras Hindu University and PG Medical board, Institute of Medical Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
approved th e stud y. Most subject s were st udents spend ing aver age time on study, s ports or dai ly livin g activiti es; none
of them were extre me athletes or extremel y active in outd oor activities.
i. Students of the Faculty of Ayurveda, aged between18 and 30 years who were willing to participate as volunteers
in the study, were included after obtaining their written consent for participation.
ii. Only those vol unteers, wh o were found ‘ Clinically he althy’, based on the profor ma prepared f or this purp ose
were included in the stu dy. The purpose was to exclude any volunt eers who were known to have an y ailment
(i) Volunteers aged less than 18 years or more than 30 years were excluded .
(ii) Volunteers not fulfilling the criteria of ‘Clinically Healthy’ status, as per the proforma were excluded.
(iii) Those who suffer ed from any il lnesses dur ing the peri od of study.
Experiment took place in the month of January-February (shishira ri tu, seasonI), and all measurements were
repeated with the same subjects in the month of May-June (greeshma ritu, season II) and September- October (sharad
ritu, season III) to assess the seasonal influ ence on various prakriti individuals.
1. Subjects were screen ed to underst and their health st atus by usi ng standard proforma d esigned by Pramod et. al
to exclude the persons who are suffering from any illness (annexure I).
2. Subjects were assessed to understand their prakrit i by using prakriti assessment criteria de signed (annexure II)
by Vandana Verma et.al. (2009).
3. Subjects visited the laboratory in the morning after 8-10 hour fasting to undergo various hematological and
biochemi cal investigati ons.
4. Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, Respiratory Rate, Body Mass Index, Spirometry was done in Department of Kriya
Sharir from 2-5pm after blood investigations in the morning.
1. Hematological and biochemical parameters were measured in Clinical Laboratory (Indian medicine) and
Centre of Clinical Investigations (CCI), Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
2. Procedure of recordi ng the Pulse Rate: The r adial artery was palpated wi th the tips of three fin gers
compressing the vessel against the h ead of radius bone. Sub ject’s forearm was sli ghtly pronated and th e wrist
slightly flexed. The index finger varied the pressure on artery, the middle finger felt the pulse, while distal
finger prevented reflections of pulsations from the palmer arch of arteries (Ghai CL 2007). The pulse rate was
counted for one compl ete minute.
3. Procedure of recording the Blood Pressure: This was done by the use of mercury sphygmomanometer.
Riva-Rocci cuff was wrapped around the upper arm, with the centre of the bag lying over the brachial artery,
keeping it’s lower edge about 3 cm above the elbow and it was ensured that cuff neither too tight nor very
loose.BP wa s recorded by t wo methods.
i. Palpatory M ethod: After wr apping cuff fingers were kept on the radial artery of the hand. The armlet was
pumped to a slightly greater degree than required, to obliterate the radial pulse. The air was then slowly
released until the pulse once again become palpable. The recording on the manomet er at this point represents
the systolic pressure.
ii. Auscultatory Method: The diaph ragm of the stethosc ope was placed over the bra chial artery at the
curvature of elb ow and armlet was infl ated. Pressure was raised up to 40-50 mm Hg above systoli c level
determined by the palpatory method. Then pressure was released gradually until a clear, sharp, tapping sound
is heart. The point at which first sound was heard represents the systolic blood pressure. Below the systolic
reading puffing sound heard followed by a knocking or thudding sound which increased in intensity and then
passed suddenly into another softer sound and disappeared. The sharp transition from the loud knocking to
the soft blowing sound was taken as the diastolic blood pressure (Ogilvie C & Evans CC, 2003). During
recording t he blood pressu re, it was ensu red that th e sphygmomano meter was alwa ys kept at the le vel of the
heart of the individual.
4. Procedure of recordi ng the Respir atory Rate: Respiratory rate was