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... Given the oftenproposed average radius of 5 to 10 km for the range exploited around a main settlement (Kuhn 1992), the TDASP record suggests a relative small catchment area for the UP in the TDASP study region. This indicates a high degree of mobility due to an expected faster exploitation of organic resources in small areas (Bretzke, Drechsler, and Conard 2012 ...
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Southwestern Asia plays an essential part in all models that have been developed to explain how and when modern humans colonized Eurasia. Given the rich record of Southwestern Asia and the long history of research, it is not surprising that the region provides an enormous wealth of information on the lifeways and population dynamics of prehistoric human groups. We argue here that many archaeological models oversimplify the processes of human dispersals and contractions by underestimating the importance of archaeological and paleoenvironmental records on the regional scale. Based on our surveys and excavations in southwest Syria, the Zagros Mountains, and southeast Arabia, we conclude that the different regions provide distinct records of population dynamics during the Late Pleistocene. This led us to conclude that dispersal processes should not be understood as simple unidirectional movements during well-defined windows of opportunity but rather as complex changes in human biogeography with different effects in different regions at different times. We see more promise for research on human dispersals by facing up to this complexity instead of simplifying the problem for the sake of achieving striking results of only schematic value.
... Today, these places are noted for their perennial springs flowing from the base of the cliffline. Thus, all of the sites offer easy access to water resources (Conard et al., 2010;Bretzke et al., 2012) and are strategically located where humans and fauna can move between the lowlands and the highlands. Furthermore, the region hosts abundant, highquality sources of chert in both primary and secondary contexts. ...
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This paper presents an overview of three Paleolithic sites excavated in southwestern Syria between 1999 and 2007. The sites were discovered as part of a large-scale, regional survey conducted in Damascus Province by a multidisciplinary research team from the University of Tübingen. We focus on the Epipaleolithic shell assemblages from Baaz Rockshelter, Kaus Kozah Cave and Ain Dabbour Cave, examining the distribution of species and their potential relationship to group and personal identity. The four most frequent taxa include the gastropods, Columbella rustica, Theodoxus cf. jordani, and Tritia gibbosula (formerly known as Nassarius gibbosulus), as well as scaphopods. Most of the shells are perforated or, in the case of scaphopods, segmented. These taxa count among the most common shell beads observed at Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic sites of the Levant, although their proportions change over time. Other taxa are also present, but to a much lesser degree, and often occur as unique specimens. We compare the shell assemblages from these localities to similar contexts in Syria, Israel and Jordan. The shell taxa observed are consistent with other Epipaleolithic sites. We hypothesize that the most common shells at Baaz, Kaus Kozah and Ain Dabbour signify group identity, although the proportion of scaphopods is considerably less than that observed from the wider region. We also posit that the unique specimens are an indication of personal identity, standing in contrast to the shared group identity shown by the most common shell taxa.
... In addition, high resource abundance within patches markedly increases both within-and between-group competition. One important resource for which human groups compete is water (Birdsell 1953;Bretzke et al. 2012). If we accept that resource competition may be a potent driver of culture change, this could explain why the earliest complex cultures developed in the Afro-Asiatic monsoon belt during a period of increased aridity following global environmental deterioration (Brooks 2006 . ...
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Competition for resources can be considered a major driving force for social and cultural change in human societies. Here, we suggest two directly observable measures of competition at the individual and group levels: 1) the percentage of individuals within a group that do not meet their resource requirements and 2) the percentage of groups within a population in which at least one individual does not meet his/her resource requirements. We use these measures within an agent-based simulation framework to investigate the potential influence of patterns of resource distribution and social rules on the intensity of competition among human individuals and among social groups. We then relate competition intensity to cultural developments in prehistoric populations and make suggestions how measures of competition can be incorporated into archaeological and anthropological research.
... Investigating mobility strategies of past hunteregatherer societies often relies on reconstructing associated settlement patterns and territorial organization (Binford, 1980;Chatters, 1987). Commonly explored by reconstructing the intensity and structure of particular occupations based on lithic and faunal remains (Bretzke et al., 2012;Horvath, 2001;Rendu, 2010;Sealy, 2006;Stutz et al., 2009), very few studies have tackled these issues by focussing explicitly on symbolic artefacts and non-utilitarian behaviours (Whallon, 2006). Moreover, ethnoarchaeological studies have shown bead manufacture to be related to complex territorial and economic organisation, implying the existence of specialised crafts and workshops, the long distance circulation of raw materials, and the exchange and recycling of finished products (Arnold and Munns, 1994;Kenoyer et al., 1991;Masucci, 1995;Tsuneki, 1939;Wright and Garrard, 2003). ...
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The frequency of mollusks, shellfish, fish, seabirds, and marine mammal remains from archaeological sites in the Vasco-Cantabrian region of Northern Spain attests to the relatively intense exploitation of marine resources during the Upper Palaeolithic, Epipalaeolithic, and Mesolithic. These coastal resources were utilised for both technical and symbolic purposes, especially two gastropods (Littorina saxatilis/complexa/arcana and Littorina obtusata) that were almost continuously used for personal ornamentation. The shell accumulation at Praileaitz I, dated to c. 10,000 and 11,500 cal BP, provides new data concerning the interplay between Epipalaeolithic prehistoric hunter gatherers and coastal environments. We developed a method based on identifying the accumulation's taxonomic diversity combined with a taphonomic, morphometric, and microscopic analysis of the shells in order to characterise the accumulation. The shell assemblage, composed almost exclusively of L saxatilis/complexa/arcana and L obtusata, provided no evidence for the shells being suspended as ornaments. Comparisons with modern and archaeological reference collections suggest the shells were collected by humans from a thanatocenosis and that the accumulation is composed only of the smallest shells with a high proportion showing breakage resulting from crab predation. Given the frequent use of these shell species as personal ornaments in the Vasco-Cantabrian region during prehistory, we propose that the accumulation represents discarded raw material considered unsuitable for the manufacture of personal ornaments. Finally, the lack of other archaeological remains of any kind leads us to conclude that the cave's brief occupation was connected to the specialised activity of bead manufacture.
... Confronted with difficulties in the classification of major UP sites from our study region, we turned to methods that allow the quantification of critical morphologies on lithic artifacts to build a framework for our UP assemblages from new excavations at Baaz Rock shelter (Conard et al., 2006b(Conard et al., , 2006c and survey (Bretzke et al., 2012;Conard et al., 2006a) in western Syria. In this context we compiled data from the UP of Rust's excavations at Yabroud II as a starting point with which we could compare the assemblages recovered by the Tübingen Damascus Excavation and Survey Project (TDASP) team (Conard, 2006). ...
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Groundwater is one of the most critical water resources for Sub Saharan Africa. However, the understanding of the groundwater system in the region is still lacking due to sparse groundwater observations. The influence of topography on the groundwater table is still mostly not evaluated in Sub Saharan Africa. This study applied the analytical hierarchical process to explore and compare the suitability of two secondary topography indices, the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) and Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), to predict groundwater potential. We used shallow and deep wells to validate the groundwater potential zones. The results showed that both HAND and TWI are useful parameters to identify groundwater spatial variability. The water levels and wells depths varied and deepened with reduction in the groundwater potential. The study also showed that both methods are similar in groundwater potential classifications, with an overall accuracy (or similarity) of 70.56% and an overall kappa coefficient of 0.61. The HAND based method, however, showed superiority over the TWI based method. Nevertheless, both methods seemed suitable for preliminary groundwater prospecting with a high potential to minimize prospecting efforts and associated costs and provide insight into locations for future exploitation and optimization of wells drilling success in the study area.
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The Fertile Crescent, its hilly flanks and surrounding drylands has been a critical region for studying how climate has influenced societal change, and this review focuses on the region over the last 20,000 years. The complex social, economic, and environmental landscapes in the region today are not new phenomena and understanding their interactions requires a nuanced, multidisciplinary understanding of the past. This review builds on a history of collaboration between the social and natural palaeoscience disciplines. We provide a multidisciplinary, multiscalar perspective on the relevance of past climate, environmental, and archaeological research in assessing present day vulnerabilities and risks for the populations of southwest Asia. We discuss the complexity of palaeoclimatic data interpretation, particularly in relation to hydrology, and provide an overview of key time periods of palaeoclimatic interest. We discuss the critical role that vegetation plays in the human–climate–environment nexus and discuss the implications of the available palaeoclimate and archaeological data, and their interpretation, for palaeonarratives of the region, both climatically and socially. We also provide an overview of how modelling can improve our understanding of past climate impacts and associated change in risk to societies. We conclude by looking to future work, and identify themes of “scale” and “seasonality” as still requiring further focus. We suggest that by appreciating a given locale's place in the regional hydroscape, be it an archaeological site or palaeoenvironmental archive, more robust links to climate can be made where appropriate and interpretations drawn will demand the resolution of factors acting across multiple scales. This article is categorized under: • Human Water > Water as Imagined and Represented • Science of Water > Methods • Water and Life > Nature of Freshwater Ecosystems
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The Tübingen-Damaskus Ausgrabungs-und Survey Projekt (TDASP) conducted Paleolithic field work in the Damascus Province of western Syria between 1999 and 2010. The TDASP team excavated four stratified sites dating to the Middle Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic. Here we report on Wadi Mushkuna Rockshelter, a well stratified Middle Paleolithic sequence excavated by TDASP. Specifically, we focus on diachronic changes of technological characteristics and settlement behavior and test if they co-vary throughout the sequence of 20 archaeological horizons (AH) spanning about 4 m of deposits. Our results on technological characteristics indicate continuity over large parts of the sequence with a gradual change observed towards the top. To explore hominin settlement behavior we analyzed artifact densities and ratios between tools and flakes for each of the layers. In contrast, the data on settlement behavior point to clear differences between the strata above and below layer AH VI. From these results we conclude that the sequence at Wadi Mushkuna provides no evidence for co-variation of technological change and settlement behavior.
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Our view of MP cultural variability is blurred by site-specific problems as well as inadequate research concepts. The former are inherent in current fieldwork methodology and in the archaeological record itself. Excavation of Palaeolithic sites generally catches only parts of the entire archaeological record and thus leaves us with the sample size problem. Moreover, resolution of the archaeological record is often limited by the palimpsest problem which is especially given in spatially restricted sites (e.g. caves) coupled with a low sedimentation rate. Many research concepts not only neglect the resolution problem but also lack the consideration of scale when it comes to archaeological interpretation. Our aim is not to reinterpret the Levantine Middle Palaeolithic in the light of these challenges as this is outside the scope of this paper. Archaeological resolution and scale are nevertheless taken as guidelines for the integration of the Hummal Mousterian in a broader context. In doing so, we give a short review of current knowledge and show how a scale-sensitive approach can inform us about various aspects of the Levantine Middle Palaeolithic.
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1 Baaz Rockshelter is located ca. 35 km northeast of Damascus immediately adjacent to the Jaba'deen Pass at an elevation of 1529m. This pass with its springs serves both as a reliable source of water and a means of moving between the lowlands and the highlands of the westernmost Palmyride Mountains. Researchers located this previously undisturbed site during survey in the spring of 1999 and began excavations in the fall of 1999 and 2000. The rockshelter is small measuring only 10 x 6 meters, but has yielded surprisingly well preserved finds and features from the Epipaleolithic and Neolithic periods. The excavations have produced thousands of chipped flint artifacts, and lesser numbers of ground stone tools, ornaments, pottery sherds and bone tools. The preservation of botanical remains is excellent , apparently due to the very dry conditions, and faunal materials are also preserved. Test excavations have yielded small lithic assemblages from the deepest Epipaleolithic layers. The remains of a well preserved living floor with a built in mortar and fireplace have been documented in a late Natufian contexts from within a limestone structure inside the rockshelter. Uncalibrated radiocarbon measurements from charcoal overlying the floor of this structure yielded ages of 10,470+/-121, 10942 +/-65, and 10,667 +/-97 years BP. Overlying these horizons are Kiamian and Neolithic deposits. Baaz Rocks-helter provides some of the best evidence from the Damascus Province for the changing patterns of human behavior during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene.
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The reconstruction of human behavior is of central interest in archaeological research. Studies concerning this question operate on different levels of spatial resolution. Either patterns on the site level are analyzed or focus is placed on a landscape level. While for the first case a comprehensive methodology exists, there is a lack of specific methods for the latter. Since a decade or so, tools from geography have entered the archaeological community and enable quantitative analysis of the relationship between space and archaeological material. The importance of such studies is given by the possibility to develop hypotheses about past human behavior. As behavior underlies mechanisms of tradition, the use of a given landscape carries the potential to answer questions concerning the relationships between different populations. The present paper introduces a new approach to the analysis of Paleolithic land use. Instead of using archaeological sites and their spatial patterning, the density distribution of single artifacts is regarded to gain information about how the space was used. The study assumes that places with high artifact densities mirror areas preferentially used by a population. 70 Based on the results of the intensive survey work of the Tübingen Damaskus Ausgrabungs-und Survey Projekt (TDASP), this paper presents a model of settlement behavior of Upper Paleolithic populations in western Syria. Beside the identification of the analyzed period in the field, the main challenge was to get spatially continuous information about the artifact density. Due to the method of walking transects and collecting defined areas, the surveys provide punctuated information. Altogether 432 locations could have been included in this study. Hence the artifact density is known for these points in the landscape. Both positive and negative evidence for the Upper Paleolithic was taken into account. By interpolating these points with the Inverse Distance Weighted algorithm (IDW) a map representing the distribution of the artifact density could be created. 13 areas of intense use are visible. With one exception, the maximum distance from one area to the other does not exceed 10 km. Additional analysis based on topography dependent walking distance shows strong spatial tethering to the two known permanent springs. It further suggests that daily activity starts and ends at a base camp. Beside this, the relationship to the Plant Available Water Index (PAW after Drechsler and Bretzke), which assumes that more water available to plants results in a higher density of vegetation, hints at preferred usage of specific parts of the overall settlement space. Based on the activity pattern, a settlement cell of approximately 50 km² is postulated. This limited area reflects the proposed range of a small but highly mobile population of hunters and gatherers.
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This paper reports on the ongoing collaborative research of the University of Tübingen and the Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums of Syria in the region of Ma’aloula and Yabroud in the Damascus Province. This region, which includes an area of roughly 500 km2, lies on the eastern side of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains with elevations ranging from 2350 to 800 m a.s.l. Moving from west to east in the survey region, the elevation and the amount of precipitation drop sharply. So far the survey team has identified 354 sites with Levalloisian Middle Paleolithic artifacts, making this cultural group the most frequent in the area of study. Results from recent excavations, most notably in Wadi Mushkuna Rockshelter, provide additional information for modeling patterns of land use during the Middle Paleolithic. Here we discuss how the distribution of lithic artifacts in the region reflects human adaptations to the availability of resources including water, sources of lithic raw material, plants and animals. We also use GIS to model how diachronic changes in the distribution of resources affected the Middle Paleolithic settlement dynamics in the region.
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Zusammenfassung: Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den Aussagemöglichkeiten von Ober- flächenfunden für siedlungsarchäologische Fragestellungen. Er verfolgt dabei einen so genannten off-site Ansatz, der nicht Fundplätze, sondern Einzelartefakte in den Mittelpunkt der Auswertung stellt. Als fundamentale Grundannahme dient dabei die Aussage, dass die Dichte der Artefakte an einem spezi- fischen Ort im untersuchten Raum Auskunft über die Bedeutung des jeweiligen Raumausschnittes für die untersuchte Population gibt. Je mehr Artefakte pro Quadratmeter auftreten, desto häufiger waren die Produzenten dieser Artefakte an diesem Ort oder desto intensiver war dessen Nutzung. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen der Oberflächenbegehungen durch das Tübingen Damaskus Ausgrabungs- und Survey Projekt im Raum um die Ortschaft Ma'aloula in der Provinz Damaskus, Syrien, wird am Beispiel des Jungpaläolithikums ein neuer Ansatz zur Charakterisierung der Raumnutzung und der Entwicklung eines Siedlungsmodells vorgestellt und diskutiert. Mit Hilfe des Methodenspektrums Geographischer Informationssysteme gelangen eine Quantifizierung der Beziehungen zwischen archäologischen Hinter- lassenschaften und Raumcharakteristika sowie die Ableitung verschiedener siedlungsarchäologischer Merkmale. Im Ergebnis konnte eine kleinflächige Nutzung des Raumes mit starker Fokussierung auf permanente Wasserquellen erarbeitet werden. Basierend darauf war es möglich, ein Siedlungsmodell abzuleiten, dessen Kern durch eine Siedlungszelle von 50 km² Größe gebildet wird. Aus diesem Modell können weitere Siedlungscharakteristika, wie eine relative hohe Mobilität bei kleiner Gruppenstärke, abgeleitet werden. Schlagwörter: Zentrallevante, Syrien, Jungpaläolithikum, Raumnutzungsanalyse, Oberflächenfunde, off-site Archäologie, GIS Reconstructing land use based on surface finds A case study from the Upper Paleolithic of the central Levant Abstract: The reconstruction of human behavior is of central interest in archaeological research. Studies concerning this question operate on different levels of spatial resolution. Either patterns on the site level are analyzed or focus is placed on a landscape level. While for the first case a comprehensive methodology exists, there is a lack of specific methods for the latter. Since a decade or so, tools from geography have entered the archaeological community and enable quantitative analysis of the relationship between space and archaeological material. The importance of such studies is given by the possibility to develop hypotheses about past human behavior. As behavior underlies mechanisms of tradition, the use of a given landscape carries the potential to answer questions concerning the relationships between different populations. The present paper introduces a new approach to the analysis of Paleolithic land use. Instead of using archaeological sites and their spatial patterning, the density distribution of single artifacts is regarded to gain information about how the space was used. The study assumes that places with high artifact densities mirror areas preferentially used by a population.
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A hydrological forecasting model is presented that attempts to combine the important distributed effects of channel network topology and dynamic contributing areas with the advantages of simple lumped parameter basin models. Quick response flow is predicted from a storage/contributing area relationship derived analytically from the topographic structure of a unit within a basin. Average soil water response is represented by a constant leakage infiltration store and an exponential subsurface water store. A simple non-linear routing procedure related to the link frequency distribution of the channel network completes the model and allows distinct basin sub-units, such as headwater and sideslope areas to be modelled separately. The model parameters are physically based in the sense that they may be determined directly by measurement and the model may be used at ungauged sites. Procedures for applying the model and tests with data from the Crimple Beck basin are described. Using only measured and estimated parameter values, without optimization, the model makes satisfactory predictions of basin response. The modular form of the model structure should allow application over a range of small and medium sized basins while retaining the possibility of including more complex model components when suitable data are available.
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The growth of evolutionary psychology has led to renewed interest in what might be the significant evolutionary heritage of people living today, and in the extent to which humans are suited to a particular adaptive environment—the EEA. The EEA, though, is a new tool in the battery of evolutionary concepts, and it is important both that it is scrutinized for its utility, and that the actual reconstructions of the environments in which humans and hominids evolved are based on sound palaeobiological inference and an appropriate use of the phylogenetic context of primate evolution.
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The principal aim of our research is to capitalize on the close relationship between prehistoric hunters and prey to develop spatial models for the investigation of land-use patterns. Ideally, these models should be useful both as predictive tools for designing regional archaeological surveys, and as analytical tools for studying the distribution of known archaeological sites. Here, we build upon a basic G.I.S. model (including standard environmental variables such as slope, aspect and distance to water) adding a paleoethological variable in the form of range reconstructions for the regionally dominant, prehistoric human prey species: Equus hydruntinus.
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Kernel density estimates, which at their simplest can be viewed as a smoothed form of histogram, have been widely studied in the statistical literature in recent years but used hardly at all within archaeology. They provide an eeective method of data presentation for univariate and particularly bivariate data and this is illustrated with a range of examples. The methodology can be used as an informal approach to spatial cluster analysis, and one example suggests that it is competitive with other approaches in this area. A reason for the lack of use of kernel density estimates by archaeologists may be the lack of accessible software. The analyses described here were undertaken in the MATLAB package using routines developed by the second author, and are available on request.
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Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be captured and analysed by various methods. Elevation capturing with RTK-GPS and airborne laser scanning is presented and evaluated in terms of height accuracy of raw data and interpolated DEMs for study sites in Sweden and Germany. Applications for precision agriculture are based on the connection of land surface and the movement of water in the landscape. Three methods of deriving potential flow accumulation from DEMs are discussed. Results indicate that the Topographic Wetness Index can be used to assess the pattern of potential soil moisture on a field and changes in soil texture caused by erosion processes. The quality of the soil moisture assessment varies with both flow algorithm and terrain characteristics. Correlations up to r 2 = 0.64 were found. Best results were obtained on undulating farmland using the DEMON algorithm and a formbased approach. However, in areas with low relief, the concept did not lead to valuable soil moisture maps.
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Population models seeking climate as a triggering factor for the extinction of Neandertals and the colonisation of Europe by Anatomically Modern Humans are contradictory due to uncertainties in the dating methods, in the cultural attribution of archaeological layers and to the lack of terrestrial continuous and well-dated palaeoclimatic sequences. This is particularly the case for the Iberian Peninsula where Neandertal populations seem to have survived later than in other regions of Europe. A review of the available palaeoclimatic evidence for OIS3 of Iberia reveals that this mainly consists of low resolution, fragmentary, ill-dated and often ill-interpreted records. Correlation between palaeoenvironmental sequences from two IMAGES pollen-rich deep sea cores and archaeological data from western Europe (the electronic archive of the radiocarbon dates is available at QSR website http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/quascirev) indicates that Aurignacian moderns colonised France and the north of Iberia at the onset of the H4 event. During this cold episode a probable contraction of Neandertal populations is recorded in southern Iberia where no Aurignacian settlements are detected. Such a decline in population density is correlated with the particular desert-steppe-like environments, made up of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra, characterising the H4 of this area. While reducing the size of Neandertal populations, this inhospitable environment may have favoured their persistence in this region. Mainly exploiting herds of herbivores adapted to Graminees-rich grasslands, the Aurignacian moderns were probably not interested in colonising these arid Mediterranean biotopes, and did that only after the H4 event.
Article
A long radiometrically dated oxygen isotopic record of continental climatic variations since the penultimate glaciation was obtained from a stalagmite deposited in a sealed cave in Jerusalem. This record shows that speleothems have the potential of assigning dates to long- and short-term climatic events, with possible refining of Milankovitch tuning of ice and marine records which themselves are not datable. Short-term (∼1000-yr) events are very significant in the region, reaching ∼50% of glacial/interglacial fluctuations. The Mediterranean Sea was the most probable source of local precipitation throughout the last glacial cycle.
Article
The climate of the Eastern Mediterranean region of the last 60 ky was determined by a high resolution study of the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition (1500 measurement pairs) of speleothems from the Soreq cave, Israel, with chronology provided by 53 precise ^(230)Th–^(234)U (TIMS) ages. The high precision of the speleothem TIMS ages permits us to determine the timing of regional climatic events in the Eastern Mediterranean region and to see if they correlate with global events. During the period from 60 to 17 ky, the δ^(18)O and δ^(13)C values were generally 2–2.5‰ higher than during the period from 17 ky to present. This is consistent with the climatic transition from glacial to interglacial. Within the 60 to 17 ky period, the Soreq cave stable isotope profile includes four cold peaks (at 46, 35, 25 and 19 ky) and 2 warm peaks (at 54 and 36 ky). In addition, the period <17 ky has two more cold peaks at 16.5 and from 13.2 to 11.4 ky. The ages of four of the six cold peaks correlate well with the ages of three Heinrich events (H1, H2, H5) and with the age of the Younger Dryas. However, the other two Heinrich events are not reflected in the Soreq cave record. Several other isotope peaks which appear during the last 7 ky are contemporaneous with regional climatic events in the Middle East and North Africa. In addition to the drop in δ^(18)O and δ^(13)C observed between the last glacial and the Holocene, sharp simultaneous drops in (^(234)U/^(238)U)_0 ratios, Sr concentrations and in ^(87)Sr/^(86)Sr are also observed, suggesting that the latter are climate related. These variations are interpreted in terms of major changes in the temperature, the mean annual rainfall and its isotopic composition, the isotopic composition of the Mediterranean vapor source, the soil moisture conditions, and in the mixing proportions of sources with different ^(87)Sr/^(86)Sr ratios (sea spray, dust particles and dolomitic host rock).
Article
A hydrological forecasting model is presented that combines the important distributed effects of channel network topology and dynamic contributing areas with the advantages of simple lumped parameter basin models. Quick response flow is predicted from a storage/contributing area relationship derived analytically from the topographic structure of a unit within a basin. Average soil water response is represented by a constant leakage infiltration store and an exponential subsurface water store. A simple non-linear routing procedure related to the link frequency distribution of the channel network completes the model and allows distinct basin sub-units, such as headwater and sideslope areas to be modeled separately. Procedures for applying the model and tests with data from the Crimple Beck basin in the United Kingdom are described.
Book
Examines the processes underlying the formation of the archaeological record. The formation processes described are behavioural and post-depositional. The distribution and density of artifacts away from orthodox sites can be very valuable. -from Author