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Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers.
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Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry 2012:4 9–16
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
Advances in dental veneers: materials,
applications, and techniques
Núbia Pavesi Pini
Flávio Henrique Baggio
Débora Alves Nunes Leite
José Roberto Lovadino
Raquel Sano Suga Terada
Renata Corrêa Pascotto
Area of Restorative Dentistry,
Piracicaba Dental School, State
University of Campinas – FOP/
Unicamp – Piracicaba, São Paulo,
Area of Restorative Dentistry,
State University of Maringá
UEM – Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
Correspondence: Renata Corrêa Pascotto
State University of Maringá – UEM,
Department of Dentistry, Mandacaru
Avenue – 1550 – S08, Paraná, Brazil
Tel +55 44 3011 9051
Fax +55 44 3011 9052
Abstract: Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth.
The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating
highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and
adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem
of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able
to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success
of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important
parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations
of porcelain veneers.
Keywords: dental ceramic, porcelain veneers, aesthetic treatment
Restorative aesthetic dentistry should be practiced as conservatively as possible.
Currently, the use of adhesive technologies makes it possible to preserve as much
tooth structure as is feasible while satisfying the patients restorative needs and
aesthetic desires. With indirect restorations, clinicians should choose a material
and technique that allows the most conservative treatment; satisfies the patient’s
aesthetic, structural, and biologic requirements; and has the mechanical require-
ments to provide clinical durability.
Based on their strength, longevity, conservative nature, biocompatibility,
and aesthetics, veneers have been considered one of the most viable treatment
modalities since their introduction in 1983.
Aesthetic veneers in ceramic materials
demonstrate excellent clinical performance and, as materials and techniques have
evolved, veneers have become one of the most predictable, most aesthetic, and least
invasive modalities of treatment.
For this reason, both materials and techniques
provide the dentist and patient an opportunity to enhance the patient’s smile in a
minimally invasive to virtually noninvasive way.
Initially used to treat various kinds of tooth discoloration, porcelain laminate
veneers have been increasingly replaced by more conservative therapeutic modali-
ties, such as bleaching and enamel microabrasion.
However, this evolution has not
led to a decrease in indications for veneers, as materials and techniques continue to
be developed. Ceramic veneers are considered the ultimate option for a conserva-
tive aesthetic approach because they leave nearly all of the enamel intact before
the veneer is placed.
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This article was published in the following Dove Press journal:
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
9 February 2012
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry 2012:4
Since its introduction more than two decades ago,
etched ceramic veneer restoration has proven to be a
durable and aesthetic modality of treatment. The clinical
success that the technique has found can be attributed to
great attention to detail in a set of procedures, including
planning the case, with the correct indication; conserva-
tive preparation of the teeth; proper selection of ceramics
to use; proper selection of the materials and methods of
cementation; and proper planning for the ongoing main-
tenance of these restorations.
Accordingly, this article
discusses the aspects of ceramic laminate veneers restora-
tion that involve materials, applications, and techniques,
in order to address some concerns about newer trends,
materials, and methods as they relate to the continued
success of this modality of treatment.
An electronic search of publications from 1991 to 2011
was made using the electronic databases Medline
The search included only English-language
articles published in peer-reviewed dental journals. The key-
words were selected listing the following four combinations:
(1) “laminate veneer” (2) “ceramic veneer,(3) “porcelain
veneer” (4) “dental ceramic.” All data from both electronic
databases were collected and the duplicates deleted. In
general, all selected articles met the well-defined inclusion
criteria of being clinical trials, case reports, reviews or sys-
tematic reviews, or prospective studies; having a minimum
follow-up of 3 years; and written in English.
Review of the literature
Current materials
To improve aesthetics in anterior teeth by means of lami-
nate veneers, two types of materials are indicated for their
translucency and potential to be used in small thickness:
sintered feldspathic porcelain and pressable ceramic,
which can also be used milled using a computer-aided
manufacturing technique.
Ceramics can vary from being
very translucent to very opaque. In general, the glassier the
microstructure (noncrystalline), the more translucent the
ceramic will appear; the more crystalline, the more opaque.
Other contributory factors to translucency include particle
size, particle density, refractive index, and porosity, to name
a few.
Porcelain veneers have been a popular means of con-
servatively restoring unaesthetic anterior teeth since the
early 1980s. A number of medium-term clinical studies
have confirmed the favorable clinical performance of these
restorations, as their maintenance of aesthetics was excel-
lent, patient satisfaction was high, and no adverse effects
on gingival health were present.
Most authors reported a
low failure rate (0%–7%).
Higher failure rates (14%–33%)
were noted in other clinical trials,
probably due to some
predisposing factors, such as unfavorable occlusion and
articulation, excessive loss of dental tissue, use of inappro-
priate luting agents, unprepared teeth, and partial adhesion
to large exposed dentin surfaces. Nevertheless, porcelain
veneers are considered more durable than direct compos-
ite veneers, on the conditions that patients are adequately
selected and the veneers are prepared following a meticulous
clinical procedure.
Della Bona and Kelly
compared the clinical evidence
for all-ceramic restorations. They reported that the ceramics
are particularly well suited for veneer restorations, which
have failure rates (including loss of retention or fracture)
of less than 5% at 5 years.
Other authors found that the
feldspathic porcelains showed similar long-term survival
rates: 96% in 5 years, 93% in 10 years, 91% in 12 years,
and 94% in 12 years.
Mechanical and biological causes
of failures were related to aesthetics (31%), mechanical
implications (31%), periodontal support (12.5%), loss of
retention (12.5%), caries (6%), and tooth fracture (6%).
Based on the treatment goal of being as conservative as
possible, the first choice will always be these materials.
Both feldspathic porcelain and glass-infiltrated ceramics
presented long-term survival rates of about 96%–98%
in 5 years.
Currently, there are systems, like computer-aided
design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), that
may make the production of veneers easier. CAD/CAM res-
torations have a natural appearance because the ceramic
blocks have a translucent quality that emulates enamel
and they are available in a wide range of shades.
need for a uniform material quality, reduction in production
costs, and standardization of the manufacturing process
has encouraged researchers to seek to automate the con-
ventional manual process via the use of this technology
since the 1980s.
The chances of success are, therefore,
almost as high as those with conventional veneers; 98.8%
of patients describe their CAD/CAM-produced solution as
Finally, quality is consistent because prefab-
ricated ceramic blocks are free from internal defects and
the computer program is designed to produce shapes that
will stand up to wear.
Dentists should base their choice of material on the
requirements of the tooth being restored, such as the
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Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry 2012:4
indication and the necessity of the tooth preparation to
improve aesthetics and function.
Feldspathic veneers
Porcelain laminate veneers have undergone significant evo-
lution. Nowadays, their use has expanded beyond a simple
covering for anterior teeth to include coverage of coronal
tooth structures. Feldspathic veneers are created by layering
glass-based (silicon dioxide) powder and liquid materials.
Silicon dioxide, also referred to as silica or quartz, contains
various amounts of alumina. When these aluminum silicates
are found naturally and contain various amounts of potas-
sium and sodium, they are referred to as feldspars. Feldspars
are primarily composed of silicon oxide (60%–64%) and
aluminum oxide (20%–23%), and are typically modified in
different ways to create glass that can then be used in dental
Thus, porcelain veneer consists of fluo-
rapatite crystals in an aluminum-silicate glass that may be
layered on the core to create the final morphology and shade
of the restoration. The fluorapatite crystals contribute to the
optical properties of the veneering porcelain. Feldspathic por-
celain provides great aesthetic value and demonstrates high
translucency, just like natural dentition. By using a layering
and firing process, ceramists developed veneers that could be
made as optically close to natural teeth as possible.
Feldspathic porcelain’s mechanical properties are low,
with flexural strength usually from 60 to 70 MPa.
to the nature of the glass matrix materials and the absence
of core material, the veneering porcelains are much more
susceptible to fracture under mechanical stress. Therefore, a
good bond, in combination with a stiffer tooth substructure
(enamel), is essential to reinforce the restoration.
requests for less-invasive treatments and higher levels of
aesthetics have enhanced the indication of feldspathic
veneers. With this material, it is possible to have a thick-
ness of less than 0.5 mm, with or without preparation in the
enamel. To preserve the health of the gingival tissues and
prevent overcontouring, a slight 0.5 mm reduction of tooth
surface is found to work best. When additional wear is nec-
essary on the enamel, it is important to pay attention to the
condition of the reminiscent structure, which will affect the
bond of the porcelain veneers. The ideal conditions for the
bond between the veneer and the substrate are the presence
of a rate of 50% or more of the enamel remaining on the
tooth; 50% or more of the bonded substrate being enamel;
and 70% or more of the margin being in enamel.
Feldspathic veneer is manufactured by means of sculpt-
ing powder/liquid. The aesthetic value exhibited in these
restorations is a result of this technique and, therefore,
depends on the ceramist’s ability to build depth of anatomy,
color, and translucency into the restoration. Because of this,
communication between the professional and the ceramist
is very important.
Glass-based ceramics
Glass ceramics may be ideally suited for use as dental
restorative materials. Their mechanical and physical
properties have generally improved, including increased
fracture resistance, improved thermal shock resistance, and
resistance to erosion. Improvement in properties depends
on the interaction of the crystals and glassy matrix, as well
as on the size and amount of crystals. Finer crystals gener-
ally produce stronger materials. They may be opaque or
translucent, depending on the chemical composition and
percent crystallinity.
Interest in nonmetallic and biocompatible restorative
materials increased after the introduction of the feldspathic
porcelain crown in 1903 by Land.
Increased strength in
glassy ceramics is achieved by adding appropriate fillers that
are uniformly dispersed throughout the glass, such as alumi-
num, magnesium, zirconia, leucite, and lithium di silicate.
For aesthetic veneers, ceramics reinforced by leucite and
lithium disilicate are commonly indicated for their optical
properties and because they are acid-sensitive.
Filler particles are added to the base glass composition
to improve the mechanical properties and optical effects
such as opalescence, color, and opacity.
The glass matrix
is infiltrated by micron-size crystals of leucite and lithium
disilicate, creating a highly filled glass matrix.
The flexural
strength depends on the shape and volume of these cr ystals.
This material can be translucent, even with the high crystal-
line content; this is due to the relatively low refractive index
of the crystals. The manufacturer’s instructions recommend
its use for anterior or posterior crowns, implant crowns,
inlays, onlays, and veneers.
Both leucite and lithium dis-
ilicate are fabricated through a combination of lost-wax and
heat-pressed techniques.
The microstructure is similar
to that of powder porcelains; however, pressed ceramics are
less porous and can have a higher crystalline content because
the ingots are manufactured from nonporous glass ingots by
applying a heat treatment that transforms some of the glass
into crystals. This process can be expected to produce well-
controlled and homogeneous materials.
The first fillers to be used in dental ceramics contained
particles of a crystalline mineral called leucite, added to the
ceramic, so that the leucite comprised about 50%–55% of the
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Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry 2012:4
material. This filler was added to create porcelains that could
be fired successfully onto metal substructures. Nowadays, it
is advantageous for aesthetic veneers because its index of
refraction is very close to that of feldspathic glasses an
important match for maintaining some translucency and
because leucite etches at a much faster rate than the base
glass. It is this selective etching that creates a myriad
of tiny features for resin cements to enter, creating a good
micromechanical bond.
The ceramics reinforced by lithium disilicate are
true glass ceramics, with the crystal content increased to
approximately 70% and the crystal size refined to improve
flexural strength.
The material is translucent enough
that it can be used for full-contour restorations or for
the highest aesthetics and can be veneered with special
p orcelain. Because of the favorable translucency and vari-
ety of shades possible, the material can be used for fully
anatomic (monolithic) restorations with subsequent stain-
ing characterization or as a core material with subsequent
coating with veneering ceramics.
These glass ceramics can be used in clinical situations
when flexure risk factors are involved. With this material,
the thickness must be more than 0.8 mm, except at marginal
areas. They can gradually thin to a margin of approximately
0.3 mm.
Therefore, in situations in which there is more
than 0.8 mm of working space, glass ceramics should be
considered due to their increased strength and toughness,
as well as the presence of sufficient room to achieve the
desired aesthetics. These materials are efficient for bonding
in substrate, even if less than 50% of the remaining enamel
remains; however, at the margin, at least 30% of the enamel
must be present.
The great progress in bonding capability to both enamel and
dentin made with the introduction of multistep total-etch
adhesive systems, along with the development of high-
performance and more universally applicable small-particle
hybrid composite resin, has led to more conservative
restorative adhesive techniques for addressing unaesthetic
tooth appearance. Composite resin can be used to mask
tooth discolorations and/or to correct unaesthetic tooth
forms and/or positions. However, such restorations still
suffer from limited longevity, because composites remain
susceptible to discoloration, wear, and marginal fractures,
thereby reducing the aesthetic result in the long-term. In
the search for more durable aesthetics, porcelain veneers
were proposed to be durable anterior re storations with
superior aesthetics.
Laminate veneers should be used as a conservative solu-
tion to an aesthetic problem.
The correct indication for their
use is the main factor in the clinical success of the application
of ceramic materials. The indications for a no-preparation or
minimally invasive laminate veneer include teeth that have:
discoloration that is resistant to vital bleaching procedures;
displeasing shapes or contours and/or lack of size and/or
volume, requiring morphologic modifications; diastema
closure; minor tooth alignment, restoring localized enamel
malformations; fluorosis with enamel mottling; teeth with
minor chipping and fractures; and misshapen teeth.
severity and extension of any of these factors must be evalu-
ated because they will determine the treatment goals, which
have as much to do with restoring proper function as they
do with aesthetics. The use of a more aggressive preparation
may be necessary to achieve predictable, functional results.
In many of these cases, the use of stacked ceramics would
often not be the first choice. This factor is important when
choosing ceramic material. More extensive restorations
would benefit from the stronger leucite-reinforced or lithium
disilicate materials, excluding the application of the feld-
spathic veneer.
The contraindications must be recognized
as well. The placement of veneers is contraindicated when
there is reduced interocclusal distance; deep vertical overlap
anteriorly, without horizontal overlap; or severe bruxism or
parafunctional activity.
Severely malpositioned teeth, the
presence of soft tissue disease, and teeth with extensive exist-
ing restorations are other factors that prevent the placement
of laminate veneers.
Generally, feldspathic porcelain materials are indicated
for anterior teeth when significant enamel is remaining.
When deciding whether to use feldspathic veneers, it is also
necessary to undertake a flexural risk assessment. Flexural
risk tends to be higher when bonding to a higher extension
of dentin, because dentin tends to be more flexible than
enamel. If bonding to enamel, the flexural risk is low to
moderate. Tensile and shear stress risk assessments are also
necessary when deciding on feldspathic porcelain veneers.
Generally, higher tensile and shear stresses occur when there
are large areas of unsupported porcelain, deep overbites, or
overlaps of teeth; when bonding to more flexible substrates,
such as dentin and composite; when bruxism is present; and
when the restorations are placed more distally.
In these
higher-risk clinical situations, the glass ceramics should be
considered. Their required major thickness for the restoration
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Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry 2012:4
may c ompensate for this problem, since increased thickness
results in the increasing of strength of this material.
Preparation of teeth
The preparation of the teeth greatly influences the durability
and color (translucency and tonality) of the ceramic restora-
tion, since the tooth preparation will determine the inner
superficial contour and the thickness of the ceramic material.
This stage is determined by the evaluation of the condition
of the teeth, the indications of the clinical situation, and the
material chosen (feldspathic or glass ceramic).
regarding the preparation of teeth for porcelain veneers have
changed over the past few years. Although early concepts
suggested minimal or no tooth preparation, current belief
supports removal of varying amounts of tooth structure.
The preparation design for laminate veneers should simulta-
neously allow an optimum marginal adaptation of the final
restoration and demonstrate utmost respect for the hard tissue
Enamel reduction is required to improve the
bond strength of the resin composite to the tooth surface. In
doing so, the aprismatic surface of mature unprepared enamel,
which is known to offer only a minor retention capacity, is
In addition and when possible, care must be
taken to maintain the preparation completely in enamel to
realize an optimal bond with the porcelain veneer. Although
the results of the newest generation dentin adhesive systems
are very promising, the bond strength of porcelain bonded to
enamel is still superior when compared with the bond strength
of porcelain bonded to dentin.
Thus, one of the main objec-
tives of the technique is to maintain the entire contour in intact
enamel whenever possible, because the better the adhesion
between the veneer and the prepared tooth, the better the stress
distribution in the system enamel–composite–ceramic.
The types of preparation differ only at the incisal region
of the tooth. At the cervical third, the gingival margin of
the veneer must be located at the same level as the gingival
crest or lightly subgingival for the anterior teeth. In this
region, it is difficult to obtain a preparation with suitable
depth while preserving intact enamel; therefore, in this
place, the wear must be approximately 0.3 mm. At the
medium third, the preparation may achieve 0.5–0.8 mm.
At the incisal third, the preparation may be modified. The
options include the “window” preparation, the most con-
servative and maintain enamel in incisal third, which results
in a visible line between enamel, resin, and ceramic; in
addition, the remaining structure is more prone to fracture.
The other possibility is the “feather” preparation, which
recovers the incisal of the tooth, maintaining its format. The
critical points of this technique are the difficulty in position-
ing the ceramic restoration at the moment of its cementation
and in matching the optical properties of the remaining
incisal structure.
So, to obtain adequate color properties
at the incisal third of the laminate veneers, the preparation
needs to allow a thickness of ceramic of 1.5–2.0 mm, and this
is possible with the “overlap” preparation. At the proximal
region, the preparation must follow the papilla and extend
until interproximal contact.
Substrate treatment
The ceramic veneer technique includes the bonding of a
thin porcelain laminate to the tooth surface, enamel and/or
dentin, using adhesive techniques and a luting composite
to change the color, form, and/or position of anterior teeth.
The success of the porcelain veneer is greatly determined
by the strength and durability of the bond formed between
the three different components of the bonded veneer
complex: the tooth surface, the porcelain veneer, and
the luting composite.
Because of the improvements to
adhesive procedures, it is expected that the biomechani-
cal and structural integrity of the enamel-dentin complex
could be partially mimicked using porcelain veneers. The
success of bonding to teeth relies on suitable preparation
and conditioning of the involved surfaces, the ceramics,
and the mineralized dental tissues.
Tooth surface (enamel and dentin)
The enamel surface must be conditioned with phosphoric
acid (37%). This procedure increases the surface energy of
the structure, which leads to a perfect wetting of the surface
with the bond. At this stage, care must be taken to avoid
contamination with saliva and breath moisture, which can
reduce the surface energy of the enamel. Therefore, isola-
tion with a rubber dam is highly recommended, which low-
ers stress input during the clinical procedure.
While the
etching of enamel with phosphoric acid leads to a “frosty”
surface a sign of a successful procedure, because of its
inorganic composition and perfect etchability the effect of
dentin-bonding agents on dentin is difficult to control, due
to its different composition of inorganic and organic parts
and tubular structure. It is difficult to obtain the correct
dryness or wetness of the surface, which is elementary for
a successful bond. Different kinds of dentin-bonding agents
deal with surface wetness and the obtaining of a hybrid zone
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in various ways. Multiple bonding-agent generations and
different concepts also lead to confusion in dental practices.
Last but not least, dentin-bonding systems are highly sensi-
tive to technique, especially when perfect moisture control
cannot be guaranteed.
In cases of dentin exposition, sealing this structure with
a dental bonding agent is suggested immediately after the
completion of tooth preparation and before the final impres-
sion itself
because the newly prepared dentin is ideal for
the adhesion.
This technique, called the “resin-coating
technique,consists of interposing a layer of low viscosity
resin between the dental substrate and the luting cement.
This procedure seems to produce an increase in the union
strength and a reduction of crack formation, bacteria infil-
trations, and postoperative sensitivity, as it allows for acid
conditioning of the enamel while avoiding the conditioning
of the dentin and allowing better control of the condition-
ing of the enamel.
A substantial clinical advantage is that
this measure protects the pulpodentinal organ and prevents
sensitivity and bacterial leakage during the provisional
phase. The use of a conventional adhesive with three steps
or autoconditioning with two steps, with polymerization
of the adhesive separated from the composite resin, is
Effective etching of the ceramic surface is considered an
essential step for the clinical success of indirect ceramic-
bonded restorations and direct ceramic repair procedures.
Alteration of the surface topography by etching will result
in changes in the surface area and in the wetting behavior
of the porcelain. This may also change the ceramic surface
energy and its adhesive potential to resin. Differences in
ceramic composition will also produce unique topographic
changes after etching procedures.
The enhancement
of bonding through modification of the internal porcelain
surface is advocated in order to increase the intimacy of
the bond; this may be achieved by exposing the porcelain
surface to acid or by air abrasion with alumina particles.
The aim of pre-cementation surface modification of the
porcelain is to increase the surface modification of the surface
area available for bonding and to create undercuts that increase
the strength of the bond to the resin luting cement.
The treatment of the ceramic surface is different accord-
ing to its composition. The three varieties mentioned in
this review feldspathic ceramic, leucite, and lithium
disilicate-reinforced ceramic however, are similar in this
respect. All of these must be conditioned with hydrofluoric
acid and silane.
Acid conditioning with hydrofluoric acid
is efficient in removing superficial defects and rounding off
the remaining flaw tips, thereby reducing stress concentra-
tors and increasing the overall strength.
Clinical studies
have indicated that this protocol significantly increases the
expected clinical life span of the restoration.
The difference
between these systems is the period of acid conditioning
with hydrofluoric acid (9.5%) (Table 1). Silanization of
etched porcelain with a bifunctional coupling agent pro-
vides a chemical link between the luting resin composite
and porcelain. A silane group at one end chemically bonds
to the hydrolyzed silicon dioxide at the ceramic surface
and a methacrylate group at the other end copolymerizes
with the adhesive resin. Single-component systems contain
silane in alcohol or acetone and require prior acidification
of the ceramic surface with hydrofluoric acid to activate
the chemical reaction. With two-component silane solu-
tions, the silane is mixed with an aqueous acid solution to
hydrolyze the silane, so that it can react directly with the
ceramic surface.
Luting cements
The clinical success of laminate veneers depends on the
cementation of the indirect restorations, among other
Due to the inherent brittle nature of ceramics,
adhesive cementation is used to improve fracture resistance
by penetrating aws and irregularities on internal surfaces,
minimizing crack propagation, and allowing a more effec-
tive stress transfer from the restorative to the supporting
tooth structure.
Luting cements are versatile materials
that can achieve excellent aesthetic results. They are rec-
ommended for cementation of veneers, inlays, onlays, and
all-ceramic restorations and fiber posts, for their adhesion
capacity with the tooth, as with restorative materials, such
as ceramics and composite resin.
The organic matrix of
the cements is generally composed of the same compos-
ite resin monomers, while the inorganic component (to a
Table 1 Ceramic composition and surface treatment protocols
Ceramic Conditioning
Feldspathic 9.5% hydrouoric acid for 2 to
2.5 min; 1 min washing; silane
Leucite-reinforced 9.5% hydrouoric acid for 60 s;
1 min washing; silane application
Lithium disilicate-reinforced 9.5% hydrouoric acid for 20 s;
1 min washing; silane application
Note: Adapted with permission from Soares CJ, Soares PV, Pereira JC, Fonseca RB.
Surface treatment protocols in the cementation process of ceramic and laboratory-
composite restorations: a literature review. J Esthet Rest Dent. 2005;17:224–235. ©
2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Pini et al
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry 2012:4
lesser extent, to give the material vis cosity and fluidity) is
comprised of silanized particles, usually of glass or silica.
The resin cements have good retention and resistance to
fracture, but the adhesive cementation technique is sensi-
tive and associated with a high incidence of postoperative
Luting cements may be classified into two
subgroups: (1) cements associated with the use of con-
ventional or self-etching adhesives, and (2) self-adhesive
cements, which do not require any prior conditioning of
the tooth structure.
The chemical and physical properties of luting cements
are important for the clinical success of indirect re storations.
Their properties, ideally, must include: capacity to promote
a stable union between the restorative material and the tooth
surface; resistance to traction and compression; a suitable
elasticity modulus; viscosity to allow for the suitable thick-
ness of the cementation line and the complete settlement of
the restoration; and biocompatiblity.
These properties are
essential for the durability of the restoration, because they are
efficient in preventing microleakage, fracture, or displace-
ment of the restoration.
In comparison with tr aditional
cements, such as zinc phosphate and glass ionomer, several
studies point to the luting cements as the most suitable in
relation to the physical properties necessary for a cement-
ing agent.
In the case of luting cements (traditional or
self-adhesive), these properties are variables in relation to
several factors, such as the polymerization of the cement,
the substrate treatment, dentin and enamel, and the indirect
restoration, among others.
For cementation of porcelain veneers, a light-curing l uting
composite is preferred.
A major advantage of light-curing is
that it allows for a longer working time compared with dual-
cure or chemically curing materials. This makes it easier for
the dentist to remove excess composite prior to curing and
greatly shortens the finishing time required for these restora-
tions. In addition, their color stability is superior compared
with the dual-cured or chemically cured systems.
less, it is important that there is enough light transmittance
throughout the porcelain veneer to polymerize the light-curing
luting composite. The porcelain veneer absorbs between 40%
and 50% of the emitted light. The thickness of the porcelain
veneer is the primary factor determining the light transmit-
tance available for polymerization. The color and the opacity
of the porcelain would have less influence on the amount of
absorbed light.
Linden et al
reported that the opacity of
porcelain became more important for facings with a thickness
of 0.7 mm or more. Consequently, the presence of a porcelain
veneer increases the setting time of the resin composite used
beneath the veneer.
In the case of porcelain with a thick-
ness of more than 0.7 mm,
ligh t-cured resin composites
do not reach their maximum hardness. A dual-cured luting
composite, which contains the initiation systems for both
chemically and light-cured composites, is advisable in these
situations. With these latter luting agents, a stronger bond can
be obtained with the porcelain. Furthermore, higher values of
hardness were reported for the dual-cure resin cements than
for the light-cured luting composites, because of their higher
degree of polymerization.
Summary and conclusion
Currently, the properties of ceramics indicate that they
are materials capable of mimicking human enamel and
their mechanical properties are expanding their clinical
app lications. Therefore, based on this literature review, it
is possible to conclude that the clinical success of laminate
veneers depends on both the suitable indications of the patient
and the correct application of the materials and techniques
available for that, in accordance with the necessity and goals
of the aesthetic treatment.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work
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Pini et al
... As lentes de contato dentais são indicadas para a resolução de descolorações discretas, resistentes a clareamentos vitais (PINI et al., 2012), contudo, deve-se ter cuidado o uso banalizado. Para Radz (2011), a reabilitação com laminados não pode ser a primeira alternativa de intervenção em casos que uma técnica simples de clareamento resolveria a pequena alteração que está causando o possível desconforto estético, no caso, a cor alterada, devendo-se planejar bem cada caso, esclarecendo sempre ao paciente. ...
... Para a confecção de laminados cerâmicos, são indicadas as pastilhas de alta transluscência (HT) ou as de baixa transluscência (LT) tendo como espessura mínima de 0,3 a 0,7mm (IVOCLAR VIVADENT, 2011). Este tipo de cerâmica possui ótima capacidade para simular as propriedades ópticas naturais da estrutura do dente, estabilidade de cor e biocompatibilidade, além de resistência à fratura (PINI et al., 2012). ...
... A veneer is a thin sheet of material placed on the facial surface of anterior teeth, for aesthetic purposes and protection.Veneers are the material of choice for a conservative and aesthetic approach as they give the patient a perfect smile. Recent advancements like thick monochromatic veneers, stacked or feldspathic veneers with reinforced leucite, lithium disilicate veneers, lumineers and porcelain veneer are ultra-thin and also offer maximum strength with excellent aesthetic.96 ...
... Such correction can be done without any preparation to minimal or extensive preparation based on the extent of change demanded. The treatment options can range from minor restorative procedures to veneer and crown placement [47] iv. Change in size of the tooth: Restorative procedures can also be used to alter the size of the teeth. ...
... Such correction can be done without any preparation to minimal or extensive preparation based on the extent of change demanded. The treatment options can range from minor restorative procedures to veneer and crown placement [47] iv. Change in size of the tooth: Restorative procedures can also be used to alter the size of the teeth. ...
Full-text available
Objective: The research for analyzing the smile characteristics in the Indian population has been limited with contradictory outcomes. This consensus statement aims to critically review the literature and provide basic practice guidelines on dental aesthetics related to the Indian population. Clinical considerations: 9 clinicians and 6 resource persons from dental colleges in India collaborated in this consensus statement which covered 6 topics along with 6 introductory and 6 conclusive remarks. The statement was developed through a colloquium conducted on topics; global aesthetics: different smile design proportions and guidelines, patient perspective towards aesthetic dentistry in India, a literature survey of aesthetic dentistry for the Indian population, macro and micro-aesthetics, multidisciplinary approach in aesthetic dentistry, inclusion of high-end technologies in Indian modern-day practice, followed by a panel discussion to devise and establish the practice guidelines of aesthetic dentistry in India. The Consensus Statement has been formulated according to AGREE Reporting checklist. Conclusion: The experts and panelists reached a Consensus on protocols to institute clinical practice guidelines of aesthetic dentistry for Indians. However, based on all available literature from India, further research is required to investigate many questions that have not been previously considered.
... Additionally, with the modern improvisation of adhesive systems and simplified cementation procedures, this treatment approach has attracted most of the dental practioners. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient [4]. ...
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No-or minimal-preparation laminates associated with enamel conservancy provide predictable results in aesthetic rehabilitation. Porcelain laminate veneers is a conservative method of restoring discoloured, pitted teeth, and teeth with diastemas/spacing. Due to high advancement in adhesive and bonding systems, these conservative or minimal preparation methods are the treatment of choice in all ages, especially for the young population. This clinical report documents the aesthetic rehabilitation of a 24-year-old male, complaining of spaced and square shaped maxillary anterior teeth since 2 years. On intraoral examination, anterior teeth showed spacing with altered height width ratio and reversal of size and volume of incisal embrasures along with alteration in the gingival zenith on right central incisor. The patient presented with class I molar and canine relationship with preferable anterior guidance. Aesthetic rehabilitation was done for maxillary anterior teeth from canine to canine with all ceramic laminates. Before restoring the maxillary teeth, smile designing was done with mini and micro elements of smile design. A step-by-step protocol is proposed in the present paper for diagnostic mock-up on semi-adjustable articulator, teeth preparation, provisional restoration and impression, and adhesive cementation.
... Improved materials, restorative techniques, esthetic parameters, and the concept of preserving the remaining tooth structure favors the obtainment of healthy, functional and esthetical smiles. 2 Ceramic veneers have been used as a successful approach to treat esthetic problems in anterior region due to its unique ability to reproduces the optical properties of the enamel and dentine such as fluorescence, opalescence, and translucency, as well as desirable intrinsic features as biocompatibility, high compressive strength, abrasion resistance, and color stability. 3 Tooth preparation for ceramic veneer involves the removal of less than half the thickness of the enamel, preserving the tooth structure where a reliable bonding of the ceramic veneers to the rest of intact enamel. 4 A dentition with spaces is considered a normal type of occlusion, which is found in almost one third of the population. ...
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Discrepancy between a large jaw size and small teeth results in a spaced alignment of teeth. Orthodontic treatment to correct such cases will not be sufficient for esthetic results of anterior teeth. Restorative treatment may be the ideal solution to reshape small teeth in well planned proportion to fit the size of the jaw and enhance the appearance of the patient smile. This paper presents the process of restoring spaced anterior teeth with minimally prepared ceramic veneers using the RED proportion.
... Masking discolored teeth, diastema closure, correction of minor misalignments, rotations of the anterior teeth, and teeth reshaping are all considered an excellent indication for veneers [7,9,10]. They provide the patient with maximum esthetics and a polished surface which provides less plaque accumulation, resistance to any external stains, and longer clinical longevity compared to other direct restorations [6,7,11]. ...
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Introduction: The recent development of advanced techniques and technologies increased the interest in dental venues to improve esthetics, such as ceramics and veneers. Aim: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of awareness of dental veneers among the population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: There was a total of 627 participants in the study. Data were collected using self-administrated questionnaires that were modified from previous studies. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software for t-test, linear regression, Chi square, and ANOVA analyses. Results: The mean total knowledge score of the participants was m=13.58 (SD=3.35) for a total of twenty-two dental veneers knowledge questions. The participants’ knowledge of dental veneers significantly differed in relation to gender, level of education, family income, and marital status. A small portion of the participants (16.6%) knew about preparation-less veneers (commercially known as Lumineers), and an even smaller portion (14.7%) knew about clip-on veneers (commercially known as a Snap-On smile). Some participants (64.1%) stated that the main reason to seek dental veneers was to have a beautiful smile, while others (49.9%) stated that the main barrier to not have dental veneers was the satisfaction with their own smile. Conclusion: The overall knowledge regarding dental veneers was moderate and needs to be improved. Social media was the main source of information which suggests that using social media networks in education by dental professionals will help increase population awareness of dental veneers.
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Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the production of customized composite veneers starting from a two-dimensional (2D) digital preview using the Digital Smile System (DSS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A photographic examination of 30 patients was performed by taking two digital pictures of the face and a digital preview through the DSS. Moreover, optical scans of the dental arches were obtained and the data were entered into a three-dimensional (3D) software to prepare a virtual preview. The standard tessellation language files were sent for production using CAD-CAM technology. The Friedman test, Bonferroni, and Dunn post hoc tests were used, comparing the linear measurements of the 2D and 3D plans and the final veneers (α = .05). Results: Significant differences emerged between the pictures and digital scans on the mesial-distal widths of the lateral incisors and canine. Linear measurements in the 2D plan were significantly different from those of the 3D plan, except for the height measures of incisors. No significant changes were found on comparing the parameters of the 2D and 3D plans with those of the final pieces. Conclusions: The customized veneers were clinically adequate and similar to 2D and 3D plans, although significant differences emerged between the picture and digital scans as well as between the 2D and 3D plans.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of feldspathic ceramic laminate veneers over a 7-year period using minimally invasive techniques, such as vertical preparation (without prosthetic finish line), or no preparation (no-prep). A total of 170 feldspathic ceramic veneers were cemented in the anterior region, including 70 maxillary and 100 mandibular veneers, after special conditioning of the teeth and restorations. The veneers were evaluated using the FDI World Dental Federation criteria evaluation kit after recalling all the patients between February and June 2021. In total, 14 feldspathic veneers failed and were replaced with lithium disilicate because of core fracture, and 10 cases of chipping occurred on the ceramic surface and were polished. The overall survival rate was 91.77% for up to 7 years of function, with a failure rate of 8.23%. In this retrospective survival analysis, the failures, including the fracture of veneers and dental hard tissue, occurred both in prep and no-prep teeth. No failures were observed in veneers with a maximum thickness of 0.5 mm compared to those with a maximum thickness of 1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 2.5 mm.
Currently, the aesthetic requirements of patients are increasing and they have begun to request more conservative treatments. One alternative to achieve harmonious results is through the indication of ultra-thin veneers. This is considered a conservative technique but the evidence basis for it seems to be limited. The following review attempts to summarize the relevant literature to establish guidelines for clinicians based on scientific evidence regarding the use of ultra-thin veneers. Ultra-thin veneers seem to be a reliable alternative to achieve aesthetic and harmonious results; however, many factors must be considered to ensure correct diagnosis and treatment plan. In addition, the literature is scarce in relation to a consensus on tooth preparation and long-term studies evaluating the success of this type of treatment over time do not exist.
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Dental ceramics are presented within a simplifying framework allowing for facile understanding of their development, composition and indications. Engineering assessments of clinical function are dealt with and literature is reviewed on the clinical behaviour of all-ceramic systems. Practical aspects are presented regarding the choice and use of dental ceramics to maximize aesthetics and durability, emphasizing what we know and how we know it.
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Many different materials and treatment options are available in esthetic and restorative dentistry. Various newer products, such as pressed ceramics, offer enhanced functionality; however, in thinner dimensions, they lack the inherent esthetic beauty of traditional materials such as feldspathic porcelain. As patient demands for better esthetics have increased in recent years, so too has the need for restorative materials that closely mimic the patient's natural dentition. Initially used for the creation of porcelain dentures, feldspathic porcelain has emerged as the premier esthetic material for custom veneer restorations. In recent years, the use of hand-layered powder/liquid feldspathic porcelain has been revived based on its highly esthetic values and little-to-no preparation requirements. By keeping preparation to a minimum, less tooth structure is lost and procedures are much less invasive, which is exactly what patients desire.
Unlabelled: The clinical longevity of indirect restorations made of ceramics or indirect composite resins depends on their successful treatment and cementation. The cementation technique is determined by the type of restorative material-ceramics or indirect composite resins; thus, their intaglio surface treatment should be performed according to their particular compositions. The aim of this literature review was to define surface treatment protocols of different esthetic indirect restorative materials. A PubMed database search was conducted for in vitro studies pertaining to the most common treatment protocols of tooth-colored materials. Articles that described at least the surface treatment procedure, its effects on adhesion, its relationship with the material's composition, clinical aspects, and expected longevity were selected. The search was limited to peer-reviewed articles published in English between 1965 and 2004 in dental journals. Sandblasting, etching techniques, and silane coupling agents are the most common procedures with improved results. Clinical significance: Tooth-colored restorative materials vary considerably in composition and require different protocols for adhesive cementation.
Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) have become an increasingly popular part of dentistry over the past 25 years. The technology, which is used in both the dental laboratory and the dental office, can be applied to inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns, fixed partial dentures, implant abutments, and even full-mouth reconstruction. This article discusses the history of CAD/CAM in dentistry and gives an overview of how it works. It also provides information on the advantages and disadvantages, describes the main products available, discusses how to incorporate the new technology into your practice, and addresses future applications.
High-quality esthetic veneers can be produced in a single treatment session only by means of chairside CAD/CAM technology. With efficient therapy, the duration of the relatively long treatment cycle can be optimized: planning casts and a diagnostic wax-up are steps that simplify therapy decisions, the same as with veneers produced by laboratories. After production of a mock-up and preparation of the teeth, removable composite veneers can be prepared and gradually replaced by ceramic veneers. Modern, three-dimensional presentation by use of the Cerec 3D system facilitates construction of veneers seen in relation to the other teeth. A very helpful aspect is that the mock-ups can be adjusted to patients' needs during the complete production process. After individualization by a dental ceramic technician, there is no recognizable esthetic difference from veneers produced by a laboratory.
As ceramic materials for dentistry evolve and patients' demand for esthetic restorations increases, practitioners must keep up with the science as well as the demand. The authors offer guidance to the practitioner in selecting the appropriate all-ceramic systems for crowns when faced with different esthetic demands. Clinicians should reserve dental ceramics with high translucency for clinical applications in which high-level esthetics are required and the restoration can be bonded to tooth structure. Ceramics with high strength tend to be more opaque and pose a challenge when trying to match natural tooth color, but they can mask discoloration when present. Knowledge of the optical properties of available ceramic systems enable the clinician to make appropriate choices when faced with various esthetic challenges.
The use of all-ceramic crowns is increasing, and this trend will continue. However, all-ceramic systems are not all the same. They differ considerably in their relative esthetic potential, their physical properties and evidence base relative to longevity. The use of an all-ceramic system does not guarantee outstanding esthetics. Some all-ceramic systems can provide superior esthetic results compared with metal-ceramic restorations. Zirconia-cored crowns are the strongest all-ceramic system and may provide improved esthetic results compared with metal-ceramic crowns. No all-ceramic restoration has been shown to have a life span equivalent to that of metal-ceramic restorations. Further clinical trials are needed. Clinicians should choose appropriate all-ceramic restorations on the basis of their patients' needs. Currently available evidence indicates that clinicians should not use all-ceramic crowns on molars; in addition, posterior fixed partial prostheses fabricated with all-ceramic materials have a high likelihood of failure.
The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review to compile and compare clinical evidence for the treatment of teeth using all-ceramic restorations. The authors searched the English-language peer-reviewed literature using MEDLINE and PubMed with a focus on research published between 1993 and 2008. They also conducted a hand search of relevant dental journals. They reviewed randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled studies, longitudinal experimental clinical studies, longitudinal prospective studies and longitudinal retrospective studies. Evidence suggests that for veneers, intracoronal restorations and complete-coverage restorations for single-rooted anterior teeth, clinicians may choose from any all-ceramic system on the basis of esthetic needs (many systems have had greater than 90 percent success at six years). Well-studied molar restorations include those made of alumina and, increasingly, zirconia and bonded lithium disilicate. Reasonable evidence has shown the effectiveness of anterior three-unit fixed partial dentures made of lithium disilicate, alumina and zirconia. For three-unit restorations involving a molar, expert consensus suggests that only zirconia-based systems are indicated. Available evidence indicates the effectiveness of many all-ceramic systems for numerous clinical applications. Bonding has been shown to increase clinical success. Studies of zirconia prostheses indicate problems with porcelain cracking.
Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.