Quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Mail Stop 8106, 12801 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.Briefings in Functional Genomics and Proteomics (Impact Factor: 3.67). 10/2008; 7(5):355-370. DOI: 10.1093/bfgp/eln041
This review summarizes the essential characteristics of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS), especially as they relate to its applications in quantitative analysis. Approaches to quantification by MALDI-TOF MS are presented and published applications are critically reviewed.
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- "Quantitative analysis is challenge because ion suppression phenomena and variation of signal over different shots of the same spot. The signals depend on the co-crystal morphology that can substantially affect ionization efficiency and cause variation of the sample density within a short distance113114115. However, there are many methodologies for quantitative analysis such as internal standard protocol. "
ABSTRACT: Over the last several decades, considerable interest has been burgeoned into synthesizing ionic liquid (IL) for wide application in mass spectrometry (MS). Our primary motivation for this article is to provide the researchers for in-depth knowledge and gain practical experience in the application of the ILs for MS. The research on ILs is still in its infancy, and high potential for new applications is possible. The article provides the principles of using ILs applied in MS techniques for important applications on the hot fields such as proteomics, pathogenic bacteria, quantification, and biomolecules analysis. The cited examples can provide typical features of the potential of the ILs to be used. IL matrices are more frequently used as both solvent and matrices because of their extremely high sensitivity to the solvation and laser energy. Scopes and problems encountered with these matrices are critically evaluated.
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- "To date, MALDI-TOF MS mostly has been utilized qualitatively to identify MC variants in cyanobacterial colonies and surface water blooms (Erhard et al., 1997; Ferranti et al., 2011; Welker et al., 2002), and its use for MC quantification is rather recent (Howard and Boyer, 2007; Puddick et al., 2011). Quantitative detection by MALDI-TOF based on peak response has poor reproducibility, mainly due to spotto-spot variability in crystal formation (Duncan et al., 2008; Szajli et al., 2008). However, this can be overcome using an Fig. 1. "
ABSTRACT: The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl–Cys(7)-MC-LR and –RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC –LR, -RR and –YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 μg/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples.
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- "DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis, etc. Another approach for fast, high throughput identification of zooplankton specimens could be the use of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), a technology that has had a major impact in many fields of the life sciences over the last two decades (Duncan et al., 2008; Karr, 2008; Seng et al., 2010; Welker, 2011). MALDI-TOF MS of whole cells has been recently applied to the identification of bacteria and fungi in clinical, plant and veterinary microbiology (Seng et al., 2009; Kallow et al., 2010, Rezzonico et al., 2010). "
ABSTRACT: The accurate identification of individuals in zooplankton samples is a crucial step in many plankton studies. Up to now, this has been done primarily by microscopic analysis of morphological characters, and new molecular methodologies are still relatively rarely applied. Another promising technology is matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which has had a major impact in applied and systematic microbiology, where it is used for routine high throughput identification of bacteria and fungi. For the present study, we developed a protocol for the rapid acquisition of mass spectra from whole individual copepods. The final protocol enabled us to obtain mass spectra with more than 100 distinct peaks in the mass range of 2000–20 000 Da. A comparison of the mass spectra of three species of Eudiaptomus showed that they could all be clearly discriminated, whereas the mass spectra of different developmental stages and sexes of each particular species were highly similar. Further, a discrimination of con-specific individuals from different habitats was achieved, at least partly, even without extensive optimization of the analytical and statistical procedures. These results indicate the feasibility of identifying copepods by a rapid and simple MALDI-TOF MS analysis, e.g. for population ecology studies.