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Change in seed index of fresh and infested Jatropha seeds.

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  • Sugarcane Research Institute, UPCSR, Shahjahanpur, INDIA

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Jatropha curcas L. has been considered a potential source of seed oil for the production of biofuel. The aim of this study was to estimate the seed index of Jatropha seeds after deterioration under storage condition. For estimation of seed index fresh, stored as well as infested Jatropha seeds were used. Seeds were infested with six dominant fungi viz. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium chlamydosporum and Penicillium glabrum separately and weight of 100 seeds (fresh and infested both) were determined during different period of storage. The seed index (100 seeds) of Jatropha seeds was declined from 3 months to 12 months of storage and also due to fungal infestation. Alternaria alternata infested Jatropha seeds were deteriorated much faster than other dominant seed mycoflora infested seeds.
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Change in seed index of fresh and infested Jatropha seeds
SRIVASTAVA SEWETA1*, SINGH VINIT PRATAP2, GUPTA GORAKH NATH3 AND SINHA ASHA1
1Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, B.H.U., Varanasi-221 005
(U.P.) India.
2Department of Plant Pathology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-
250 110 (U.P.) India.
3Department of Biochemistry, JSBB, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences,
Allahabad-222 007, U.P., India.
*Address for Correspondence: Dr. Seweta Srivastava, Division of Biotechnology, Sugarcane Research
Institute, U.P. Council of Sugarcane Research, Shahjahanpur-242 001, U. P., India.
Email: shalu.bhu2008@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
KEY WORDS:
Jatropha curcas L. has been considered a potential source of seed oil for the production of
biofuel. The aim of this study was to estimate the seed index of Jatropha seeds after
deterioration under storage condition. For estimation of seed index fresh, stored as well as
infested Jatropha seeds were used. Seeds were infested with six dominant fungi viz.
Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium
chlamydosporum and Penicillium glabrum separately and weight of 100 seeds (fresh and
infested both) were determined during different period of storage. The seed index (100
seeds) of Jatropha seeds was declined from 3 months to 12 months of storage and also due to
fungal infestation. Alternaria alternata infested Jatropha seeds were deteriorated much faster
than other dominant seed mycoflora infested seeds.
Physic nut,
seed mycoflora,
deterioration,
seed index
INTRODUCTION
Jatropha curcas L. is a small tree that grows
originally in areas near the equator. The oil plant
Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose drought resistant,
perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family
(Gubitz et al., 1999). For the production of plant oils
(bio-diesel), Jatropha curcas is one species that has
received much attention recently (Achten et al.,
2007; Fairless, 2007).
The seeds of physic nut are a good source of oil,
which can be used as a diesel substitute (Kumar and
Sharma, 2008; Srivastava et al., 2011). Depending on
the variety, the decorticated seeds contain 40-60% of
oil (Liberalino et al., 1988; Gandhi et al, 1995; Sharma
et al., 1997; Wink et al., 1997; Makkar et al., 1997;
Openshaw, 2000) which is used for many purposes
such as lighting, as a lubricant, for making soap
(Rivera-Lorca and Ku-Vera, 1997) and most
importantly as bio-diesel. The seeds can be burned
directly, without extracting the oil, to provide an
alternative to kerosene lamps (Slavin, 2008). Seed
yield usually ranges from 15 t ha-1 (Heller, 1996;
Jongschaap et al., 2007; Abou Kheira and Atta, 2008).
About 30 % of the seed weight is pure plant oil
(Jongschaap et al., 2007). Mycorrhiza (a symbiotic
association between a fungus and the roots of a
plant) can increase the biomass and seed production
with 30 % after seven months (Achten et al., 2008).
Singh et al., 2008 noted, if a holistic approach is taken
to utilize Jatropha fruit, it will give three times the
energy of bio-diesel alone.
The physical characteristics of J. curcas seeds vary
depending on their geographical origin. Generally,
seed weight varies from 0.4 to 0.7 g and seed
dimensions vary with length and width from 15-17
mm and 7- 10 mm, respectively (Martinez-Herrera et
al., 2006). Singh, 1990 observed that high humidity
and poor storage practices provided congenial
environment for microbial attack; the dominant
species being Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp.
The objective of the present study is to quantify the
seed index of Jatropha seeds after fungal infestation
during storage by comparing with the seed index
from fresh Jatropha seeds.
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Int. J. of Life Sciences, 2013, Vol.1 (2): 89-92 ISSN: 2320-7817 | eISSN: 2320-964X
Srivastava et al., 2013 Int. J. of Life Sciences, Vol.1 (2):89-92
© 2013|IJLSCI. www.ijlsci.in 90
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of
Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology,
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi from October, 2010 to
September, 2011.
Estimation of Seed Index
Six dominant fungi viz. Alternaria alternata,
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus
niger, Fusarium chlamydosporum and Penicillium
glabrum were selected after isolation for further
studies. The seeds were infested with above
dominant fungi. Weight of 100 seeds (fresh and
infested both) were determined during different
period of storage i.e., after 3 months, 6 months, 9
months and 12 months as per ISTA (Anonymous,
1976). In case of bold seeds like maize we should
take the seed index i.e., weight of 100 seeds
(Katayayan, 2004).
Statistical Analysis
Mean value with standard error was calculated to
check the variation of isolated seed mycoflora from
seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas L. by agar plate
method and blotter method under sterilized and
unsterilized conditions, seed index, germination and
moisture content during one year of storage. The
term ‘Standard Error’ of any estimate is used for a
measure of the average magnitude of the difference
between the sample estimate and the population
parameter taken over all possible samples of the
same size, from the population (Chandel, 2002).
Where, S = Standard Deviation of Sample
n = Sample size
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data presented in Table-1 and Fig.-1 revealed that
seed index of Jatropha curcas L. was decreased due to
infestation of selected dominant seed mycoflora viz.
Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus
fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium
chlamydosporum and Penicillium glabrum. The seed
index (100 seeds) of Jatropha seeds was declined
from 3 months to 12 months of storage. The freshly
harvested Jatropha seeds showed maximum seed
index (69.00gm). After 3 months, maximum seed
index was observed in control (61.00gm) followed by
Aspergillus niger infested seeds (59.30gm) and
minimum seed index was shown by Alternaria
alternata infested seeds i.e., 56.25gm. After 6 months,
maximum seed index was observed in control
(58.60gm) followed by Aspergillus niger infested
seeds (58.00gm) and minimum seed index was
shown by Alternaria alternata infested seeds
(52.60gm). After 9 months, maximum seed index was
observed in control (57.30gm) followed by
Aspergillus niger infested seeds (56.55gm) and
minimum seed index was shown by Alternaria
alternata infested seeds (51.05gm).
Treatments
Mean ± S.E.
Fresh Weight
Wt. after 3
months
Wt. after 6
months
Wt. after 9
months
Wt. after 12
months
T1
-
56.25±0.95
52.60±0.80
51.05±0.95
49.60±1.60
T2
-
56.70±0.30
55.40±0.70
53.50±0.50
52.45±0.35
T3
-
57.35±0.45
56.15±0.95
54.40±1.10
53.40±0.60
T4
-
59.30±0.20
58.00±0.20
56.55±0.55
55.85±0.65
T5
-
58.65±0.35
57.65±0.25
56.05±0.55
54.00±2.00
T6
-
57.80±0.30
56.60±0.60
54.35±1.30
52.60±1.40
Control
69.00±1.00
61.00±1.00
58.60±0.60
57.30±0.80
56.15±0.85
Int. J. of Life Sciences , Vol.1 Issue 2 , June 2013 : 89-92
© 2013|IJLSCI. www.ijlsci.in 91
Fig.1: Seed index (gm) of fresh and infested Jatropha seeds during different periods of time
After 12 months, maximum seed index was observed
in control (56.15gm) followed by Aspergillus niger
infested seeds (55.85gm) and minimum seed index
was shown by Alternaria alternata infested seeds i.e.,
49.60gm. The results showed that Alternaria
alternata infested Jatropha seeds were deteriorated
much faster than other dominant seed mycoflora
infested seeds. Parreno-de Guzman and Aquino, 2009
were reported that the storage behavior of Jatropha
curcas seed is one of the main constraint. Christensen
and Kaufmann (1969) reported that during storage
seeds or grains could be infected by fungi which
cause a decrease in viability, discolouration, various
biochemical changes, heating and mustiness, loss in
weight, and production of toxins when it is consumed
may be injurious to human and domestic animals. In
many cases, fungi infecting seeds are seed-borne
pathogens. Silip et al., (2010) reported that the fresh
weight of fruits, coats, seeds, shells and kernels
changed during maturation, ripening and senescence.
Fruits, coats, seeds and kernels fresh weight
increased significantly when the fruits were ripe or
fully yellow but reduced when they started to
senescence. Zaidman et al., 2010 were observed that
seed weight of Jatropha curcas seed was highly
variable and also seed germination rate was
significantly affected by seed weight of Jatropha
curcas seed.
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© 2013| Published by IJLSCI
Cite this article as: Srivastava Seweta, Singh Vinit Pratap, Gupta Gorakh Nath and Sinha
Asha (2013) Change in seed index of fresh and infested Jatropha seeds. Int. J. of Life
Sciences, 1(2): 89-92.
Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared
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