Article

Total Antioxidant Content of Alternatives to Refined Sugar

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Abstract

Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (<0.01 mmol FRAP/100 g); raw cane sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

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... This is further reflected in certain artificial sweeteners, e.g., aspartame and sucralose, even being enriched with antioxidants because they are void of such nutrients (Eggleston and Aita 2020). Fortunately, unrefined cane products (centrifuged and non-centrifuged) are natural, rich sources of antioxidants (Philips et al. 2009). This is because extracted cane juice contains a complex mixture of phenolic compounds including flavonoids which are often colored although some are not colored. ...
... Heat-induced phenolic compounds from cane burning or factory and refining processes are also found in cane products (Eggleston and Aita 2020). Although phenolic colorants concentrate across sugarcane processing and refining, they are practically all removed in refined (white) sugars, and end up in high concentrations in the by-product blackstrap molasses (Philips et al. 2009). Eggleston (2018) observed that molasses can contain up to * 3000 mg/L total phenols which is similar to pomegranate juice (* 2850 mg/ L). ...
... For example, Tsang and Clarke (1988) observed that pure sucrose has antioxidant behavior. Philips et al. (2009) reported that white (cane) sugar had very low FRAP antioxidant values of \ 0.01 mmol/100 g, which were similar to corn syrups. Maple and honey sugars only had TPC and antioxidant values similar to light brown cane sugars mostly produced by centrifugation (Table 2). ...
Article
Sucrose has been greatly scrutinized in the past decade mainly for its calories, even though sales have increased globally and it still remains sustainable as the gold standard of sweeteners as well as the most widely used sweetener. Ironically, the present and accelerating consumer-driven trend toward healthier, sustainably produced, and more natural foods and ingredients has started to further redeem sucrose and less refined sugars from sugarcane as natural sweeteners. Natural sweeteners, as compared to artificial and highly processed calorie sweeteners, are the least processed and contain a greater range and higher quantity of nutrients, including antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Unrefined, brown sugars from sugarcane are having huge growth as natural sweeteners. They include centrifuged and non-centrifuged cane sugars that are markedly less expensive yet equally if not more nutritious than other natural sweeteners, including solid sugars from coconut palm, honey, maple, date, stevia, and monk fruit. In response to these new consumer demands, the sugarcane industry is increasingly implementing sustainable practices to supply natural cane sugars, following a circular (evergreen or 360-degree) approach which spans the entire product life cycle.
... The names, structures, and molecular weights of the compounds in the test materials were thus ascertained. The FRAP values of the sugar samples were determined according to the method described by Phillips, Carlsen, and Blomhoff (2009). Briefly, 100 μL of a sugar sample was mixed with 100 μL of 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and 100 μL of 1% (w/v) potassium ferricyanide solution. ...
... No data is available on the antioxidant activity of branded unrefined sugars. However, a few studies have concluded that generic/local market unrefined sugars have higher antioxidant activities than refined sugars (Asikin et al., 2016;Inafuku et al., 2007;Nayaka et al., 2009;Okabe et al., 2009;Payet et al., 2005;Phillips et al., 2009;Seguí et al., 2015). Moreover, it is difficult to compare the antioxidant potential of unrefined sugars owing to different methodologies and quantifying units used for the determination of antioxidant potential (Jaffé, 2015). ...
... The same research group also demonstrated remarkable (504 μmole Trolox equivalent/g) antioxidant activity of the phenolic fraction of Kokuto (Okabe et al., 2009). Phillips et al. (2009) have shown that raw cane sugar exhibits a high FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g) while brown sugar exhibited moderated FRAP capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol/100 g) which is considerably higher than the present results. Similarly, Seguí et al. (2015) reported high IC 50 values for DPPH and ABTS assays of twelve sugarcane products, including white sugar, wet brown sugar, raw brown sugar, light brown sugar, dark brown sugar, coated brown sugar and raw brown sugar with molasses, that was quite higher than our findings. ...
Article
Three refined and four unrefined branded commercial sugars available in Korea were investigated in terms of pH, soluble solids, moisture, ash content, turbidity, color values, microbial profile, reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities, cellular antioxidant activity, and total phytoconstituent (i.e. phenolic, flavonoid, mineral, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) contents using standard analytical protocols such as high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. All tested physicochemical parameters were within the recommended standard levels. Significantly high nutritional and antioxidant properties were observed for the unrefined sugars, especially AUNO® sugar, whereas a high sucrose content was detected for the refined sugars. Hence, this study revealed that the degree of purification affects the nutritional values and antioxidant potentials of sugars. The present findings also indicate that unrefined sugars can be used as sweeteners in sugar-based cuisine to obtain nutritional and antioxidant-rich foodstuff.
... It does not go through the following stages of refinement (as those used for white sugar production), so it conserves vitamins and minerals (Ca, K, Fe, Mg, F), with a sucrose content of about 90%. Organic brown sugar is more nutritious than conventional crystal sugar, presenting respectively 1.35 and 0.01% of ash, 5.6 and 0.05% of reducing sugars, 56.8 and 1.8 mg.kg -1 of phenolic compounds, 151.6 and 1.0 mg.kg -1 of amino acids (Bettani et al., 2014) and antioxidant capacity (0.45±0,25 and <0.01 mmol FRAP/100 g) (Phillips;Carlsen;Blomhoff, 2009). Jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba) is a Brazilian fruit with high nutritional potential: vitamin C, minerals (K, Mg, P, Ca, Zn, Cu), fibers, polyphenols etc. ...
... It does not go through the following stages of refinement (as those used for white sugar production), so it conserves vitamins and minerals (Ca, K, Fe, Mg, F), with a sucrose content of about 90%. Organic brown sugar is more nutritious than conventional crystal sugar, presenting respectively 1.35 and 0.01% of ash, 5.6 and 0.05% of reducing sugars, 56.8 and 1.8 mg.kg -1 of phenolic compounds, 151.6 and 1.0 mg.kg -1 of amino acids (Bettani et al., 2014) and antioxidant capacity (0.45±0,25 and <0.01 mmol FRAP/100 g) (Phillips;Carlsen;Blomhoff, 2009). Jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba) is a Brazilian fruit with high nutritional potential: vitamin C, minerals (K, Mg, P, Ca, Zn, Cu), fibers, polyphenols etc. ...
... It does not go through the following stages of refinement (as those used for white sugar production), so it conserves vitamins and minerals (Ca, K, Fe, Mg, F), with a sucrose content of about 90%. Organic brown sugar is more nutritious than conventional crystal sugar, presenting respectively 1.35 and 0.01% of ash, 5.6 and 0.05% of reducing sugars, 56.8 and 1.8 mg.kg -1 of phenolic compounds, 151.6 and 1.0 mg.kg -1 of amino acids (Bettani et al., 2014) and antioxidant capacity (0.45±0,25 and <0.01 mmol FRAP/100 g) (Phillips;Carlsen;Blomhoff, 2009). Jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba) is a Brazilian fruit with high nutritional potential: vitamin C, minerals (K, Mg, P, Ca, Zn, Cu), fibers, polyphenols etc. ...
Article
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Water kefir is considered to be a functional food with probiotic characteristics. It can be improved with addition of organic brown sugar and fruits native to Brazil, such as jaboticaba. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of brown sugar type: organic and conventional and the presence or absence of jaboticaba pulp in water kefir fermentation, based on the carbohydrate, organic acid, mineral composition and color profile. The fermentation process was carried out in two stages: with kefir grains, for 24 hours, at 25 °C and after filtration, maintained for 24 h at 25 °C in hermetic bottles, followed by a period of 8h refrigeration, and monitored every 8 h. Scanning electron microscopy of the kefir grains was performed after 24 h. The major changes in physicochemical patterns occurred up to 40 h. The final beverages presented acidic characteristics as a result of the production of lactic, acetic and succinic acids. The total sugar content had a reduction of around 50%. The sucrose content was reduced and the glucose and fructose increased. The use of organic sugar influenced the composition of the minerals. The characteristics related to color showed a tendency to increase over the evaluated times. It was concluded that it is possible to produce beverages fermented by water kefir grains, using organic or conventional brown sugar and jabuticaba pulp, being an alternative for the substitution of soft drinks, since it has no preservatives or food colorings, presents lower content of sugars and can be handcrafted.
... Phillips et al. [20] rationalized that substituting the quantity of refined sugars consumed in an average Western diet (130g per person per day) for sugars rich in antioxidants could increase the consumption of phytochemicals and antioxidants, therefore contributing to a higher antioxidant capacity. ...
... Malt syrup had a FRAP value of 1.5 mmol/100g (refined sugar had a FRAP of 0.01 mmol/100g and honey, 0.165mmol/100g). Based on these values they showed that substituting refined sugar for more natural sources would result in an average increase of 2.6mmol/day in antioxidants intake, which is equivalent to the consumption of a serving of antioxidant rich foods such as berries or nuts [20]. ...
... Aside from these nutrients, dietary fiber was not detected in RS samples. By contrast, RS samples had the highest carbohydrate content because white cane RS contains low to trace amounts of antioxidants (Phillips, Carlsen, & Blomhoff, 2009) and other nutrients besides sucrose. HPLC revealed that the sugar samples contained 97% sucrose as the main carbohydrate. ...
... were not significantly different. A previous study reported that granulated RS (0.013) had FRAP values (mmol/130 g) lower than those of BS (0.516-0.986) and raw cane sugar (0.186) (Phillips et al., 2009). Raw cane sugar has a lower DPPH inhibition activity (22.1%) than all the samples studied (>88%); the inhibition activity of commercial BS ranges from 14.5% to 26.9% (Payet et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Minimally refined brown sugar (MRBS) is a brown sugar derived from sugarcane that has a low glycemic index. This study aimed to determine and compare the antioxidant contents and nutritional and physicochemical properties of MRBS, refined sugar (RS), and brown sugar (BS). In addition, the toxicity of these sugars was evaluated via in vitro cytotoxicity method and by using a zebrafish model. Results showed that MRBS was better than the two other sugars because it has a lower moisture content and higher ash content. The contents of potassium and manganese of MRBS were higher than those of the two other sugars. Surprisingly, MRBS also contained selenium, which was not detected in RS and BS. The major phenolics in MRBS are 4‐hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, trans‐Ferulic acid, and apigenin. All sugar solutions and their antioxidant‐containing extracts were not cytotoxic to 3T3‐L1 adipocytes.
... Studies performed by Leenen et al. (2000) and Catterall et al. (2003) confirmed that milk addition to tea does not reduce the bioavailability of the antioxidants present in the tea. Phillips, Carlsen and Blomhoff (2009) reported that refined sugars, such as white and brown granulated sugar, have minimal antioxidant activity. It is therefore not expected that these flavourants, on addition, would have an influence on the antioxidant properties of teas. ...
... The sample would also have been more representative if more individuals from the non-white population groups completed the questionnaire. The few research studies completed that have a likeness to that of Phase 1 (Catterall et al. 2003;Cheong et al. 2005;Leenen et al. 2000;Peterson et al. 2004;Phillips et al. 2009;Toydemir et al. 2015) and those similar to Phase 2 (De Godoy et al. 2013;Geleijnse et al. 1999;Hakim et al. 2003) of this study have mostly been conducted on other types of tea and in other countries. This restricted the discussion of the results of this study. ...
Article
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Background: Rooibos types and forms and how prepared and flavoured influence the total polyphenol content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Aim: To denote an optimal rooibos cup as having the highest total polyphenol content and TAC, considering the different types, forms, preparation methods and flavourings and amounts (Phase 1), and determine the demographic, lifestyle and rooibos consumption characteristics of adult rooibos consumers, and the association of these characteristics with drinking the optimal cup (Phase 2). Setting: Assays: Oxidative Stress Research Centre, Cape Peninsula University of Technology; Consumer survey: George area, South Africa. Method: Phase 1 entailed determining the total polyphenol content (Folin–Ciocalteau method) and TAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay) of the prepared rooibos samples. For Phase 2, a developed, pilot tested questionnaire was used to profile adult rooibos consumers. Results: Phase 1: the following samples delivered higher total polyphenol content and TAC: green (type), green leaves and powdered extract (forms), and sample steeped for 10 min or longer (preparation method). The identified optimal cup was sample steeped for 10 min or longer. Phase 2: a total of 308 respondents completed the questionnaire. Few consumed more than one rooibos cup per day (25.3%; n = 78) and the optimal cup (15.9%; n = 49). These latter respondents comprised those who steeped rooibos in a teapot (not a cup or mug) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The optimal cup was identified as sample steeped for 10 min or longer. The rooibos consumers did not consume it sufficiently, nor steeped it long enough.
... Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) molasses is an undervalued process stream product of the sugar mill industry. It has GRAS (generally recognised as safe) classification and has found use in the food industry as an alternative sweetener (Edwards, Rossi, Corpe, Butterworth, & Ellis, 2016;Phillips, Carlsen, & Blomhoff, 2009). In the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the health benefits of sugarcane juice and molasses. ...
... Sugar cane molasses extract (ME) exhibited antioxidant activity and its fractionation resulted to an increased antioxidant activity in ME-RBF. Sugarcane molasses is an alternative sweetener to refined sugar and compared to other sweeteners such as honey, agave nectar, corn syrup, brown rice malt syrup, barley malt syrup, wheat malt syrup, and maple syrup, molasses exhibited the highest FRAP value (Phillips et al., 2009). When compared with sugar beet molasses, sugar cane molasses exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by DPPH assay and greater effectiveness in protecting HepG2 cells from induced oxidative stress (Valli et al., 2012). ...
Article
The antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses ethanol extract (ME) and its fraction (ME-RBF) was evaluated using ABTS, ORAC 6.0 and CAA assays and ME-RBF demonstrated 26-fold, 12-fold and 2-fold higher values, respectively than ME. Likewise, total polyphenol and flavonoid concentration in ME-RBF are more than 10-fold higher than ME, that suggested antioxidant activity is correlated with polyphenol composition. Quantitative analysis of 13 polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, homoorientin, orientin, vitexin, swertisin, diosmin, apigenin, tricin and diosmetin) was carried out by LCMS. MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of seven apigenin-C-glycosides, three methoxyluteolin-C-glycosides and three tricin-O-glycosides some of which have not been reported in sugarcane before to the best of our knowledge. The results demonstrated that sugarcane molasses can be used as potential source of polyphenols that can be beneficial to health.
... The method of Phillips was used to determine the FRAP value [29]. Briefly, 100 µL sugar solution (5 mg/mL concentration) was blended with 100 µL of 0.2M sodium phosphate buffer and 100 µL of 1% (w/v) K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] solution. ...
... Similar results were found previously: the FRAP value of raw cane sugar was 0.17 to 0.33 mmol/100 g, that of dark brown sugar was 0.69 mmol/100 g and that of granulated white sugar was 0.01-0.02 mmol/100 g, which were lower values than the present results [29]. The alterations in the antioxidant potential of unrefined sugars were determined by factors such as the methods used for preventing antioxidant effectiveness [74]; the ratio of inverted sugars; the amount of phenolics, flavonoids [35] and MRPs [27]; and processing methods [28]. ...
Article
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Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) is an important sugar-producing plant that is widely distributed in tropical Asian countries. Its jaggery and sweet sap are prevalent in Cambodia as a substitute for table sugar. They contain essential minerals, vitamins, and biological compounds. We investigated the changes in the nutritional composition, antioxidant properties, and biological activity of palm granulated sugar prepared by using three different drying–solidification processes under vacuum conditions: the drying temperature was controlled at 80 °C, 90 °C, and 100 °C, and the drying time was 60, 75, and 90 min, respectively. Palm granulated sugar contains 10 kinds of vitamins (mainly vitamin E 52.15–55.12 mg/100 g), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (2.18 to 41.92 mg/100 g), and 38 volatile compounds that belong to the alcohol, ketones, pyrazines, acids, and phenols groups, and an aldehyde group. Moreover, palm granulated sugar exhibits a high total phenolic content (2.77–8.94 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g), 2,2-diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (20.15%–37.88%), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (322.68–378.23 μmol Fe2+/mL). Furthermore, palm granulated sugar-treated NIH3T3 cells showed a higher cell viability of 18.10% to 23.68%. This study confirmed that palm granulated sugar prepared at 90 °C for 75 min can have a better product quality with increased vitamin and mineral contents, antioxidant properties, and biological activity, while also being low in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content.
... Fruit-and tree sap-based syrups have been used for millennia as sweeteners in local cuisines worldwide. In addition to providing sweetness, fruit and tree sap syrups contain proteins, minerals, vitamins and a range of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant activity (1). Because of their superior health properties, food product developers are increasingly using these syrups as sugar substitutes to satisfy the demands of the health-conscious consumers for safer and more natural foods (2). ...
... Notwithstanding the differences in the assay protocols and the use of extracts or whole syrups in the determinations, carob syrups have been reported to contain significant quantities of total phenols and to exhibit high antioxidant capacity, comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, in several in vitro antioxidant capacity assays (13,15,41). Similar findings have been reported for the total phenols and antioxidant capacity of maple (1,9,44) and date syrups (45). However, when analyzed under the same conditions, the vast majority of carob syrup samples had higher TPC than amber and dark maple syrup and comparable or higher TPC than date syrup ( Table 4). ...
Article
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Research background. The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is grown primarily for its seeds that are utilized in the production of the highly prized locust bean gum. The material left after the separation of seeds from the pods is utilized in the production of a range of traditional products including carob syrup, usually in cottage-type industries. The international market penetration of carob syrups is rather limited and, accordingly, scant information exists on their composition and phytochemical properties compared to mainstream syrups. The present study aims to determine key chemical parameters, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of carob syrups and benchmark these against those of date and maple syrups. Experimental approach. Carob syrups were prepared from 19 accessions of the carob, under laboratory conditions, by a similar procedure to those practiced by small-scale producers. The pH, browning index, the content of proteins, minerals, hydroxymethylfurfural, sugar composition, total phenols, antioxidant capacity and phenolic profiles of the produced syrups along with branded samples of date and maple syrups were analyzed. Results and conclusions. The pH and sugar composition of the carob syrups were comparable to those of date and maple syrups. In general, the carob syrups contained more proteins, minerals, phenolic acids, flavonoids and total phenols, and exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the date and maple syrups. The carob syrups exhibited excessive browning and contained more, or comparable content of hydroxymethylfurfural, than the date and maple syrups. The data indicate that carob syrups provide more nutrients and possess superior antioxidant potential to date and maple syrups. The high contents of the carcinogenic hydroxymethylfurfural of the carob syrups warrant milder heating regimens in the concentration step during production. Novelty and scientific contribution. In contrast to studies based on commercial and/or homemade syrups, this work utilized a relatively large number of laboratory-prepared samples for creating a robust database for carob syrup. The results indicated that carob syrups possess superior health promotion and disease prevention effects than the widely traded date and maple syrups. In addition to their potential positive contribution to public health, carob syrups have been shown to be promising candidates for bolstering the economic returns of farmers in carob-producing countries.
... This is due to the fact that sugarcane juice has a complex combination of polyphenols and minerals, which most of them retain during the production of brown sugar [32]. Even though phenolic compounds concentrate across sugarcane-products production, they are got rid of, in refined white cane sugar and concentrated in the by-product blackstrap molasses [38]. Eggleston [37] reported that molasses contains about 3000 mg/L total phenol content, equivalent to pomegranate juice (~2850 mg/ L). ...
... This is due to the fact that sugarcane juice has a complex combination of polyphenols and minerals, which most of them retain during the production of brown sugar [32]. Even though phenolic compounds concentrate across sugarcane-products production, they are got rid of, in refined white cane sugar and concentrated in the byproduct blackstrap molasses [38]. Eggleston [37] reported that molasses contains about 3000 mg/L total phenol content, equivalent to pomegranate juice (~2850 mg/L). ...
Article
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Non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) is the scientific term the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) uses to define a solid product, produced by sugarcane juice evaporation, which is unrefined or minimally refined. NCS is referred to in various names globally, the most significant ones are whole cane sugar, panela (Latin America), jaggery (India) and kokuto (Japan). NCS contains minerals, bioactive compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, which have therapeutic potentials from time immemorial. Even though the bioactive property is dependent on the composition, which relies mainly on the agronomic conditions and production process, NCS possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Hence, substituting the consumption of refined sugar with NCS might be helpful in the control of chronic diseases generally connected to oxidative stress and inflammation. Experimental facts from in vitro and in vivo models have proven that NCS plays an essential role in weight management, maintaining insulin sensitivity and preventing neurodegenerative diseases. NCS has also shown hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. This review aims to synopsize the recent literature pertaining to the benefits of NCS in human health. The NCS can be considered a nutraceutical and functional food. However, detailed and regulated studies are important to enhance the beneficial effects in human and animal interventions.
... In recent years, natural sweeteners are found to be healthy and tasty alternatives to refined sugar, high fructose corn syrup and artificial sweeteners. According to a study, con- suming natural sweeteners can increase the antioxi- dants intake from flavonoids ( Phillips et al., 2008). Trilobatin shown in Fig. 1 is a flavonoid mono-gluco- side and is found in the leaves of a wild-type Chinese sweet tea Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd ( Dong et al., 2012). ...
Article
An efficient and cost‐effective enzymatic production method for preparation of a high‐valued natural sweetener (dihydrochalcone glucoside trilobatin) was developed by the combination of hydrogenation and enzymatic hydrolysis reactions with α‐l‐rhamnosidase as the catalyst in aqueous medium. This technology is adopting the cheap and largely available citrus flavanone naringin as the starting material for trilobatin synthesis, and the present enzymatic technology is possibly utilised by commercial for scale‐up production. The production is a straightforward two‐step process, in which naringin was hydrogenated into naringin dihydrochalcone and followed by removal of the rhamnosyl group of naringin dihydrochalcone by enzymatic hydrolysis using immobilised α‐l‐rhamnosidase as the catalyst. Under optimised conditions, an overall yield of 96% was achieved with a very low loading of α‐l‐rhamnosidase catalyst at 60 °C in a neutral aqueous buffer solution within 2 h. The immobilised α‐l‐rhamnosidase catalyst can be recycled for 10 reactions (90% yield retained). An efficient and cost‐effective enzymatic methodology for production of natural sweetener trilobatin from naringin.
... The ice cream made with unrefined cane sugar exhibited high antioxidant activity and is mostly accepted and preferred by the individual panel during the study period than that of the RS counterpart [34]. It has been proved that raw cane sugar, plant syrups, molasses, and fruit sugars were rich in antioxidants and these sugars are the best alternative for RS [35]. A study on the chemical composition of granulated PS from the sap of nipa palm suggested that nipa PS was safe regarding reducing sugar content to maintain the constant blood sugar level. ...
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Objective: Honey and sugars are rich in polyphenols and known for several health benefits. The quality of the honey varied on the floral source and geographical region. The sugar quality depends on the processing and source. The study aimed to evaluate the total polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of selected Thai honey and sugar samples.Methods: Total polyphenol content and antioxidant properties were determined by the colorimetric method, and 2, 2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and ferrous ion-chelating assays, respectively.Results: The honey from Eupatorium odoratum Linn (HEO) (0.75 mg gallic acid equivalent/ml of sample), and meal cane sugar (MCS) (4.13 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of sample) exhibited higher polyphenol content among the honey, and sugar samples, respectively. The refined sugar (RS) showed least phenolic content (0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of sample) when compared to all tested sugars and honey samples. HEO exhibited high Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC; 235.93 mg TEAC per ml sample) among the honey samples. Among the sugars, MCS showed high TEAC (3891.22 mg TEAC per g sample). The honey from Nephelium lappaceum Linn and HEO has superior FRAP value and chelating power, respectively. The RS was least in total antioxidant capacity, FRAP, and chelating power.Conclusion: The HEO, and MCS and palm sugars are harbored with phenolic content and antioxidants. The refining process drastically diminished the quality of the sugar. The information may help to choose best carbon source for the preparation of fermented beverages with improved functional properties.
... This finding indicates that the type of adjuvant used herein did not significantly interfere with the antioxidant capacity of the dried product. Maltodextrin and cyclodextrins lack functional groups able to donate electrons or hydrogen to free radicals (Phillips, Carlsen, & Blomhoff, 2009;Jullian, Moyano, Yañez, & Olea-Azar, 2007), but Arabic gum has a little protein content, which could exert a weak antioxidant effect mediated by the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, and methionine (Fazaeli, Emam-Djomeh, Ashtari, & Omid, 2012). However, in this study the PG-SD samples with and without Arabic gum (MDEA-80 and MA-80, respectively) exhibited similar antioxidant activity. ...
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Antioxidants from Psidium guajava leaves were extracted with 70% ethanol in water. The extractive solution was concentrated and submitted to spray drying in the presence of technological adjuvants at a proportion of 8 % wet base. Three distinct technological adjuvants were evaluated: β-cyclodextrin (βCD-80), maltodextrin DE10:Aerosil® (MA-80 - 7:1), and maltodextrin DE10:Encapsia®:Aerosil® (MDEA-80 - 5:2:1). The antioxidant activity of the concentrated extract and spray-dried powders was assessed by three antioxidant assays, namely: the2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC). The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity was determined previously. The spray-dried powders exhibited strong antioxidant activity (IC50 value = 7.96 to 9.76 μg/mL – DPPH method; 3,125.1 to 3,406.0 μM TE/g dry weight – ABTS method; 4,210 to 4,540 μM FeSO4 E/g – FRAP method; 1,820-2,020 μM TE/g – ORAC method). The technological adjuvants did not significantly interfere with the antioxidant activity of the dried products, regardless the type of antioxidant assay used. The results here reported strongly evidenced that the concentrated and spray-dried extracts of Psidium guajava are rich sources of natural antioxidants with potential application in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical products.
... In natural sweeteners, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and carotenoids are reported to be responsible for the antioxidant activity in honeybee and maple syrup (Phillips, Carlsen, & Blomhoff, 2009). ...
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Background Agave syrups are natural sweeteners that are highly desirable for human consumption because they have low glycemic index. In this work, we explored the potential of ¹H‐NMR‐Chemometrics as a useful tool in the identification and differentiation of Agave syrups. Also, we evaluated the phytochemical screening and antioxidant capacity of Agave syrup compared to other natural sweeteners. Results The phytochemical screening stands out for Agave syrups containing higher levels of metabolites with antioxidant activity, mainly saponins, glycosides, and terpenoids. Agave syrup antioxidant activity was in a range from 10% to 53%, while the total phenolic content was from 24 to 300 EAG/100 g, and condensed tannins were between 240 and 1,900 mg CE/g. Additionally, ¹H‐NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize syrup profiles and chemometrics. PCA group analyses allowed the sweeteners’ classification by origin and kind of Agave. Conclusion Thus, we conclude that ¹H‐NMR and chemometrics can be used for identifying, differentiating, and classifying Agave syrups. Besides, Agave syrups contain significant amounts of antioxidative components and can be considered as an effective source of antioxidant.
... The agave syrup which is a natural sweetener considered sweeter than honey, is used as sugar substitutes, and it is produced when different agave species pines are cooked [2]. The agave syrup with high quality fructose is clear in color, without aroma agave plant, and had been reported with antioxidant [3] and antibacterial properties [4]. Although fructose is found between 70% to 90% in agave syrup, a higher purity is necessary to have fructose crystal, due the presence of glucose inhibited fructose crystallization. ...
... Agave syrup is a natural sweet product with functional properties due to biological active compounds, prebiotic molecules and antioxidant content, which is used as sugar replacement due to low glycaemic index (Foster-Powell et al., 2002;Phillips et al., 2009;Mellado-Mojica & Lopez, 2015, Muniz-Marquez et al., 2015. ...
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Triticale is hybrid crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) and in last years it become more popular for food applications, including flake production. Different approaches are developed to improve flakes technology by applying different cooking, rolling, toasting parameters resulting in high quality products. All these technologies influence also nutrition quality of product due to the different stability of these compounds during mechanical and thermal treatment. The aim of current experiment was to investigate the influence of technological parameters on chemical composition of triticale flakes. In current experiment triticale grains and triticale flakes obtained by different technologies was tested. For evaluation of the influence of technological parameters, different flaking and rolling parameters were tested. For all samples were determined composition of basic nutrients (fats, proteins, fibres, sugars, ash), minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Zn, P), vitamins, total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Triticale has high nutritional quality, containing significant amounts of protein, fibres, vitamins and minerals. Technological processes significantly influence cereals composition, but it depends on parameters tested. Control sample showed lower results and hierarchical cluster analyses showed that samples 1/3/1, 2/1/2/1, 2/1/3/1, 2/1/4/1 are similar in composition of bioactive compounds. Results showed that for selection of the best method for flaking physical and/or sensory properties should be taken in account.
... In making abon,sometimessugar is also added to improve the texture and add abon flavor (Fachruddin, 1997). The types of sugars commonly added in food processing are brown sugar and/or plain sugar (Phillips et al., 2009). Furthermore, the kitchen salt (NaCl) is an additional material that is always used in cooking food (Purnomo, 1997). ...
Article
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One of the most popular food products in Central Sulawesi is shredded beef, and sometimes aspects of food quality and safety were not given attention by producers or consumers. The objective of the study is to identify the chemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of shredded beef produced and circulated in Palu City. This study uses a complete randomized design with 8 samples and each sample were repeated three times so that 24 samples were obtained with observed parameters including moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content, total microbial count and antioxidant activity.The results showed that water content (5,04-9,35%), ash content (3,59-5,74%), protein content (25,60-38,97%), fat content (19,20-39,37%) and total microbial count (1,27-8,48 log cfu / g) and antioxidant activity as indicated by Inhibition Concentration / IC50 (3234,31-6740,5 ppm) and percentage of inhibition (35,63-80.27%). The results of this study indicate that shredded beef from various SMEs in the city of Palu is still partially met the quality standards based on SNI, so MSME guidance is needed periodically and continuously.
... The CPS kombucha exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (49.266%), while the MS kombucha and WRS kombucha had lower antioxidant activity (32.927%) and (29.085%), respectively. In previous studies, kombucha tea fermented with WRS showed low antioxidant activity (Phillips et al., 2009;Nayaka et al., 2009). However, in the present work, WRS kombucha showed high antioxidant activity following 14 d fermentation. ...
Article
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Recently, fermented foods have been developing huge demand among modern consumers due to their health benefits and pleasant flavour. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of fermentation time and different sugar sources on the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of kombucha tea. The sugar sources selected were white refined sugar (WRS), coconut palm sugar (CPS) and molasses sugar (MS). The fermentation substrate was boiled black tea, 10% (w/v) of each sugar, 3% (w/v) of tea fungus (SCOBY) and 10% (v/v) of previously fermented kombucha tea (back slope fermentation). The mixture was incubated in the dark at 24±3°C for 14 days. The sugar and organic acid contents were determined by HPLC, while the antioxidant active was determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods. Results demonstrated significantly higher biomass formation, glucose and sucrose content for kombucha tea fermented with WRS, while kombucha tea fermented with MS showed higher organic acid contents. Moreover, kombucha tea fermented with CPS exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content, followed by those fermented with MS and WRS. The present work demonstrated that kombucha tea fermented with CPS is recommended to be consumed as functional beverage for health benefits and prevention of oxidation related diseases. In addition, CPS and MS are good sugar alternatives to sucrose and other sugars frequently used in kombucha fermentation. (PDF) Effects of sugar sources and fermentation time on the properties of tea fungus (kombucha) beverage. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332898247_Effects_of_sugar_sources_and_fermentation_time_on_the_properties_of_tea_fungus_kombucha_beverage [accessed May 14 2019].
... The CPS kombucha exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (49.266%), while the MS kombucha and WRS kombucha had lower antioxidant activity (32.927%) and (29.085%), respectively. In previous studies, kombucha tea fermented with WRS showed low antioxidant activity (Phillips et al., 2009;Nayaka et al., 2009). However, in the present work, WRS kombucha showed high antioxidant activity following 14 d fermentation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, fermented foods have been developing huge demand among modern consumers due to their health benefits and pleasant flavour. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of fermentation time and different sugar sources on the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of kombucha tea. The sugar sources selected were white refined sugar (WRS), coconut palm sugar (CPS) and molasses sugar (MS). The fermentation substrate was boiled black tea, 10% (w/v) of each sugar, 3% (w/v) of tea fungus (SCOBY) and 10% (v/v) of previously fermented kombucha tea (back slope fermentation). The mixture was incubated in the dark at 24±3°C for 14 days. The sugar and organic acid contents were determined by HPLC, while the antioxidant active was determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods. Results demonstrated significantly higher biomass formation, glucose and sucrose content for kombucha tea fermented with WRS, while kombucha tea fermented with MS showed higher organic acid contents. Moreover, kombucha tea fermented with CPS exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content, followed by those fermented with MS and WRS. The present work demonstrated that kombucha tea fermented with CPS is recommended to be consumed as functional beverage for health benefits and prevention of oxidation related diseases. In addition, CPS and MS are good sugar alternatives to sucrose and other sugars frequently used in kombucha fermentation.
... The potential antioxidant activities of the Rosita de cacao have not been investigated (Sotelo et al. 2012). The sugar did not show a response under our antioxidant and polyphenol evaluations, since it has a minimal antioxidant activity and belongs to the chemical group of carbohydrates (Phillips et al. 2009). ...
Article
Nowadays, consumers, food industries, and researchers have a great interest in evaluating the total antioxidant value of foodstuffs and plasma samples. The 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging assay is one of the most common antioxidant evaluations. However, this assay shows a great variability in its methodology, e.g., the use of a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) matrix. Moreover, all prior assays did not describe a complete validation procedure. This study demonstrated that the matrix of calibration standards had a significant effect on the accuracy of antioxidant measurements, under the ABTS radical cation scavenging assay. A PBS matrix should only be used in this assay during plasma analysis due to a negative matrix effect on calibration curves. Meanwhile, a PBS-free matrix should be used during analyses of water-based beverages. Our analytical validation showed that the current assay had an inverse lineal relationship, acceptable range, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, short and long-term stability, selectivity, identity, and short time of analysis. Additionally, this study showed that a traditional Southern Mexico beverage (tejate) had antioxidant properties (inhibition of the ABTS radical cation and ability to reduce the ferric ion) due to the presence of polyphenol compounds. The biological relevance was supported by a high plasma antioxidant activity in rats after a 7-day period of tejate consumption. Graphic abstract Open image in new window
... Chromium is only one of several substances removed from sugar during the refining process. The natural antioxidant capacity of sugar is also minimized in RS compared to that in BS, and non-processed sweeteners could have hundreds of times more antioxidants, as reported by Phillips et al. (2009). This finding could be relevant considering the importance of oxidative stress in several diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. ...
Article
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Obesity is presently one of the worst global health problems and the increased consumption of sweeteners is, in part, responsible for this condition. A popular belief exists that the consumption of brown sugar has less damaging effects than refined sugar; however, experimental evidence is limited. The goal of this study was to compare the deleterious effects of the chronic consumption of brown sugar to refined sugar and analyze the mechanisms implicated. Male rats were fed with standard rodent chow and 30% solutions of each sweetener ad libitum for two, four or six months. Cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were measured in serum, total lipids, oxidized lipids and fatty acids synthase measured in liver tissue. Our results showed that both groups of rats developed moderate central obesity and up-regulation of fatty acid synthase; nonetheless, only refined sugar induced hypertriglyceridemia and fat accumulation in the liver without an indication of tissue damage. Our study supports the hypothesis that the consumption of refined sugar has a more damaging effect on health than brown sugar. The consumption of brown sugar reduces the risk of development of non-alcoholic fat accumulation in the liver compared with the consumption of refined sugar.
... However frequent sorbitol usage can induce diarrhea [10]. Agave syrup is a very popular and frequently used sugar substituent because of its low glycemic index compared to other sweeteners or to honey [12,13], with an antioxidative [14] and probiotic capacity [13] Low-energy jams and marmalades from: raspberry, blackberry, strawberry and redcurrant obtained by Tepić et al. [15] using fructose, sorbitol, cyclamate and saccharin as sweeteners are an adequate example of high quality jams with a good sensory characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine which sweetener out of three will be the best replacement of sucrose in the plum and peach jam in context of best evaluated sensory characteristics. ...
Article
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Sensory characteristics are of great significance for all food products. Those are features which every consumer evaluates on a daily basis and based on that assessment decides whether to buy a product or not. The aim of this paper is to examine the sensory characteristics of peach and plum jams, prepared with different sweeteners (sucrose, fructose, sorbitol and agave syrup) and determine which of them is most acceptable for the consumer. Sensory analysis was conducted by applying the scoring system, which assessed individual quality criteria (smell, taste, color and consistency). The results of analysis showed that the color, smell, taste and consistency of tested jams are acceptable. Jams with sorbitol, assessed with the highest average total grade have better sensory characteristics compared with jams prepared with other sweeteners.
... Granulated date sugar is a brown sugar derived from dates, and it is considered as an excellent natural sweetener. In terms of nutrient content and antioxidant activity, this type of sugar is very similar to the P. dactylifera fruits [73]. Additionally, granulated date sugar exhibits a potential antidiabetic capacity making it a good option as an alternative sweetener for diabetic patients [33]. ...
Chapter
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Date is the most widely consumed fruit in the world and is considered an essential part of diet in varied cultures. The main nutrients that date fruit provides are the glucose and fructose. Moreover, dates are considered a good source of some essential minerals such as potassium and magnesium. The consumption of about 80 g of dates per day can contribute one-fourth of the recommended daily requirement of non-starch polysaccharides and potassium. Besides the nutritional values, dates contain natural bioactive components of medicinal importance and nutritive bioactive compounds mainly non-starch polysaccharides and selenium. This chapter highlights research progress related to bioactive compounds of date palm fruits’ bioactive compound forms, synthesis, analytical determination, potential functions, and health benefits.
... Phenolics, as non-nutritive bioactive compounds, also have antidiabetic effects. Phenolics exert a signi cant role in inhibiting the activity of hydrolysis enzymes of carbohydrates, such as a-amylase and a-glucosidase, leading to reduced availability of glucose to be absorbed and utilized [30,31]. ...
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It is commonly supposed among the public and health care providers that patients with diabetes should restrain or even avoid consumption of date palm fruits (DPFs). However, DPFs are a good source of nutritive and non-nutritive bioactive compounds. This study aimed to assess the nutritive and non-nutritive bioactive compounds of consumed DPFs and examine their relationship with glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) currently using oral antidiabetic medications (n=199) and insulin treatments (n=205). Blood glucose levels, HbA1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides were retrieved from the medical records of the patients. The bioactive compound indices of consumed DPFs were calculated. The results revealed that the consumption of DPFs was higher in patients with oral medications than in those on insulin treatments. The bioactive compound content of the consumed DPFs ranged from 4.80±0.18 g/d for non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) to 178±6.83 mg/d for selenium. However, the selenium index (273%) was the highest bioactive compound index in the consumed DPFs. Moreover, this study has detected a weak but significant correlation between the level of bioactive compounds of consumed DPFs and HbA1c levels. The study has revealed that the bioactive compound content of DPFs is negatively associated with lower HbA1c levels among patients with T2DM. An intervention trial is required to support this finding.
... 2015). Kondisi ini berkebalikan dengan beberapa negara dimana penggunaan GKR mulai dikurangi dan digantikan dengan pemanis lain yang mengandung antioksidan (Philips, et al, 2009). ...
Article
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The distribution of refined sugar (RS) for small and medium industries (SMI) of the food has suffered a lot of misappropriation. To overcome it, the government will implement the auction system. The purposes of this research are 1) to identify conditions and problems the distribution of RS for SMI of food; 2) to know the readiness of SMI of food in facing RS auction system; and 3) to provide recommendations for improvement of the RS auction system. This research was conducted in Yogyakarta Province on November 2017. Research respondents are Industry and Trade Offices in DIY, food association, SMI of food and RS distributors. The problems in the distribution of RS are SMI didn’t know about the rules of RS distribution, the distribution of RS is not according to government regulations and the food association was unable to accommodate the trade of RS. SMI hasn’t been able to participate in the auction system so it needs 1) the government conducts of socialization and supervision of the RS trading system; 2) SMI establishes business units and obtain capital facilitations and 3) the government gives authorizes for BULOG to distribute RS.
... Maple syrup is the natural sweetener obtained from the sap of several species of Acer trees but is predominantly derived from sugar maple (Acer saccharum), boiled to evaporate water and concentrated to a 67 brix sugar content (Perkins and Van den Berg, 2009). When compared to other natural sweeteners, maple syrup is considered by many to be a superior option due to its unique flavor compounds, high mineral nutrient content, high antioxidant capacity, antiradical, antimutagenic and antiproliferative (anticancer effects) activities with many potential putative health benefits (Thériault et al., 2006;González-Sarrías et al., 2012;Perkins and Van den Berg, 2009;Phillips et al., 2009;Singh et al., 2014). ...
... Examples are brown sugar, maple syrup, agave nectar, molasses, honey, and date sugar (Phillips et al., 2009). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limiting free sugar intake, which should not exceed 10% of total energy intake (World Health Organization, 2015). ...
... Similar results were found for the FRAP value of raw cane sugar was 0.17 to 0.33 mmol/100 g, that of dark brown sugar was 0.69 mmol/100 g and that of granulated white sugar was 0.01-0.02 mmol/100 g, which were lower values than the present results [45]. The alterations in the antioxidant potential of unrefined sugars were determined by factors such as the methods used for preventing antioxidant effectiveness [46]; the ratio of inverted sugars; the amount of phenolics, flavonoids [14] and processing methods [47]. ...
... Similar results were found for the FRAP value of raw cane sugar was 0.17 to 0.33 mmol/100 g, that of dark brown sugar was 0.69 mmol/100 g and that of granulated white sugar was 0.01-0.02 mmol/100 g, which were lower values than the present results [45]. The alterations in the antioxidant potential of unrefined sugars were determined by factors such as the methods used for preventing antioxidant effectiveness [46]; the ratio of inverted sugars; the amount of phenolics, flavonoids [14] and processing methods [47]. ...
... Again, in a study on black tea, it was observed that radical scavenging activity of black tea was the highest, followed by black tea + sugar and black tea + milk+sugar (Sharma, Vijay Kumar, & Jagan Mohan Rao, 2008). Even in a study, it was determined that alternative sweeteners to refined sugar such as dark and blackstrap molasses (FRAP: 4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100g), maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey (FRAP: 0.2 to 0.7 mmol/100g) had higher antioxidant activities (Phillips, Carlsen, & Blomhoff, 2009). In this study too, it was determined that the use of sucralose, which is a non-nutritive, zero-calorie artificial sweetener, instead of sugar could be a better alternative in terms of oxidative status and stress (Table 2, Figure 1). ...
Article
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It was aimed to evaluate the effects of different ingredients on total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) of the brewed Brazil mild roasted coffee. Sugar, sucralose, butter, coconut-oil, animal and plant-based milk types were added and milk types&sweeteners were combined separately. TAS and TOS were measured and oxidative stress indice (OSI) was calculated. TAS value of coffee with whole milk was the highest among all coffee types. TOS values of coffee with soy milk, with soy milk+sugar and soy milk+sucralose were lower than all other coffee types. When compared to OSI values, coffee with soy milk, with soy milk+sugar and soy milk+sucralose had the lowest OSI values among all coffee types. Moreover, addition of coconut-oil to coffee samples increased the TOS and OSI values of coffees. While the TOS and OSI of the sugar and sucralose addition were found higher in comparison to plain coffee; TOS and OSI of the sucralose addition was lower than those sugar combinations. In conclusion, the OSI of the coffee may change depending on the alterations of chemical structures and nutritional matrices by the added ingredients. The addition of soy milk or sucralose instead of sugar or whole cow milk instead of oil-based ingredients could be a promising strategy of reducing the oxidative capacity
... Granulated date sugar is a brown sugar derived from dates, and it is considered as an excellent natural sweetener. In terms of nutrient content and antioxidant activity, this type of sugar is very similar to the P. dactylifera fruits [73]. Additionally, granulated date sugar exhibits a potential antidiabetic capacity making it a good option as an alternative sweetener for diabetic patients [33]. ...
... Similar results were found for the FRAP value of raw cane sugar was 0.17 to 0.33 mmol/100 g, that of dark brown sugar was 0.69 mmol/100 g and that of granulated white sugar was 0.01-0.02 mmol/100 g, which were lower values than the present results [45]. The alterations in the antioxidant potential of unrefined sugars were determined by factors such as the methods used for preventing antioxidant effectiveness [46]; the ratio of inverted sugars; the amount of phenolics, flavonoids [14] and processing methods [47]. ...
... Different aminoacids [5] and sucrose, glucose or fructose [6][7] present in the maple sap, are the principle precursors of the pyrazines in maple syrup. Maple syrup is considered as a better alternative to traditional refined sugar among many other available natural sweeteners due to its oligoelements profile and high amount of bioactive compounds with well-known antioxidant potential action [8][9][10]. Despite its economical and nutritional importance of this natural product, only a few studies in the last years, have been developed closely related to chemical determination [11][12], the application of instrumentation techniques for quality control, adulteration and compounds identification [11,12] or treatment procedures but most of them are related with narrow operational conditions and chemical constitution of maple sap or syrup but not with thermophysical characteristics, their temperature dependence and potential application on the industrial elaboration. ...
... Maple syrup is considered as a superior alternative to refined sugar among many other available natural sweeteners, mainly due to its mineral content and high amount of phenolic compounds with bioactivities such as antioxidant, antiradical, antimutagenic and anticancer activities (Mellado-Mojica et al., 2016;González-Sarrías et al., 2012;Phillips et al., 2009). It has been shown that consumption of maple syrup produces lower glucose and insulin responses, compared to corn syrup, brown rice syrup, and dextrose, making it a better replacement of refined sugars in our diets (St-Pierre et al., 2014;Mellado-Mojica et al., 2016). ...
Article
Maple syrup is produced by concentrating the maple tree sap. The physicochemical profile of maple syrup can be varied depending on the processing method, microbial contamination, seasonal and geographical variations etc. Apart from being a better alternative to refined sugar, the minerals and phenolics in maple syrup may provide additional health benefits owing to their bioactivities. We studied the physicochemical profiles of maple syrup samples from North America and the seasonal compositional changes of the syrup from Nova Scotia (NS). Syrup pH, color, Brix were significantly differ depending on the location. Brix values ranged from 61.6-70.2°. Thirteen different phenolics including protocatechuic acid, coniferyl alcohol, vanillin, and syringic aldehyde were identified and quantified. The total mineral content ranged from 2.6-4.8 g/L of syrup. Potassium was the most abundant, followed by calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, and zinc. Analyses of NS syrup during early, mid and late seasons revealed that, total phenolics and minerals increased and the syrup color became darker towards late season. Syrup pH, brix and sugars did not differ among the seasons. Interestingly, vanillin, syringic acid and syringic aldehyde were the main phenolics in early maple syrup samples while protecatechuic acid was the predominant in late season.
... In making abon,sometimessugar is also added to improve the texture and add abon flavor (Fachruddin, 1997). The types of sugars commonly added in food processing are brown sugar and/or plain sugar (Phillips et al., 2009). Furthermore, the kitchen salt (NaCl) is an additional material that is always used in cooking food (Purnomo, 1997). ...
Article
One of the most popular food products in Central Sulawesi is shredded beef, and sometimes aspects of food quality and safety were not given attention by producers or consumers. The objective of the study is to identify the chemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of shredded beef produced and circulated in Palu City. This study uses a complete randomized design with 8 samples and each sample were repeated three times so that 24 samples were obtained with observed parameters including moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content, total microbial count and antioxidant activity.The results showed that water content (5,04 -9,35%), ash content (3,59 - 5,74%), protein content (25,60-38,97%), fat content (19,20- 39,37%) and total microbial count (1,27-8,48 log cfu / g) and antioxidant activity as indicated by Inhibition Concentration / IC50 (3234,31 - 6740,5 ppm) and percentage of inhibition (35,63 - 80.27%). The results of this study indicate that shredded beef from various SMEs in the city of Palu is still partially met the quality standards based on SNI, so MSME guidance is needed periodically and continuously.
... An appreciable level of antioxidant activity was identified through TPC (15.73 ± 1.63 mg GAE/100 mL), FRAP (0.13 ± 1.08 mmol/100 g DW), and DPPH (17.36 ± 0.55%), thus confirming the remaining phenolics compounds and antioxidant potential in SS, which may represent various health benefits, while the GABA content of 44.62 ± 1.22 mg/L could be beneficial in reducing hypertension [24]. These findings are in agreement with previous investigations for TPC (13.95 mg GAE/100 mL) [25] and FRAP (0.20 mmol/100 g DW) [26]. However, Weerawatanakorn et al. [25] and Duarte-Almeida et al. [1] observed significantly higher quantities of total sugars (86.67%) and DPPH (57.80%), which might be attributable to the use of different species, different agricultural practices, and SS preparation techniques that could affect composition. ...
Article
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have gained significant attention for their prebiotic properties. Given that sugarcane syrup (SS) is sucrose-rich but with other nutritional benefits, its direct transformation into FOS may add value to this product. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop FOS conversion from SS and to define the kinetic behaviour of FOS synthesized in a 1-L specialized pH-stat bioreactor (SPSB). The SS was composed of sucrose (58.93%) with considerable antioxidant capacities and Ƴ-aminobutyric acid. The developed SPSB process consisted of three stages: evaporation of sugarcane juice into syrup (68–75 °Brix) (stage 1), optimization of the Viscozyme L and SS mixture at different reaction temperatures (47–55 °C) (stage 2), and upscaling of the optimized reaction system under defined conditions in a 1 L-SPSB system (stage 3). In the 1 L-SPSB system, the enzymatic reaction yielded 32.22% of FOS from SS after a 6 h reaction, which is comparable with a pure system containing an equivalent concentration of 10% of sucrose as initial substrate with 39.55% yield. This result demonstrated the efficient conversion of SS into FOS, supporting the utilization of sugarcane juice for its health benefits.
... The FRAP of palmyra palm syrup was determined as described by Phillips and Basu with minor modifications [25,26]. The FRAP reagent was prepared from 300 mM sodium acetate buffer, 10 mM 2,4,6-tris (2-pyridyl)-s-triazine (TPTZ) solution in 40 mM HCl and 20 mM FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O in a ratio of 10:1:1. ...
Article
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Palmyra palm syrup, produced from Borassus flabellifer flowers’ sap, is rich in nutrients and minerals and has unique flavors. This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant activity, physicochemical characteristics, and Maillard reaction products of palmyra palm syrup prepared by thermal and ultrafiltration processes. Palmyra palm syrup prepared by a thermal process had smaller L*, b* values, and larger a* values than that prepared by an ultrafiltration process. Palmyra palm syrup contained 10 vitamins, the most abundant being vitamin E. Overall, 38 volatile compounds were found and classified into six groups in the order of alcohols > acids > ketones > sulfurs > pyrazines > phenols and aldehyde. Volatile compounds depended on concentration, temperature, and ultrafiltration process. Protein content decreased because of participation in the Maillard reaction and increased 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and total phenolic content. The HMF content was very low (0.02–14.95 mg/100 g). The radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-1 picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) in palmyra palm syrup with thermal process was higher than with ultrafiltration. This study established that ultrafiltration pretreatment of palmyra palm syrup generated a good appearance and reduced the HMF content, however, it negatively affected the volatile compounds and physicochemical characteristics.
Article
Information on the quality parameters of Arenga pinnata (palm) sugar and its composition is very limited, although the sugar has been consumed by the local people in some tropical countries for decades. This study aimed at the characterization of A. pinnata sugar through an examination of its physicochemical attributes. The results indicate average values for pH, total phenolic content, and free radical scavenging activity (IC50) of 6.285 ± 0.007, 2432 ± 32 µg/g of GAE, and 0.6 mg/ml, respectively. The spectrum of A. pinnata sugar displayed absorbance bands in the functional group region and in the fingerprint region, with sucrose identified as the main sugar. The SEM images confirmed that granulated A. pinnata sugar tended to clump together. The results of this investigation showed that A. pinnata sugar has unique characteristics and interesting nutritional properties. The findings from the present study can help the A. pinnata farmers and sugar-processing industries to gain better market for their products.
Article
This study focused on the effects of maturity, ripening, and fermentation time of the Prunus mume fruit (maesil in Korean) on the physicochemical, functional, and microbial properties of maesil sugar syrup during a 1-year fermentation period. All syrup samples exhibited pH values of 2.28–2.89 throughout the study. Soluble solid, moisture, and ash contents were 48.37–57.67 °Brix, 3.87–8.22%, and 0.25–2.22%, respectively. The pH values and moisture content did not fluctuate widely. The soluble solid content was nearly constant; in contrast, ash content, color values, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant potential increased with fermentation time. Results of microbial profiling revealed the absence of Escherichia coli and other bacteria in all sugar syrups. In contrast, yeast was detected in all samples, and the yeast count increased as fermentation proceeded. The most prominent change in yeast count, from 3.66 log CFU/mL to 5.41 log CFU/mL, was detected in unripe whole-maesil syrup. Aged whole-maesil syrup from unripe fruits also exhibited the highest antioxidant potential and total phenol (416.12 ± 8.04 μg GAE/mL) and flavonoid (140.49 ± 1.45 μg QE/mL) contents. These findings indicate that aged whole-maesil syrup from unripe fruits had desirable functional properties, which improved with fermentation time.
Article
Four kinds of bleached, unbleached, second and third crystal sugars (BCS, UCS, SCS and TCS) were made from different massecuites in a sugar-beet factory, and their physiochemical (polarization, invert sugar, colorants, pH, ash and SO2), microbiological and functional properties were measured. While the polarization of UCS, SCS and TCS were lower than BCS; their invert sucrose, colorants, pH and ash contents were significantly higher than BCS. The phenols and betaine of BCS, UCS, SCS, and TCS were 144, 401, 384 and 673 (mg/100 g); and 244, 791, 4662, and 6589 (mg/100 g); respectively. Whereas the phenol of milk chocolate bars (MCB) made with UCS, SCS, and TCS were only 10% higher than MCB completed with BCS; their betaine contents were substantially (up to 16 times) higher than the ones finished with BCS. Sensory evaluation showed that the MCB prepared with three sugars including UCS, SCS and TCS had significantly higher glossiness, brittleness, flavor and mouth feel than those made with BCS. The greater colorants, ash content and inverted sugars of UCS, SCS and TCS (in comparison with BCS) made considerable improvements in the glossiness, flavor and brittleness of MCB, respectively. BCS had 8 ppm of toxic sulfur; whereas, UCS, SCS and TCS had no detectable sulfur and significantly higher beneficial copper content than BCS. No pathogenic microorganism were detected in UCS, SCS, TCS or their subsequent MCB. Our results highly recommend using UCS, SCS and TCS instead of BCS in food products (such as MCB) due to their higher health benefits.
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Lingonberries are considered anot fully exploited major source of antioxidants. Their health benefits are closely linked to their bioavailability. Due to growing health concerns, consumers are looking for jams prepared with sweeteners other than white sugar, which could be a good alternative to meet their needs. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of sucrose, fructose, erythritol, brown sugar, coconut sugar, stevia and saccharine on the bioaccessibility of vitamin C, anthocyanins andthe antioxidant capacity of lingonberry jams under in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The vitamin C, total anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity measured by ABTS and FRAP assays were determined spectrophotometrically. Individual anthocyanins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. All analyzed compounds were highly altered during gastrointestinal digestion and this effect was more visible in the case of the anthocyanins. Antioxidant capacity decreased after gastric digestion, but after the gastrointestinal step, radical scavenging capacity increased, while reducing power decreased. Vitamin C bioaccessibility was negatively affected by coconut sugar addition, while stevia addition showed a protective effect. Fructose and sucrose increased the total anthocyanin stability during the intestinal phase. Stevia, fructose and coconut sugar exhibited high protection of the antioxidant capacity of lingonberry jams during digestion.
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Scope: Maple syrup contains various polyphenols and we investigated the effects of a polyphenol-rich maple syrup extract (MSXH) on the physiology of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods and results: The mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD), an HFD, or an HFD supplemented with 0.02% (002MSXH) or 0.05% MSXH (005MSXH) for 4 weeks. Global gene expression analysis of the liver was performed, and the differentially expressed genes were classified into three expression patterns; pattern A (LFD < HFD > 002MSXH = 005MSXH, LFD > HFD < 002MSXH = 005MSXH), pattern B (LFD < HFD = 002MSXH > 005MSXH, LFD > HFD = 002MSXH < 005MSXH), and pattern C (LFD < HFD > 002MSXH < 005MSXH, LFD > HFD < 002MSXH > 005MSXH). Pattern A was enriched in glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, and folate metabolism. Pattern B was enriched in tricarboxylic acid cycle while pattern C was enriched in gluconeogenesis, cholesterol metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related event. Conclusion: Our study suggested that the effects of MSXH ingestion showed (1) dose-dependent pattern involved in energy metabolisms and (2) reversely pattern involved in stress responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Background Unhealthy dietary pattern including high dietary sugar intake is responsible for the cardiometabolic-related deaths. Nonetheless, adherence to the recommendation is low, and appropriate nutrition education to reduce sugar consumption is scarce. Objective This proposed project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition education module in modifying sugar consumption and other cardiometabolic risk (CMR)-related outcomes in individuals with CMR. Methods This is an open-label, 3-group parallel-randomized controlled trial that will be conducted in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. Participants will be equally randomized into three groups. Participants in the Control Group (n=35) would receive no intervention and undergo usual follow-up. In comparison, those participants in the Intervention Groups (n=70) would receive nutrition education to modify sugars consumption. They will also be given either refined white sugar (n=35), or Minimally Refined Brown Sugar (n=35) for daily consumption throughout a six-month study period. Measurements include socio-demographic status, medical characteristics, nutritional status, lifestyle practices, Health Belief Model constructs, and knowledge of healthy diet will be measured at baseline, first- (V1), third- (V3) and sixth-month (V6) intervals. Conclusion Participants of both Intervention Group aiming for sugar intake modification, would have lower sugar consumption and better CMR-related outcomes than the Control Group. Since Minimally Refined Brown Sugar contains fair amount of antioxidants, participants of Intervention Group (Minimally Refined Brown Sugar) will have better CMR-related outcomes than participants of Intervention Group (white sugar) at the end of the study.
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The aim of research was to evaluate the effect of added ingredients used for taste improvement on flavonoids and total phenolic content in extruded buckwheat products. The added ingredients were sugar, vanilla sugar, stevia, agave syrup, cinnamon, caraway, garlic powder, sweet pepper powder and salt. Six extruded buckwheat products were analysed, where an extruded buckwheat product without added ingredients was a control sample, two extruded buckwheat products were with sweet taste and three products with salty taste. Total phenolic content was determined using the modified Folin Ciocalteu method but flavonoid content according to LC-TOF-MS method. The highest total phenolic content (p < 0.05) was determined in extruded buckwheat product with vanilla sugar + stevia (91.17 0.67 GAE mg 100g-1 DW). It was almost three times higher than in the control sample. The significant differences were observed in extruded buckwheat products with caraway + salt + agave syrup (41.5 0.12 GAE mg 100g-1 DW) and sweet pepper powder + salt + agave syrup (42.39 0.80 GAE mg 100g-1 DW) comparing to other extruded products (p < 0.05). The highest content of rutin and quercetin (p < 0.05) was established in extruded buckwheat product with garlic powder + salt + agave syrup, whereas the highest content of catechin and epicatechin in extruded buckwheat product with vanilla sugar + stevia. The extruded buckwheat product with caraway + salt + agave syrup in addition contained luteolin, kaempferol and isoquercitrin. The results of research showed that some added ingredients used for taste improvement can significantly influence the total phenolic content and flavonoid content.
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The growing consumers’ awareness in the nutrition area, the desire to look for alternatives to white sugar and the trend to live healthily have led to an increase in the supply of sugar syrups on the organic market. Insufficient number of studies on the health attributes of these syrups does not allow to state clearly that they are a good substitute for saccharose. The aim of the work was to identify and determine the content of biologically active compounds and sugars content of natural sugar syrups from organic production. Purchased products have been examined to indicate the content of individual sugars and polyphenol compounds. The type of sugar syrup had an impact on the nutritional value, the content of dry matter, sugar and the content of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. The obtained results showed that sugar beet as well as date syrup due to high content of bioactive compounds are nutritionally beneficial.
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The vacuum drying (VD) process of virgin brown sugar powder (VBSP) was optimized by response surface methodology. The influences of drying temperature (75–85 °C), vacuum pressure (30–50 kPa) and material thickness (0.7–1.3 cm) on the response values of drying rate and total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated. The optimal conditions of 85 °C, 46 kPa and 1.01 cm were obtained. The sensory, physical and chemical properties of VBSP under optimal conditions showed that significant changes in colour, aw and moisture state, but not in sugar composition, were found. The TPC, protein content and free amino acid content were slightly reduced, while certain increases in the DPPH radical scavenging activity, N-nitro clearance and reducing power were observed. The results indicated that VD could provide good sensory and physicochemical properties to VBSP, in addition to cost and efficiency advantages.
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The study aimed to determine the textural, sensory, and antioxidant properties of gels composed of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berries. These freeze-dried berries were tested in a powdered form as an additive (0–5%) to agave sugar (20%) gels. Freeze-dried maqui powdered berries were dark purple to almost black in color and were characterized by an L* value of 16.3, an a* value of 8.3, and a b* value of −9.6. The b* values decreased from 11.8 to 2.3 with the increase in the amount of berry powder. There were no significant changes in the color of gels composed of berries at 4% and 5% concentration. Gels lost (almost twice) their hardness as the amount of maqui increased. The lowest values of hardness and the highest values of elasticity, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness were observed at 4% concentration of dried berries. The type of sugar did not affect the lightness of the gels (L* parameter) and the a* value. The assessors evaluated the gels composed of agave sugar (20%) and 4% maqui and 0.5% citric acid to be the best. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity were significantly higher in these gels compared to the control gels. After obtaining this low sugar gels, consumers could enrich their diets with healthier products.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensory properties and chemical composition of corn and sorghum flakes manufactured using 25, 50, 75 and 100 per cent date syrup (DS), instead of sugar. Design/methodology/approach Ten individuals assessed the overall acceptability, taste, texture and aroma of flakes. The chemical composition of each type of flake was determined, and these characteristics compared with those of control corn and sorghum flakes (without DS). Findings The overall acceptability of sorghum flakes ranged from 6.3 (100 per cent DS flakes) to 6.8 (25 per cent DS flakes); however, the difference was not significant. Values for taste, texture and aroma of sorghum flakes ranged from 5.3 (taste of 100 per cent DS flakes) to 7.2 (texture of 25 per cent DS flakes). For corn flakes, values ranged from 6.20 (aroma of 100 per cent DS flakes) to 7.20 (texture of 25 per cent DS flakes). For both sorghum and corn, the colors of 25-100 per cent DS flakes were significantly different from controls ( p = 0.0002). The total carbohydrate, fat, protein and ash contents were 81.669 per cent, 1.545 per cent, 13.27 per cent and 3.52 per cent for corn flour, and 83.38-85.78 per cent, 1.7-2.0 per cent, 10.02-12.13 per cent and 2.36-3.92 per cent for sorghum flour, respectively. The total carbohydrate, fat, protein and ash contents were 81.63 per cent, 5.75 per cent, 9.80 per cent and 2.82 per cent for corn, and 86.31-84.99 per cent, 3.15-4.27 per cent, 7.64-7.94 per cent and 2.92-2.79 per cent for sorghum flakes, respectively. Originality/value Corn and sorghum flakes produced with DS are acceptable to consumers, and their nutrient values indicate potential health benefits.
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Non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) has several traditional names, such as brown sugar (Europe & North America), Gula Melaka (Malaysia), Jaggery and Gur (India), Kokuto (Japan), Panela (Colombia) and Muscovado (Philippines). It is obtained by boiling down the sugarcane juice until its water content evaporates. NCS has various benefits for our health as it is anti-diabetic, anti-cariogenic, is an antioxidant and has radical scavenging activity due to a presence of vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids and flavonoid components as well as total antioxidant capacity. This review provides a general overview of the nutritional composition and health outcomes of NCS compared to refined sugar based on literature published in scientific journals. The NCS can be considered as a nutraceutical and functional food. However, more scientific research will be needed to confirm the outcomes and increase awareness, which could then encourage more usage of this product in sugar-based food
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Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics of unrefined brown sugars of different sugar beet factories in north-west of Iran as substitute of white sugar White sugar is one of the most used raw materials in production of different food staffs, But researches showed thatconsumption of white sugar is related to occurrence of different diseases such as diabetes, obesity and etc. The aim of this research was to study physicochemical and antioxidant properties of nonrefined sugar-beet brown sugar produced in Iran as substitute for white sugar. For this purpose, nonrefined brown sugar samples were supplied from three large sugar factories in north-west of Iran and physicochemical properties of the samples such as total soluble solids, moisture, total ash, total hardness, sucrose content, purity, pH, protein, total phenol, total anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, apparent color and solution color were studied. White sugar was used as control. The results showed that protein, total phenol, total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of the brown sugar samples were about 7.85 to 9.85 mg BSA/g sample, 0.55 to 0.77 mg GAE/g sample, 1.028 to 187/11.187 mg/kg sample and 4.07 to 4.46 per 10 g from kg of brown sugar solution respectively. Also, solution color and the apparent color of unrefined brown sugars were 4285.25-9399.59 ICU and 127-103 CTN respectively. It was concluded that unrefined brown sugar has higher nutrition value in comparison to white sugar. Keywords: Brown sugar, Nutrition value, Organic compounds, Sucrose.  Corresponding Author E-Mail Address: Roh.pashaei@gmail.com
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Molyneux, P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity
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Phenolic extracts were isolated from 35 honey and nine beebread samples obtained from different sources in Lithuania by using Amberlite XAD-2 resin. The antioxidant properties of extracts were assessed by the ABTS+ radical cation decolourisation and DPPH radical scavenging activity. It was found that all honey and beebread extracts were able to scavenge free radicals, however their scavenging activity varied in a wide range, on average between 43.0% and 95.7%. The preliminary screening of phenolic compounds in honey samples was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and mass spectrometer detectors. The results obtained showed that all samples contain p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, chrysin and apigenin. This study demonstrates remarkable variations in antioxidant properties and content of phenolic compounds in honey from different sources; these variations should be considered in using honey as a source of natural dietary antioxidants.
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A predominantly plant-based diet reduces the risk for development of several chronic diseases. It is often assumed that antioxidants contribute to this protection, but results from intervention trials with single antioxidants administered as supplements quite consistently do not support any benefit. Because dietary plants contain several hundred different antioxidants, it would be useful to know the total concentration of electron-donating antioxidants (i.e., reductants) in individual items. Such data might be useful in the identification of the most beneficial dietary plants. We have assessed systematically total antioxidants in a variety of dietary plants used worldwide, including various fruits, berries, vegetables, cereals, nuts and pulses. When possible, we analyzed three or more samples of dietary plants from three different geographic regions in the world. Total antioxidants was assessed by the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) (i.e., the FRAP assay), which occurred rapidly with all reductants with half-reaction reduction potentials above that of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+). The values, therefore, expressed the corresponding concentration of electron-donating antioxidants. Our results demonstrated that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among total antioxidants in various dietary plants. Plants that contain most antioxidants included members of several families, such as Rosaceae (dog rose, sour cherry, blackberry, strawberry, raspberry), Empetraceae (crowberry), Ericaceae (blueberry), Grossulariaceae (black currant), Juglandaceae (walnut), Asteraceae (sunflower seed), Punicaceae (pomegranate) and Zingiberaceae (ginger). In a Norwegian diet, fruits, berries and cereals contributed 43.6%, 27.1% and 11.7%, respectively, of the total intake of plant antioxidants. Vegetables contributed only 8.9%. The systematic analysis presented here will facilitate research into the nutritional role of the combined effect of antioxidants in dietary plants.
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The consumption of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of major chronic degenerative diseases. The active compounds and the mechanisms involved in this protective effect have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of various food groups to total antioxidant intake, and to assess the correlations of the total antioxidant intake from various food groups with plasma antioxidants. We collected 7-d weighed dietary records in a group of 61 adults with corresponding plasma samples, and used data from a nationwide survey of 2672 Norwegian adults based on an extensive FFQ. The total intake of antioxidants was approximately 17 mmol/d with beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, and vitamin C contributing <10%. The intake of coffee contributed approximately 11.1 mmol, followed by fruits (1.8 mmol), tea (1.4 mmol), wine (0.8 mmol), cereals (i.e., all grain containing foods; 0.8 mmol), and vegetables (0.4 mmol). The intake of total antioxidants was significantly correlated with plasma lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. Among individual food groups, coffee, wine, and vegetables were significantly correlated with dietary zeaxanthin, beta-carotene, and alpha-carotene. These data agree with the hypothesis that dietary antioxidants other than the well-known antioxidants contribute to our antioxidant defense. Surprisingly, the single greatest contributor to the total antioxidant intake was coffee.
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Phenolic compounds in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice were identified and quantified by analytical high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection, showing the predominance of flavones (apigenin, luteolin and tricin derivatives), among flavonoids, and of hydroxycinnamic, caffeic and sinapic acids, among phenolic acids, representing a total content of around 160 mg/L. A tricin derivative was present in the highest proportion (>10% of the total). The phenolic extract obtained from sugar cane juice showed a protective effect against in vivo MeHgCl intoxication and potent inhibition of ex vivo lipoperoxidation of rat brain homogenates, indicating a potential use for beneficial health effects and/or therapeutic applications.
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The phenolic compounds in maple sap and syrup were extracted at different periods of the season and were separated to collect the glycosylated compounds and the aglycone compounds. The antioxidant and antiradical activities of each phenolic compound were studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and the N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) decoloration test to measure the free radical scavenging. The results showed that in general the phenolic compounds had a good antioxidant and antiradical properties. The glycosylated compounds from maple sap and maple syrup showed a better activity than the aglycones. The antimutagenic effects of each phenolic compounds from maple sap and syrup were also investigated as the inhibition of SOS induction by chemical agents in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 containing the fusion gene umuC-lacZ. Induction of the SOS gene (umuC) expression was assayed by measuring accumulated β-galactosidase activity using a modified Umu test. The antimutagenic properties were studied per se and after metabolisation by S9 fraction. The results showed that an optimum of antimutagenic properties of the glycosylated metabolites phenolic compounds from sap and syrup was observed at 75% of the season for the sap and at 25% of the season for the syrup. A higher antimutagenic activity was observed at 25% and 100% of the season for aglycones present in syrup and at 75% of the season for aglycones present in sap.
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Total polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant power of raw honey samples from two of the most common Italian varieties, i.e., Millefiori and Acacia, were evaluated. Phenolic content, expressed as caffeic acid equivalents, ranged from 12.5 to 17.5 mg/100 g and from 3 to 11 mg/100 g in Millefiori and Acacia honeys, respectively. All Millefiori samples exhibited the highest flavonoid concentration being between 1.23 and 2.93 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g honey. Total flavonoids in 100 g Acacia honeys were in the range of 0.45–1.01 mg CE. Acacia honeys had lower total antioxidant power, as assessed by ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, than Millefiori. The relationship between phenolic content and antioxidant power was discussed. Comparative experimental analysis was performed with an artificial honey and processed honeys. Raw Millefiori honey is rich in both amount and variety of antioxidant substances, and its inclusion in the diet may be recommended to complement other polyphenol sources.
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Phytochemicals and antioxidants in whole grains have not received as much attention as the phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables although the increased consumption of whole grains and whole grain products has been associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers and all-cause mortality. Recent research has shown that the total phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of whole grains have been commonly underestimated in the literature, and that whole grains contain more phytochemicals than was previously reported. Most whole grain phenolics are in bound form, 85% in corn, 76% in wheat, and 75% in oats. In addition, whole grains contain unique phytochemicals that complement those in fruits and vegetables when consumed together. The beneficial effects associated with whole grain consumption are in part due to the existence of the unique phytochemicals of whole grains. The majority of phytochemicals of whole grains that are beneficial for health are present in the bran/germ fraction. In whole wheat flour, the bran/germ fraction contributed 83% of total phenolic content, 79% of total flavonoid content, 78% of total zeaxanthin, 51% of total lutein, and 42% of total β-cryptoxanthin. The bran/germ fraction of whole wheat may therefore impart greater health benefits when consumed as part of a diet, and help reduce the risk of chronic diseases. This paper will review recent research on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of whole grains and their unique contribution to the health benefits of whole grains.
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The effects of milling on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of two wheat cultivars, namely CWAD (Canadian Western Amber Durum; Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) and CWRS (Canadian Western hard red spring; Triticum aestivum L.) were studied. The milling of wheat afforded several fractions, namely bran, flour, shorts and feed flour. In addition, semolina was the end-product of durum wheat milling. Among different milling fractions the bran had the highest phenolic content while the endosperm possessed the lowest amount and this was also reflected in free radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, reducing power and iron (II) chelation capacity of different milling fractions in the two cultivars. This study demonstrated the importance of bran in the antioxidant activity of wheat, hence consumption of whole wheat grain may render beneficial health effects.
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The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) is designed to develop robust estimates of the mean nutrient content of important foods in the food supply and significantly improve the quality of food composition data in the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Databank. The program objectives are: (1) evaluation of existing data; (2) identification of Key Foods and nutrients for analysis; (3) development of nationally based sampling plans; (4) analysis of samples; and (5) compilation and calculation of representative food composition data. This paper describes our efforts in development of the sampling plan (objective 3) and presents limited preliminary results. The sampling plan was based on a self-weighting stratified design. First, the U.S. was divided into four regions, then each region was further divided into three implicit strata from which generalized Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (gCMSAs) were selected. Rural and urban locations were selected within gCMSAs. Commercial supermarket lists were used to select 24 outlets for food pickups; specific brands were selected based on current market share data (pounds consumed). This population-based approach can be applied in the development of other sampling programs for specific ethnic and regional foods. Sampling plans have been developed for margarine, folate-fortified foods (e.g. flours, bread, and pasta), and a number of highly consumed mixed dishes (e.g. pizza and lasagna).
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Several ecological, case-control and cohort studies indicate that diets rich in plant foods provide protection against cardiovascular disease, several common types of cancer and other chronic diseases. However, despite the consensus of the evidence about the health effect of plant foods, it is still unclear which components of plant-based foods are protective and what their mechanism of action is. The ‘antioxidant hypothesis’ postulated in 1987, linked the high content of antioxidants present in plant foods with their health benefits through a direct effect on the reduction of oxidative stress. However, clinical trials supplementing healthy people with antioxidants gave contrasting results, with some intervention studies showing a protective effect, whereas in others no evidence of benefits or even an increase of mortality were described. The search for the ‘magic bullet’ has lead many investigators to focus on single antioxidant vitamins or β-carotene, underestimating the role of the antioxidant network. However, antioxidant molecules do not act in isolation and synergistic interactions, in part involving antioxidant regeneration, have to be taken into account. The emerging concept is that dietary and endogenous antioxidants, endowed with different activities and characteristics, work synergistically contributing to the overall protective effect of plant foods. This contribution, after a description of the components of the endogenous antioxidant network, discusses the recent evidence that supports the role of antioxidants in disease prevention.
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A whole grain consists of the intact, ground, cracked, or flaked caryopsis, whose principal anatomical components--the starchy endosperm, germ, and bran--are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact caryopsis. Whole grain food products can be intact, consisting of the original composition of bran, germ, and endosperm, throughout the entire lifetime of the product, or reconstituted, in which one or more of the original components of a whole grain is recombined to the relative proportion naturally occurring in the grain kernel. Increased consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of major chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some cancers. Whole grain foods offer a wide range of phytochemicals with health benefits that are only recently becoming recognized. The unique phytochemicals in whole grains are proposed to be responsible for the health benefits of whole grain consumption. In this paper, whole grain phytochemicals and the health benefits associated with their consumption are reviewed.
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The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was designed to expand the quantity and improve the quality of data in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food composition databases through the collection and analysis of nationally representative samples of foods and beverages. This paper describes some of the findings from the NFNAP and its impact on the food composition databases produced by USDA. The NFNAP employs statistically valid sampling plans, comprehensive quality control, and USDA analytical oversight as part of the program to generate new and updated analytical data for food components. USDA food consumption and composition data were used to target those foods that are major contributors of nutrients of public health significance to the U.S. diet (454 Key Foods). Foods were ranked using a scoring system, divided into quartiles, and reviewed to determine the impact of changes in their composition compared to historical values. Foods were purchased from several types of locations, such as retail outlets and fast food restaurants in different geographic areas as determined by the sampling plan, then composited and sent for analysis to commercial laboratories and cooperators, along with quality control materials. Comparisons were made to assess differences between new NFNAP means generated from original analytical data and historical means. Recently generated results for nationally representative food samples show marked changes compared to database values for selected nutrients from unknown or non-representative sampling. A number of changes were observed in many high consumption foods, e.g. the vitamin A value for cooked carrots decreased from 1,225 to 860 RAE/100g; the fat value for fast food French fried potatoes increased by 13% (14.08 to 17.06 g/100g). Trans fatty acids in margarine have decreased as companies reformulate their products in response to the required addition of trans fatty acids content on the nutrition label. Values decreased from 19.7 g/100 in 2002 to 14.8 g/100 in 2006 for 80%-fat stick margarines and to 4.52 g/100 g for 80%-fat tub margarines. These changes reflect improved strategies for sampling and analysis of representative food samples, which enhance the reliability of nutrient estimates for Key Foods and subsequent assessments of nutrient intake.
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The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) to estimate the activity of antioxidants is reviewed. Current applications of the method are examined, particularly the use of the parameter EC50 (substrate concentration to produce 50% reduction of the DPPH). Some recommendations are made as to the most suitable ways of carrying out this assay and evaluating the data produced.
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A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
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Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, nonnutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of chronic disease such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension as well as other medical conditions. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and pectin, contains a host of active phytochemicals. The phytochemicals in grains reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
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In developed nations, diet is related directly or indirectly to the most prevalent chronic diseases. Research has helped clarify diet-disease relationships and enabled the promulgation of dietary recommendations for chronic disease prevention. We reviewed epidemiologic study results, clinical trial data, and general dietary recommendations from various agencies to develop a set of overall dietary guidelines for the prevention of the most common chronic diseases in the United States, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, cancer, and osteoporosis. Intake of monounsaturated fats, fiber, calcium, vegetables and fruits, and whole grains should be promoted. Consumption of saturated and trans fats, sodium, and refined grains should be minimized. Moderation in alcohol and caloric intake should be encouraged. Although research into associations between diet and disease is constantly in flux, our guidelines are based on replicated findings and provide a starting point for assisting patients in improving their diets.
Article
In this study, the in vitro low-density lipoprotein oxidation model was used to assess the relative antioxidant activity of the polyphenolic beverages tea, coffee, and cocoa on a cup-serving basis. The beverages were prepared as 0.7-2.5% soluble coffee and 1.5-3.5% cocoa; teas (green, black, or herbal) were prepared as one tea bag infused over 5 min in 220 mL of hot water. Under these standard cup serving conditions, the antioxidant activity as determined by the lag time was in the range of 292-948 min for coffee, 217-444 min for cocoa, 186-338 min for green tea, 67-277 min for black tea, and 6-78 min for herbal tea. Addition of milk did not alter the antioxidant activity. The influence of coffee bean source and degree of roasting was further investigated. Green coffee beans of Robusta coffee exhibited a 2-fold higher antioxidant activity than Arabica coffee, but after roasting this difference was no longer significant. In conclusion, these commonly consumed beverages have a significant antioxidant activity, the highest being soluble coffee on a cup-serving basis.
Article
During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor.
Article
Dietary antioxidants, with additive and synergistic effects, can mediate the observed inverse association between plant food intake and risk of gastric cancer. We investigated whether the total dietary antioxidant potential of fruit and vegetables is an appropriate means of estimating the antioxidant impact on gastric cancer risk in a large population-based study. With a population-based case-control design, data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 505 newly diagnosed gastric adenocarcinoma patients and 1116 control subjects to assess dietary habits 20 years before interview. The total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) of different plant foods was used to convert food frequency intake into antioxidant potential. Gastric cancer risk in groups exposed to higher levels of oxidative stress (smoking and Helicobacter pylori infection) was also examined. Intake of antioxidant equivalents was inversely associated with the risk of both cardia and distal gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.89 for the highest quartile of TRAP). Controlling for smoking, the inverse relationship between TRAP values displayed a clearer dose-response pattern. Never-smokers with the highest antioxidant intake had the lowest risk of cancer, 0.44 (95% CI, 0.27-0.71). Among H. pylori-infected subjects, the ORs varied between 0.66 and 0.41 for increasing levels of antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that dietary intake of antioxidants measured as total antioxidant potential is inversely associated with risk of both cardia and distal cancer. The innovative approach used in this study provides a new tool for investigating the relationship between dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress-related carcinogenesis.
Article
"Bioactive compounds" are extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods. They are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on health. The impetus sparking this scientific inquiry was the result of many epidemiologic studies that have shown protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Many bioactive compounds have been discovered. These compounds vary widely in chemical structure and function and are grouped accordingly. Phenolic compounds, including their subcategory, flavonoids, are present in all plants and have been studied extensively in cereals, legumes, nuts, olive oil, vegetables, fruits, tea, and red wine. Many phenolic compounds have antioxidant properties, and some studies have demonstrated favorable effects on thrombosis and tumorogenesis and promotion. Although some epidemiologic studies have reported protective associations between flavonoids or other phenolics and CVD and cancer, other studies have not found these associations. Various phytoestrogens are present in soy, but also in flaxseed oil, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. They have antioxidant properties, and some studies demonstrated favorable effects on other CVD risk factors, and in animal and cell culture models of cancer. However, because phytoestrogens act both as partial estrogen agonists and antagonists, their effects on cancer are likely complex. Hydroxytyrosol, one of many phenolics in olives and olive oil, is a potent antioxidant. Resveratrol, found in nuts and red wine, has antioxidant, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits carcinogenesis. Lycopene, a potent antioxidant carotenoid in tomatoes and other fruits, is thought to protect against prostate and other cancers, and inhibits tumor cell growth in animals. Organosulfur compounds in garlic and onions, isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables, and monoterpenes in citrus fruits, cherries, and herbs have anticarcinogenic actions in experimental models, as well as cardioprotective effects. In summary, numerous bioactive compounds appear to have beneficial health effects. Much scientific research needs to be conducted before we can begin to make science-based dietary recommendations. Despite this, there is sufficient evidence to recommend consuming food sources rich in bioactive compounds. From a practical perspective, this translates to recommending a diet rich in a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, oils, and nuts.
Article
This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.
Article
We assessed the contribution of culinary and medicinal herbs to the total intake of dietary antioxidants. Our results demonstrate that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among antioxidant concentrations of various herbs. Of the dried culinary herbs tested, oregano, sage, peppermint, garden thyme, lemon balm, clove, allspice and cinnamon as well as the Chinese medicinal herbs Cinnamomi cortex and Scutellariae radix all contained very high concentrations of antioxidants (i.e., >75 mmol/100 g). In a normal diet, intake of herbs may therefore contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants, and be an even better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups such as fruits, berries, cereals and vegetables. In addition, the herbal drug, Stronger Neo-Minophagen C, a glycyrrhizin preparation used as an intravenous injection for the treatment of chronic hepatitis, boosts total antioxidant intake. It is tempting to speculate that several of the effects due to these herbs are mediated by their antioxidant activities.