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The objective of this study is to test the interpolation technique of Kriging interpolation for carbon dioxide (CO) mapping over peninsular Malaysia. We present the observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA’s Aqua Satellite. Comparisons of atmospheric carbon monoxide volume mixing ratio profiles (CO_VMR_eff_A) and CO total column amount (CO_total_column_A), Level-3 Daily (AIRX3STD) 1°×1° spatial resolution, as well as Effective CO Volume Mixing Ratio profile (CO_VMR_eff) (9 layers) ascending, Level-2 Daily (AIRX2RET) Standard are presented from AIRS for two different periods, ascending (14/8/2005 & 13/8/2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile to study the abundance of carbon monoxide over peninsular Malaysia and the forest fires influences on its concentration. Observe a daily variation in CO emissions from the Indonesia forests fires with varying magnitudes in peak emission occurring in the regions that experienced extensive wildfires. The strong impact of forest fires makes it difficult to detect any evidence of the CO emission from industrial contributions on daily timescales. Examining satellite measurements, we find the enhanced CO emission correlates with large sources in Industrial and congested urban zones for normal circumstances, while the highest values of CO occurred when biomass burning during Indonesia forest fires on August 2005. Kriging interpolation technique produced the high accuracy based on the R and RMS value in this study. It is concluded that this technique accurately and precisely mapped CO concentration from AIRS data over peninsular Malaysia, and the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of troposphere CO concentrations over different regions.
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September 2010, Volume 4, No.9 (Serial No.34)
Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1934-8959, USA
Daily Carbon Monoxide (CO) Abundance from AIRS over
Peninsular Malaysia
Jasim Mohammed Rajab, Hwee San Lim, Mohad Zubir MatJafri and Khiruldden Abdullah
School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
Received: February 25, 2010 / Accepted: March 16, 2010 / Published: September 25, 2010.
Abstract: The objective of this study is to test the interpolation technique of Kriging interpolation for carbon dioxide (CO) mapping
over peninsular Malaysia. We present the observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the atmospheric infrared sounder
(AIRS) onboard NASA’s Aqua Satellite. Comparisons of atmospheric carbon monoxide volume mixing ratio profiles
(CO_VMR_eff_A) and CO total column amount (CO_total_column_A), Level-3 Daily (AIRX3STD) 1˚×1˚ spatial resolution, as well
as Effective CO Volume Mixing Ratio profile (CO_VMR_eff) (9 layers) ascending, Level-2 Daily (AIRX2RET) Standard are
presented from AIRS for two different periods, ascending (14/8/2005 & 13/8/2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison
using the same a priori profile to study the abundance of carbon monoxide over peninsular Malaysia and the forest fires influences on
its concentration. Observe a daily variation in CO emissions from the Indonesia forests fires with varying magnitudes in peak emission
occurring in the regions that experienced extensive wildfires. The strong impact of forest fires makes it difficult to detect any evidence
of the CO emission from industrial contributions on daily timescales. Examining satellite measurements, we find the enhanced CO
emission correlates with large sources in Industrial and congested urban zones for normal circumstances, while the highest values of
CO occurred when biomass burning during Indonesia forest fires on August 2005. Kriging interpolation technique produced the high
accuracy based on the R and RMS value in this study. It is concluded that this technique accurately and precisely mapped CO
concentration from AIRS data over peninsular Malaysia, and the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of troposphere
CO concentrations over different regions.
Key words: CO, AIRS, peninsular Malaysia, AMSU.
1. Introduction
Southeast Asia which is Malaysia one of its part,
experiencing a similar rapid economic growth to that in
Northeast Asia, is also a large source of several air
pollutants and may make an important contribution to
regional and global pollution because of increasing
anthropogenic emissions associated with biogenic
emissions from large tropical forests. In tropical
regions the greater oxidizing capacity are due to higher
UV intensity and humidity, and rapid development and
industrialization [1, 2].
Carbon monoxide is a gaseous byproduct from the
burning of fossil fuels, in automobiles and industry, as
Corresponding author: Jasim Mohammed Rajab (1966- ),
male, Ph.D., research field: retrieval of atmospheric greenhouse
Gases. E-mail: jasim_rijab@yahoo.com.
well as burning of grasslands and forests, and its
concentration of as little as 400 ppm (0.04%) in the air
can be fatal. The levels of normal carboxyhemoglobin
in an average person are less than 5%, whereas
cigarette smokers (two pack/days) may have levels up
to 9% [3]. CO have an influence on oxidization in the
atmosphere by interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH),
halocarbons, troposphere ozone and methane, but it is
not considered as a direct greenhouse gas because it
does not absorb terrestrial thermal IR, it accountable
for 75% of hydroxyl radicals (OH) sinks [4].
The CO emissions calculated by the global
distribution for the PEM-Tropics B campaign
(March-April 1999) shows that the CO emissions from
biomass burning in Asia are approximately four times
higher than CO from fossil fuel sources over all Asia
Daily Carbon Monoxide (CO) Abundance from AIRS over Peninsular Malaysia
94
(mainly from India and continental Southeast Asia) and
account for 40% of global CO emissions [5].
Fires considered one of the largest anthropogenic
influences on terrestrial ecosystems after agricultural
activities and urban, and its indeed critical elements in
the earth system, vegetation, linking climate, and land
use [6]. In the Southeast Asia many of the social,
economic and environmental impacts causes by forest
and land fires. Tropical haze from peat fires has serious
negative impacts on the human health and regional
economy, and peat land fires affect global carbon
dynamics [7].
Immense plumes of the gas emitted from forest and
grassland burning in Indonesia forest fires 2005 were
badly affected and caused serious air pollution in
Malaysia, northern Sumatra and Singapore. NOAA
recorded 5420 hotspots from satellite images over the
area of fire between mid-July and mid-August [8].
Observed an elevation in the CO measurements higher
than the normal rates from ILP, Perai, P. Pinang station
during the period from mid-June to mid- August 2005.
The first measurement of atmosphere pollution was
from satellite (MAPS) instrument onboard the space
Shuttle with subsequent MAPS flights in 1984 and
1994 [9]. Launched onboard NASA’s Aqua satellite on
4 May 2002, Aqua’s cross-track scanning Advanced
Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) with AIRS
cross-track scanning grating spectrometer companion,
provide vertical profiles of the atmosphere with a nadir
45 km field-of-regard (FOR) across a 1650 km swath
[10].
AIRS broad spectral coverage (3.7 to 16 µm with
2378 channels) includes spectral features of CH4, CO,
O3, and CO2. The objectives of AIRS are (1) to
determine the factors that control the global energy and
water cycles, (2) investigate of atmosphere-surface
interactions, (3) improve numerical weather prediction,
(4) assess climate variations and feedbacks, and (5)
detect the effects of increased carbon dioxide, methane,
ozone and other greenhouse gases. The term “sounder”
in the instrument's name refers to the fact that water
vapor and temperature are measured as functions of
height [11].
This study is based on CO retrievals from a research
version of the current AIRS operational physical
algorithm, used Standard Level-2 (AIRX2RET) Daily
and Level-3 Daily Product (AIRX3STD), Version 5
data, to study daily distribution map of carbon
monoxide over peninsular Malaysia. Results from the
analysis of the retrieved CO total column amount as
well as effective CO volume mixing ratio (ratio of
number of CO molecules to the number of molecules of
air in a unit volume), from Level-3 Daily (ascending)
are compared, between the two different periods (day
time) (14 August 2005 & 13 August 2007) to evaluate
the effect of Indonesia forest fire August 2005 on entire
atmosphere CO column distribution over peninsular
Malaysia. The study was extended by comparing
retrieved CO volume mixing ratio (9 layers) with
pressure from Level-2, for same timing of various, to
evaluate CO distribution in the troposphere and
stratosphere, the land use map of the peninsular
Malaysia was conducted, map was processed and
analyzed by using Photoshop CS and SigmaPlot 11.0
software . The CO maps were generated using Kriging
interpolation technique. This interpolation technique
produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root
mean square error, RMS for CO total column amount
and CO volume mixing ratio.
2. Study Area
The study area is peninsular Malaysia, which is
located within latitudes 1º.18’ N to 6º.42’ N and
longitudes 100º.06’ E to 104º.18 E. An area (Fig. 1),
covering 3.575×105 km2, with a center at Pahang
(102˚ E and 4˚ N) was selected for this study .The
extent of the domain was chosen so that it was
sufficiently large to contain CO plumes. The central
dimensions of the study domain are 550 km E-W and
650 km N-S. Data acquired By AIRS on 14 August
2005 and 13 August 2007 was selected to study the CO
distribution. The data included CO measurements from
Daily Carbon Monoxide (CO) Abundance from AIRS over Peninsular Malaysia
95
Fig. 1 The study area.
AIRS. They were extracted for the study area and were
processed to match in space and time. The Carbone
monoxide data were derived from Atmospheric
Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Version 5 Leve-3 data are
available at http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/datapool/
AIRS_DP/, as well as auxiliary data including the
corresponding location and time along the satellite
track in a Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) format on
daily basis. Using the location information, CO data
were gridded monthly at geospatial resolution of 1˚×1˚
(lat × long).
3. Acquisition and Specification
The AIRS spectrometer is devised to operate in
synchronism with the two microwave instruments,
Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB) and Advanced
Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A1, AMSU-A2).
AIRS infrared spectrometer acquires 2378 spectral
samples at resolutions, λ∆λ, ranging from 1086 to
1570, in three bands: 3.74 μm to 4.61 μm, 6.20 μm to
8.22 μm, and 8.8 μm to 15.4 μm. Using the AIRS
1600-km cross-track swath and cloud-clearing retrieval
capabilities, retrieved daily global CO maps cover
approximately 70% of the earth, Chahine [10]. Results
from the analysis of the retrieved CO total column
amount as well as effective CO volume mixing ratio
used in this work. The V5 Level-3 gridded products are
derived from the Level-2 standard swath products, 36
channels at 500mb, Vertical Coverage 1000 - 1 mb, (7 -
9) layers, are used in the Version 5.0 for the retrieval
of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) abundance, in
the 4.58-4.50 μm (2180-2220 cm-¹) region from AIRS
measured radiances of the IR spectrum.
AIRS retrieval algorithm utilizes a large number of
channels throughout its operating range to first retrieve
surface temperature, tropospheric temperature, water
vapor profiles and emissivity before retrieving CO and
other trace gases because radiances in the CO spectral
region are affected by temperature, and to a lesser
extent water vapor [8].
One of the IR stages of combined IR/MW retrieval
product is the AIRS standard carbon monoxide. The
retrieved volume mixing ratio (CO_VMR_eff) for a
layer defined by the faces of a CO trapezoidal retrieval
function is computed from the integrated CO column
density for the trapezoidal layer (ratio of number of CO
molecules to the number of molecules of air in a unit
volume). The limits of the faces of these layers are
described in CO_trapezoid_layers in which is an array
of 1-based pressSup level indices. There are 9 such
layers in V5 corresponding to the 9 trapezoidal
retrieval functions employed for CO. By summing the
100 column density values to compute the quantity of
(CO_total_column), which is the integrate column
amount of CO from the surface to the top of the
atmosphere (TOA = 0.005 mb).
There are three AIRS Level-3 data products
separately derived from Microwave-Only (MW-Only)
retrievals and combined Infrared/Microwave (IR/MW)
Daily Carbon Monoxide (CO) Abundance from AIRS over Peninsular Malaysia
96
Table 1 Level-3 & Level-2 data sets products.
Data set Short name Granule size
L2 cloud – cleared
radiances AIRI2CF 10 MB
L2 standard product AIRX2RET 5.4 MB
Level-2
L2 support product AIRX2SUP 20 MB
L3 standard daily
product AIRx3STD ~70 MB
L3 8 – day standard
product AIRx3ST8 ~103 MB
Level-3
L3 monthly standard
product AIRx3STM ~105 MB
retrievals as summarized in Table 1 which also
shows set data products by Level-2.
4. Data Analysis and Results
Air pollution reached extremely hazardous levels and
and forced schools and an airport to close when
immense plumes of the gas were emitted from forest
fires in Indonesia. There caused serious air pollution in
Malaysia, northern Sumatra and Singapore, skies over
peninsular Malaysia were noticeably hazier than
normal on mid-August 2005 [11]. We examine of the
Kriging interpolation technique to study the impact of
one smoke transport event on carbon monoxide levels
over peninsular Malaysia. Links between forest fires
and pollution observations downwind are well
established. To better assess the impact of the
transported smoke filled air mass on the local air
quality in peninsular Malaysia, we examined the data
from AIRS for two different periods (day time) (14
August 2005 & 13 August 2007) the retrieved total
column CO (molecules/cm²) (CO_total_column_A)
ascending as well as (CO_VMR_eff_A) effective CO
volume mixing ratio for 7 trapezoid layers ascending,
Level-3 daily (calendar), 1°×1° spatial resolution, to
investigate the daily distribution map of satellite
observed from AIRS and Indonesia forest fire affect on
atmospheric carbon monoxide distribution over
peninsular Malaysia. By using Photoshop CS &
SigmaPlot 11.0 software, map was generated for
CO VMR 14 August 2005 CO VMR 13 August 2007 Diff. VMR 14 August 2005&13 August 2007
CO total 14 August 2005 CO total 13 August 2007 Diff. CO total 14 August 2005 13&August 2007
Fig. 2 The CO VMR (top) [14]August 2005 (left), 13 August 2007 (middle), and differences (14 August 2005 – 13 August 2007)
(right), respectively. Similarly, the retrieved total columns CO (bottom).
Daily Carbon Monoxide (CO) Abundance from AIRS over Peninsular Malaysia
97
(CO_total_column_A) & (CO_VMR_eff_A) over
peninsular Malaysia.
Fig. 2 illustrate the extent of AIRS daily coverage on
the top, the peninsular Malaysia for CO VMR for 14
August 2005 (left), 13 August 2007 (middle), and the
differences (14 August 2005 - 13 August 2007, right),
respectively. Similarly, the retrieved total columns CO
are shown in Fig. 2 bottom. The combination of rich
local sources of CO in peninsular Malaysia along with
the transport of additional CO, and carbone monoxide
from forest fires in Indonesia led to the pollution event
of August 2005, was characterized by elevated CO
values by 50-65% in northern, 25-35% in central
(Kuala Lumpur & its periphery) and 10-20% in
southern regions of peninsular Malaysia. On 13 August
2007 map where normal circumstances in the absence
of any event, large CO total column abundances in the
Industrial and congested urban zones, was over
Selangor (1.9523e+18 molecules/cm²) at latitude 3.5˚
and generally low CO abundances in the North over
Perak (1.6742e+18 molecules/cm² ) at latitude 5.5˚. In
contrast, the 14 August 2005, can be distinctly
identified the Indonesia forest fire influences on CO
total column abundances, observed lowest in the
pristine marine environment of Malacca, increase over
the inland areas, and are highest in the continental
environments at north over Perlis (2.8845e+
molecules/cm²) at latitude 6˚.
The 14 August 2005 - 13 August 2007 total column
CO differences are larger in a range of ~2 - 8.5e+17
molecules/cm² over peninsular Malaysia when the total
column CO amount are very low (1.72e+18
molecules/cm² ) for 13 August 2007. However, CO in
14 August 2005 was higher than in 13 August 2007
over most of areas especially on the northern region
{red colors (1e+18 molecules/cm²) at latitude 5.5º}
when the total column CO amount is relatively high.
The local CO VMR on 13 August 2007, maximum at
Selangor {at latitude 3.5˚ (0.6239 ppm) light blue
pixels}, were CO extensive sources emissions, and
much less over Perlis {at latitude 6˚ (0.5646 ppm)
violet pixels}. Looking carefully at 14 August 2005,
two much localized areas stand out their backgrounds:
Perak (5N, 101.30E) and Kedah (6N, 100.50E),
elevated CO VMR values appear in the northern
regions {at latitude 6o (0.74913 ppm) red color} and
low values in the south {at latitude 2˚ (0.5625 ppm)
violet color}. The northern regions experienced
extensive amount of pollutions from the intense
Indonesia forest fires. The differences are large in the
range of ~0.08 - 0.18 ppm over peninsular Malaysia
when the CO VMR amount are very low (0.56461 ppm)
for 13 August 2007, somewhat less distinct in the south,
while plainly evident in the north and central regions.
For brevity, from Fig. 2, on 13 August 2007 where
normal circumstances in absence of any event the local
CO maximum over Industrial and congested urban
zones (it is the most abundant pollutant in urban
atmosphere and very stable, having an average lifetime
of 2-4 months), usually in the center of peninsular
Malaysia at latitude 3˚. Much less of CO over the
pristine marine environment in the northeast coasts
regions at the latitude 5˚. This was due to lack of
sources CO as well as active monsoon in those areas
which remove polluting gases continuously (CO
slightly lighter than air). The map of 14 August 2005,
distinctly identified the influences of Indonesia forest
fires on CO VMR and CO total column values, the
maximum peak occurs precisely in the regions that
experienced wildfires, at northern areas of peninsular
Malaysia. In addition, higher CO concentrations were
still found over Industrial and congested urban zones.
With nine trapezoidal retrieval functions, the V5
AIRS CO retrieval algorithm produces 9 layers with
each corresponding to the CO_VMR_eff for the
respective trapezoid. Fig. 3 presents two sets of
retrieved volume mixing ratio VMR, one for a
relatively clean atmosphere over peninsular Malaysia
[a, (13 August 2007)], and one with a polluted
boundary layer containing industrial and biomass
burning emissions [b, (14 August 2005)]. For the clean
case, note how most of the VMR layers have similar
Daily Carbon Monoxide (CO) Abundance from AIRS over Peninsular Malaysia
98
(a) 13 August 2007 (b) 14 August 2005
Fig. 3 The effective CO volume mixing ratio with pressure (a) 13 August 2007 and (b) 14 August 2005.
shapes and peak near 500 millibar (mb). For the
polluted case, note how the VMR layers for the two
lowest trapezoids peak between 600 and 850 mb and at
the surface are as significant as any other VMR layers.
The comparisons between [a] and [b] shows there is
apparent of biases with [b] higher than [a], and somewhat
less distinct in Stratosphere and top of Troposphere.
Below 500 mb atmosphere’s mass are lies, many
weather systems tend to follow the wind flow at this
level, this level is often considered to denote the
steering guide level of these systems. At 500 mb,
differences are range (5-10%) the highest over northern
regions, while the layers (600, 700, 850, 900 mb) the
differences are range (8-20%) but the highest over
central regions at latitude 3˚ and 4˚. Near the surface,
there are clear discrepancy and different between the
values of CO from north to south in 2005, while less
difference in 2007.
Observed elevated CO values appear over Penang
higher than the normal rates from ILP, Perai, P. Pinang
station during the period from mid-June to mid- August
2005. The average for August was 0.602 ppm and
0.928 ppm for 14 August 2005, with the relative
decline for the month of August 2007, for August
(0.358 ppm) and (0.228 ppm) for 13 August 2007. The
above results show the significant influences of
Indonesia forest fire on CO values for August 2005,
whereas, the value on 13 August recorded by surface
monitors across the Penang area was the highest of any
August day during the 1996-2007 periods.
5. Conclusions
As demonstrated here, AIRS’ daily views of
atmosphere CO across the study area enable detailed
analyses of both the spatial and temporal variations in
emissions and the visualization of subsequent transport.
The Kriging interpolation technique accurately and
precisely mapped CO concentration from AIRS data
over peninsular Malaysia. Level-3 and Level-2 daily
CO retrieval standard from AIRS data were used to
evaluate the daily CO distributions. The generated map
distinctly identified the highest values of CO occurred
when biomass burning during Indonesia forest fires on
August 2005, the local CO maximum in a region
experienced extensive the intense fires, while for
normal circumstances over populous cities and
industrial zones. Also characterized elevated CO
values by (8-20%) in mid-troposphere at pressure (600,
Daily Carbon Monoxide (CO) Abundance from AIRS over Peninsular Malaysia
99
700, 850 and 900 mb); the highest was over central
regions at latitude 3˚ and 4˚.
Satellite measurements are able to measure the
increase of atmospheric CO values over different
regions and CO maps will lead to a more understanding
of the CO budget. Further study will be extended to
include assess the observation and measurement of the
satellite (AIRS) to the effects of other pollutant &
greenhouses gases.
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... The Kriging Interpolation technique is a geostatistical technique that can be conducted in SigmaPlot 11. This technique uses a high correlation coefficient R 2 and a low root mean square (RMS) to generate the maps of AST (JASIM et al. 2010). The graphic-editing program Photoshop was used to generate the AST maps for direct comparison in 2009. ...
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The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated (R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003–2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST (R = 0.776–0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264–0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (−0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.
... The Kriging Interpolation technique is a geostatistical technique that can be conducted in SigmaPlot 11. This technique uses a high correlation coefficient R 2 and a low root mean square (RMS) to generate the maps of AST ( JASIM et al. 2010). The graphic-editing program Photoshop was used to generate the AST maps for direct comparison in 2009. ...
Conference Paper
The damage resulting from global warming was faster than any experts have predicted or anticipated. Global mean temperature has increased by 0.3-0.6 C during the past 100 years, and warming has been accelerating at a rate of 0.15 since the mid-1970s. The result of an increase of temperature is the greenhouse gases (GHGs). Results from the analysis of the retrieved monthly (AIRX3STM) 1ºх1º and (AIRX3C2M) 2.5ºх2º spatial resolution, from the Atmosphere infrared sounder (AIRS) data were utilized to analyze the impacts of the GHGs (CO2, O3, CH4 and H2Ovapor) on the air surface temperature (AST) in Peninsular Malaysia for the period 2003-2008 using multiple regression analysis. AIRS is one of the several instruments onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS), onboard NASA's Aqua Satellite, launched on May 4, 2002. Among the four pollutants, AST was most affected by water vapor (H2Ovapor) indicated by strong positive Beta coefficient (0.244 - 1.587). O3 shows a different positive effect with season’s variations (0.264 - 1.558), and CH4 has disparate negative influence. CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with AST by low to moderate Beta coefficient values ranged from -0.592 to 0.238. The variation of pollutants on the average explains change 60.5% of the AST. This indicates that about 60.5% of the AST are attributed to these pollutant gases. The AIRS data and the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of the atmosphere greenhouse gases over different regions.
... A greater decrease in CO occurred over the pristine continental environment in the northeast regions in June at Perak (101.5º×5°) during the wet season. This decrease was caused by the lack of a source of CO as well as the direct influence of the southwesterly wind, which continuously removes pollutant gases (CO is slightly lighter than air) [21]. In addition, the CO values were higher in the central and southern regions than in the other regions throughout the year because there were many sources, such as crowded cities, and there was more of an effect from the peatland fires in Sumatra. ...
Conference Paper
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Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important pervasive atmosphere trace gas affecting to the climate. World-wide, the anthropogenic sources produce about 50% of CO emissions with the remainder coming from biomass burning and oxidation. The CO plays as a significant indirect greenhouse gases due to its influences on the budgets of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and Ozone (O3). Results from the analysis of the retrieved monthly (AIRX3STM) 1ºх1º spatial resolution, from the Atmosphere infrared sounder (AIRS) data were utilized to analyze the distribution of CO mixing ratio in Peninsular Malaysia for the period 2003-2009. AIRS is one of the several instruments onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS), onboard NASA's Aqua Satellite, launched on May 4, 2002. The analysis for five dispersed stations shows the quasi-biennial variation in CO over study area in October is plainly evident in the monthly average AIRS CO figures. Maximum values occur in 2004, 2005, and 2008, with minima in 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2009. The highest values of CO occurred during biomass burning in dry season, and over the industrial and congested urban zones. A greater draws down of the CO occurs over the pristine continental environment in the northeast region regions on June at Perak (101.5º×5°) during the wet season. The high values of CO coincide with the impact of El Nino, especially in the southern region. The monthly CO total column maps for 2009 were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. The AIRS data and the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of the atmosphere CO concentrations over different regions.
... This method uses high correlation coefficients R 2 and low root mean square (RMS) to generate the maps of AST, O 3 , and other gases. 23 SigmaPlot was also used to correlate the predicted and the observed ASTs and O 3 and to plot their values in different months and regions for comparison. The validation processes for the predicted AST and O 3 were carried out using Excel. ...
Article
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There is growing consensus that, since the start of the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmospheric has increased due to continuous increases in anthropogenic emissions. This increase in GHGs concentration has lead to problems for the environment and has negative impacts on health. This study encompasses air surface temperature (AST) modelling in the lower atmosphere. Data of four atmosphere pollutant gases (CO, O3, CH4, and H2Ovapour) dataset, retrieved from NASA’s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), for the entire period (2003 - 2008) was employed to develop model to predict AST value in peninsular Malaysia using multiple regression method. For all period, the pollutants were highly correlated (R= 0.821) with predicted AST. Comparisons among five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the SWM season, within 1.3 K, and for in situ data, within 1-2 K. The validation results of AST with AST from AIRS showed high correlation coefficient (R= 0.845 - 0.918), providing indication of models efficiency and accuracy. Statistical analysis in term of β showed that H2Ovapour (0.565–1.746) tended to contribute significantly to high AST values during the NEM season. H2Ovapour (1.042–2.036) and O3 during the SWM season were indicated by the strongly positive β (0.421-0.864). CO has a moderately positive β (0.125–0.96) associated with AST values, and CH4 (-0.525–0.426) is also an important parameter in determining the variability of the AST value. Generally, these results clearly indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis study to investigate the impact of atmospheric GHGs on AST over peninsular Malaysia. A model was developed capable of retrieving peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging between1-2 K.
... A greater draw down of the CO occurs over the pristine continental environment in the northeast region regions on June at Perak (101.5º×5°) during wet season. This was due to lack of sources CO as well as the direct influence of south westerly wind, which remove polluting gases continuously (CO slightly lighter than air) (Jasim et al., 2010). Furthermore, the rain is a great cleanser of the atmosphere so the (Hoskins, 2001). ...
Conference Paper
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Ozone (O 3) is a radiatively active trace gas that plies important role in atmosphere heating rates because of its good ability to absorb the infrared radiation and occur both at the ground level and naturally in the earth's upper atmosphere. Results from the analysis of the retrieved monthly (AIRX3STM) 1ºх1º spatial resolution Atmosphere infrared sounder (AIRS) data were utilized to analyze the distribution of O 3 column burden in Peninsular Malaysia for the period 2003-2009. AIRS is one of the several instruments onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS), onboard NASA's Aqua Satellite, launched on May 4, 2002. The analysis of O 3 above five dispersed stations in study area shows the seasonal variation in the O 3 values fluctuated considerably between wet and dry periods, and O 3 values strongly correlated with weather conditions. The lowest O 3 observed during rainy months, low temperature and low sunshine hours, vice versa. The highest O 3 values occurred over Industrial and congested urban zones. The monthly O 3 maps were generated, to study O 3 distribution over peninsular Malaysia for 2009, using Kriging Interpolation technique. The AIRS data and the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of the atmosphere O 3 concentrations over different regions.
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Acid deposition is a serious problem throughout much of Asia. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been increasing steadily, as nations strive to increase their levels of economic development. Coal and fuel oil have been the main choices for powering industrial development; and, until recently, only a few countries had taken steps to avert the atmospheric emissions that accompany fuel combustion. This paper discusses trends in emissions of SO2 and NOx that have occurred in Asian countries in the period 1985–1997, using results from the RAINS-Asia computer model and energy-use trends from the IEA Energy Statistics and Balances database. Emissions of SO2 in Asia grew from 26.6 Tg in 1985 to 33.7 Tg in 1990 and 39.2 Tg in 1997. Though SO2 emissions used to grow as fast as fossil-fuel use, recent limitations on the sulfur content of coal and oil have slowed the growth. The annual-average emissions growth between 1990 and 1997 was only 2.2%, considerably less than the economic growth rate. Emissions of NOx, on the other hand, continue to grow rapidly, from 14.1 Tg in 1985 to 18.7 Tg in 1990 and 28.5 Tg in 1997 (6.2% per year between 1990 and 1997), with no signs of abating. Thus, though SO2 remains the major contributor to acidifying emissions in Asia, the role of NOx will become more and more important in the future.
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Fires are critical elements in the Earth System, linking climate, humans, and vegetation. With 200–500 Mha burnt annually, fire disturbs a greater area over a wider variety of biomes than any other natural disturbance. Fire ignition, propagation, and impacts depend on the interactions among climate, vegetation structure, and land use on local to regional scales. Therefore, fires and their effects on terrestrial ecosystems are highly sensitive to global change. Fires can cause dramatic changes in the structure and functioning of ecosystems. They have significant impacts on the atmosphere and biogeochemical cycles. By contributing significantly to greenhouse gas (e.g., with the release of 1.7–4.1 Pg of carbon per year) and aerosol emissions, and modifying surface properties, they affect not only vegetation but also climate. Fires also modify the provision of a variety of ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, soil fertility, grazing value, biodiversity, and tourism, and can hence trigger land use change. Fires must therefore be included in global and regional assessments of vulnerability to global change. Fundamental understanding of vulnerability of land systems to fire is required to advise management and policy. Assessing regional vulnerabilities resulting from biophysical and human consequences of changed fire regimes under global change scenarios requires an integrated approach. Here we present a generic conceptual framework for such integrated, multidisciplinary studies. The framework is structured around three interacting (partially nested) subsystems whose contribute to vulnerability. The first subsystem describes the controls on fire regimes (exposure). A first feedback subsystem links fire regimes to atmospheric and climate dynamics within the Earth System (sensitivity), while the second feedback subsystem links changes in fire regimes to changes in the provision of ecological services and to their consequences for human systems (adaptability). We then briefly illustrate how the framework can be applied to two regional cases with contrasting ecological and human context: boreal forests of northern America and African savannahs.
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Results from the analysis of the retrieved carbon dioxide (CO2) columns in the free troposphere are presented for one year (2005) obtained by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) included on the EOS Aqua satellite launched on May 4, 2002. Providing information for several greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, CO and O3 is one goal of the AIRS instrument as well as to improve weather prediction and study the water and energy cycle. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the most prominent Greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere and plays a key role in earth's climate. It is emitted into the air as humans exhale, from burning fossil fuels for energy and deforestation of the planet. The aim of this study is to generate Monthly CO2 Distribution maps and to investigate the effects of Indonesia forest fires on CO2 distributions over Peninsular Malaysia, north Sumatra and Singapore for 2005. The CO2 concentration map of the study area was generated by using mole_fraction of CO2 in free troposphere, obtained from AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly CO2 retrieval product (AIRS+AMSU) V005 (AIRX3C2M) at GES DISC. Considerable variations were demonstrated in the annual changes of rainfall and drought patterns in various seasons (dry & wet season). Variations in the biomass burning and CO2 emissions where noted over the study area, while the highest CO2 occurred over industrial and congested urban zones and a greater draw down of CO2 occurred in the pristine marine environment over northeast coasts of Sumatra during 2005. In particular, we observe a quasi-biennial variation in CO2 emissions from study area with two peaks, the natural peak occurring at the end of each dry season (February to April), when biomass burning occurs, and the second peak at wet season (July to September), because of the influence of Indonesia forest fire. Examining satellite measurements, the results showed that the enhanced CO2 emission correlates with occasions of less rainfall during dry season.
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[1] Accurate emission inventories and their temporal trends must be incorporated into pollutant inventories to allow for reliable modeling of the country's past, present, and future air quality. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations from two urban areas show that the CO/NOx vehicular emission ratio has decreased at an average rate of 7–9% per year from 1987 to 1999. This amounts to a factor of nearly 3 over the 12 years. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tabulations of estimated pollutant emission trends indicate a rate of decrease smaller by a factor of 2–3. The trend in maximum ambient CO levels in U.S. cities suggests a 5.2 ± 0.8% per year average annual decrease in CO vehicular emissions, which implies a 2–3% annual increase in NOx emissions from vehicles. Thus over the decade of the 1990s, annual U.S. CO emissions from vehicles have decreased from ∼65 to ∼38 Tg, representing approximate decreases of 6 and 3% in the annual global fuel-use CO emissions and in total global anthropogenic CO emissions, respectively. It is expected that the volatile organic compound (VOC)/NOx vehicular exhaust emission ratio has decreased similarly, implying that the character of atmospheric photochemistry in U.S. urban areas has changed significantly over the decade.
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The authors have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5{degrees}-50{degrees}N, 90{degrees}-105{degrees}W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method of Pickering et al. which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10{sup 8} kg CO month{sup {minus}1} to the free troposphere during early summer, assuming the June statistics are typical. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10{sup 8} kg CO month{sup {minus}1}). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O{sub 3} precursors leads to efficient free tropospheric O{sub 3} formation. The authors estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66-1.1 Gmol O{sub 3} d{sup {minus}1} in good agreement with estimates of O{sub 3} production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model. In this respect the central US region acts as a {open_quotes}chimney{close_quotes} for the country. 44 refs.
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The Pacific Exploratory Mission to the Tropics phase B (PEM-Tropics B) aircraft campaign in March-April 1999 surveyed the chemical composition of the Pacific atmosphere from 35°N to 35°S and up to 12 km altitude. We use these observations in combination with a global three-dimensional model driven by assimilated meteorological observations to investigate the transport of northern hemispheric pollutants over the Pacific. We focus on carbon monoxide (CO) and tag it in the model by its region of origin. The model reproduces the observed large-scale latitudinal, longitudinal, and vertical gradients of CO concentrations over the Pacific. Biomass burning in Southeast Asia, which was particularly intense in spring 1999, contributed most of the CO enhancements observed in the free troposphere over the northern tropical Pacific but played only a minor role in the boundary layer. Fossil fuel combustion in Europe and Asia contributed most of the observed CO enhancements in the boundary layer over the North Pacific; the European influence dominated over Asian influence north of 35°N. European influence over the Pacific is particularly strong in spring because of wintertime accumulation of CO at high latitudes. North American pollution made little contribution to CO anywhere over the Pacific. Circulation of Eurasian industrial pollution around the Pacific High and into the trade winds produced a tropical "river of pollution" flowing in the lower troposphere from the northeastern to the western equatorial Pacific and in the vicinity of the South Pacific Convergence Zone. This pathway, however, made little contribution to interhemispheric exchange. Elevated concentrations observed for CO and other northern hemispheric tracers in the upper troposphere over the southeastern Pacific provide evidence for efficient interhemispheric exchange through a narrow region of upper tropospheric westerlies in the eastern equatorial Pacific (the "westerly duct"). We find that this westerly duct was the most important pathway for global interhemispheric exchange during PEM-Tropics B. It was particularly well developed because of the La Nina conditions.
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Spaceborne measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) were made by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment during April 9–19, 1994, and September 30 to October 11, 1994, from the space shuttle Endeavour. During the April mission, MAPS operated for 211 hours, with 736,471 s of nadir-viewing data, of which 161,619 s were cloud-free. In the October mission, MAPS operated for 256 hours, with 821,502 s of nadir-viewing data, of which 192,004 s were cloud-free. During the two 10-day Space Radar Laboratory flights, extensive and internally consistent correlative measurements and observations were made on the ground at nearly 30 sites between 70°N and 67°S, from five aircraft in three countries, and by the astronaut crews from the space shuttle. These ancillary measurements provided critical information on the nature of the atmospheric environment during the flights, the distribution of the CO mixing ratios in the boundary layer and in the middle troposphere, and the vertical distribution of CO at some locations. Although the airborne CO measurements are the key validation data sets for the MAPS measurements, the ground-based CO measurements provide a near-surface CO boundary condition for modeling applications and for CO emissions investigations. This paper will present the measurements of the April and October 1994 and the October 1984 MAPS CO data. These MAPS results compare well (±10%) with the intercalibrated airborne measurements from the NASA DC-8 flights over North America, and CO profiles from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation aircraft near Cape Grim, Tasmania. Longitudinal and latitudinal transects of the MAPS CO measurements show significant seasonal variability consistent with the seasonal shifts in the locations and strengths of the CO sources. In April the highest average CO values (∼120 ppbv, averaged throughout the depth of the atmosphere) are found over the high northern latitudes, with decreasing amounts (∼45 to 60 ppbv) toward the southern middle and high latitudes. The CO distribution changed dramatically by October with the CO gradient being reversed from that measured during April. During October the highest CO values (greater than 135 ppbv) are concentrated in a tropical envelope extending over central South America, southern Africa, southern India, Indonesia, and northern Australia. Numerous and extensive fires in these areas were observed and photographed by the STS 68 astronaut flight crew.
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The anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx for 25 Asian countries east of Afghanistan and Pakistan have been calculated for 1975, 1980, 1985, 1986 and 1987 based on fuel consumption, sulfur content in fuels and emission factors for used fuels in each emission category. The provincial- and regional-based calculations have also been made for China and India. The total SO2 emissions in these parts of Asia have been calculated to be 18.3 and 29.1 Tg in 1975 and 1987, respectively. The calculated total NOx emissions were 9.4 and 15.5 Tg in 1975 and 1987, respectively. The SO2 and NOx emissions in East Asia (China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea and Taiwan) were 23.4 and 10.7 Tg in 1975 and 1987, respectively.Keyword: Emission inventories, sulfur dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emissions, Asian emissions, anthropogenic emissions.
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Forest and land fires in Southeast Asia have many social, economic, and environmental impacts. Tropical peatland fires affect global carbon dynamics, and haze from peat fires has serious negative impacts on the regional economy and human health. To mitigate these fire-related problems, forest and land management agencies require an early warning system to assist them in implementing fire prevention and management plans before fire problems begin. Fire Danger Rating Systems (FDRS) were developed for Indonesia and Malaysia to provide early warning of the potential for serious fire and haze events. In particular, they identify time periods when fires can readily start and spread to become uncontrolled fires and time periods when smoke from smouldering fires will cause an unacceptably high level of haze. The FDRS were developed by adapting components of the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System, including the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System, to local vegetation, climate, and fire regime conditions. A smoke potential indicator was developed using the Drought Code (DC) of the FWI System. Historical air quality analysis showed that the occurrence of severe haze events increased substantially when DC was above 400. An ignition potential indicator was developed using the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) of the FWI System. Historical hot spot analysis, grass moisture, and grass ignition studies showed that fire occurrence and the ability for grass fires to start and spread dramatically increased when FFMC > 82. The Initial Spread Index (ISI) of the FWI System was used to develop a difficulty of control indicator for grassland fires, a fuel type that can exhibit high rates of spread and fire intensity. This ISI-based indicator was developed using the grass fuel model of the FBP System, along with a standard grass fuel load and curing level estimated from previous Indonesian studies. Very high fire intensity is expected in grasslands when ISI ≥ 6. To provide early warning, the FDRS identifies classes of increasing fire danger as the FFMC, DC, and ISI approach these key threshold values. The Indonesian FDRS is now operated nationally at the Indonesian Meteorological and Geophysical Agency. The Malaysian Meteorological Service operates the Malaysian FDRS and displays regional outputs for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The FDRS are being used by forestry, agriculture, environment, and fire and rescue agencies to develop and implement fire prevention, detection, and suppression plans.
Article
New state-of-the-art methodology is described to analyze the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit/Humidity Sounder for Brazil (AIRS/AMSU/HSB) data in the presence of multiple cloud formations. The methodology forms the basis for the AIRS Science Team algorithm, which will be used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data on the Earth Observing System Aqua platform. The cloud-clearing methodology requires no knowledge of the spectral properties of the clouds. The basic retrieval methodology is general and extracts the maximum information from the radiances, consistent with the channel noise covariance matrix. The retrieval methodology minimizes the dependence of the solution on the first-guess field and the first-guess error characteristics. Results are shown for AIRS Science Team simulation studies with multiple cloud formations. These simulation studies imply that clear column radiances can be reconstructed under partial cloud cover with an accuracy comparable to single spot channel noise in the temperature and water vapor sounding regions; temperature soundings can be produced under partial cloud cover with RMS errors on the order of, or better than, 1 K in 1-km-thick layers from the surface to 700 mb, 1-km layers from 700-300 mb, 3-km layers from 300-30 mb, and 5-km layers from 30-1 mb; and moisture profiles can be obtained with an accuracy better than 20% absolute errors in 1-km layers from the surface to nearly 200 mb.