A New Intercostal Artery Management Strategy for Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair
Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA. Journal of Surgical Research
(Impact Factor: 1.94).
07/2008; 154(1):99-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2008.05.024
The purpose of this study is to describe a new approach for addressing the intraoperative management of intercostal arteries during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair, using preoperative spinal MRA for detection of intercostal arteries supplying the anterior spinal artery.
Patients undergoing TAAA repair from August 2005 to September 2007 were included. Spinal artery MRA was performed to identify the anterior spinal artery, the artery of Adamkiewicz, and its major intercostal source artery (SA-AAK). Intraoperative spinal cord protection was carried out using standard techniques. Important intercostal arteries were either preserved or reimplanted as a button patch after removing aortic clamps. Demographic and perioperative data were collected for review. Analysis was performed with Fisher's exact test or Student's t-test, where applicable, using SAS ver. 8.0 (Cary, NC).
Spinal artery MRA was performed in 27 patients. The SA-AAK was identified in 85% of preoperative studies. Open or endovascular repair was performed in 74% and 26% of patients, respectively. The SA-AAK was preserved or reimplanted in 13 (65%) of patients who underwent open repair. A mean of 1.67 (range 1-3) intercostal arteries were reimplanted. All patients undergoing endovascular repair necessitated coverage of the SA-AAK. No patient developed immediate or delayed paraplegia. Longer mean operative times in the reimplanted cohort were not statistically significant (330 versus 245 min, P = 0.1).
The SA-AAK identified by MRA can be preserved or safely reimplanted after TAAA repair. Further study is warranted to determine if selective intercostal reimplantation can reduce the risk of immediate or delayed paraplegia.
Available from: Germano Melissano
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ABSTRACT: Preoperative knowledge of the spinal cord (SC) vasculature could be useful for stratifying and decreasing the risk of perioperative paraplegia after thoracic and thoraco-abdominal aortic surgery. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) angiography and post-processing techniques have improved this knowledge.
A search of MEDLINE/Pubmed and SCOPUS databases identified 1414 pertinent abstracts; 123 full-length manuscripts were screened to identify relevant studies with acceptable design and patient numbers. Forty-three were selected.
SC circulation was studied in 1196 patients to detect the great radicular artery: 522 by MR-angiography and 674 by CT angiography. Detection rates were 67-100% (mean 80.8%) with MR-angiography being 18-100% (mean 72%) with CT angiography. The side and level of the great radicular artery were consistent between the methods. Several authors tried to use the imaging results to guide clinical management.
Non-invasive imaging of the SC blood supply allows preoperative definition of the vasculature in many, but not all, cases. The impact of these findings on clinical management is potentially beneficial but still uncertain. Further improvements in image acquisition and post-processing techniques are needed. Future studies need to be large enough to compensate for inter-individual variability in SC vasculature in health and disease; however, even a partial reduction of paraplegia rate offers a formidable motivation for further research in this area.
Available from: Altin Stafa
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ABSTRACT: The major radicular artery eponymically named "Adamkiewicz's artery" (AKA) is an important vessel supplying the spinal cord, especially the lumbar enlargement. This report emphasizes the importance of anatomical knowledge of this artery and highlights the concept of the potential risk of neurological complications during different procedures: spine orthopedic/neurosurgery, aortic repair (vascular surgery) and endovascular selective embolizations performed by interventional neuro/radiologists. Anatomical considerations are made on the spinal cord arterial circulation with a special focus on the AKA. Our review of the literature considered this anatomical element essential to compare the potential risk of spinal cord ischemic damage during orthopedic/neurosurgical spine procedures, aortic vascular surgery repair procedures and endovascular selective arterial embolizations. Evaluation of the endovascular selective arterial spine embolization risk was based on our series of 410 embolization procedures. Spinal cord infarction and transient or permanent paraplegia may result from inadvertent interruption of the AKA. The presence of intersegmental collaterals may decrease the risk of spinal cord ischemia: this is an important element to bear in mind that may help in spine surgery or aortic repair procedures performed by vascular surgeons. Nevertheless, during aortic repair (open surgery or stent-graft procedures) interruption of bilateral segmental arteries at multiple consecutive levels including that of the AKA may occur thereby increasing the ischemic spinal cord risk, annulling the benefit of intersegmental collaterals. Accidental embolizations of the AKA during endovascular spine procedures (i.e. selective arterial embolizations) performed by interventional neuro/radiologists will cause an almost certain spinal cord infarction due to the consequent embolizations of the anterior spinal artery (ASA).
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the presurgical localization of the artery of Adamkiewicz prior to reimplantation of the feeding intercostal artery, lumbar artery, or both during aortic aneurysm repair.
This institutional review board-approved retrospective study included 68 patients (36 men, 32 women) who underwent time-resolved spinal MR angiography (0.2 mmol per kilogram of body weight gadobenate dimeglumine administered at a rate of 2.0 mL per second) performed with a 3.0-T imager with a dedicated eight-element spine coil. Images were reviewed at a three-dimensional workstation by two experienced radiologists in consensus. The artery of Adamkiewicz was identified, and the location of the feeding intercostal and/or lumbar artery was ascertained by using a five-point confidence index (scores ranged from 1 to 5). The phases in which the artery of Adamkiewicz, aorta, and great anterior radiculomedullary vein (GARV) demonstrated peak enhancement were also recorded.
The artery of Adamkiewicz and the location of the feeding intercostal and/or lumbar artery were identified with high confidence in 60 (88%) of the 68 patients. Origins of the artery of Adamkiewicz were on the left side of the body in 65% of patients and on the right side in 35%. The level of origin ranged from the T6 neuroforamina to the L1 neuroforamina. The arrival of contrast material was highly variable in this patient population, which had substantial aortic disease. The highest signal intensity in the aorta, artery of Adamkiewicz, and GARV occurred a mean of 55 seconds (range, 27-99 seconds; 95% confidence interval [CI] 51, 58), 72 seconds (range, 38-110 seconds; 95% CI: 68, 76), and 95 seconds (range, 46-156 seconds; 95% CI: 89, 101) after contrast material administration, respectively.
The artery of Adamkiewicz and the anterior spinal artery can be identified and differentiated from the GARV even in patients with substantially altered hemodynamics by using time-resolved 3.0-T MR angiography.
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