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Lumiere's Arrival of the Train: Cinema's Founding Myth

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The Moving Image 4.1 (2004) 89-118 Louis Lumière's film Arrival of the Train shows, in only fifty seconds, an everyday occurrence, a familiar experience for spectators: a train pulls into a station, the passengers go back and forth on the platform. Despite its brevity and the banality of its subject matter, this film has attained fame, entering film history as an icon of the medium's origins. Just how important the film had become in constructing the founding myth of cinema's birth became clear during the centenary of cinema, which provided ample opportunity to recall the film. In Germany, as well as in other countries, numerous television and press reports attested to cinema's undiminished vitality, using this film as evidence: already pronounced dead several times, cinema was said to be capable of resisting even new electronic media by asserting its peculiar power to fascinate the senses and to appeal to audiences. In this context, Lumière's cinematographic locomotive and its startling effect is mentioned repeatedly as an illuminating example from the first days of cinema. Thus, Hellmuth Karasek writes in Der Spiegel: Even the German Railway's customer magazine picks up the gag, visually embellishing the supposedly panicky reaction: "The spectators ran out of the hall in terror because the locomotive headed right for them. They feared that it could plunge off the screen and onto them." The Munich Abendzeitung purportedly knew that "at the time, people, appalled by Arrival of the Train, were said to have leaped from their chairs." These journalistic claims are of course backed up by the standard works of film history. In Gregor and Patalas we can read that "according to handed-down knowledge, the locomotive terrified the audience." In connection with the menacing effect of Nosferatu, Lotte Eisner recalls that "the spectators in the Grand Café involuntarily threw themselves back in their seats in fright, because Lumière's giant locomotive pulling into the station seemingly ran toward them." Georges Sadoul, in his French classic of film history, writes: "In L'Arrivée d'un train, the locomotive, coming from the background of the screen, rushed toward the spectators, who jumped up in shock, as they feared getting run over." It is beside the point that these standard works were written thirty to forty years ago. The audience's terror in view of the arriving train is still passed on as a proven fact by film historians today. Bernard Chardère laconically notes, "The locomotive frightened the spectators." In the German edition of Emmanuelle Toulet's Birth of the Motion Picture, one can read under the heading "Beginning with Terror": "The amazement at seeing windswept trees and stormy seas is followed by naked horror when the train approaching the station of La Ciotat appears to move toward them." Noël Burch also asserts that in 1896 the spectators "jumped up from their chairs in shock." Finally, Jean-Jacques Meusy simply assumes that these audience reactions are known and presents Arrival of the Train as the spectacular beginning of the medium's affective power: "The overwhelming realism of this film is proof of the complete identification of the spectator's gaze with the camera's point of view and prefigures all shocking sequences to come." The story of the audience's terror circulates as a generally agreed-upon rumor. Mainstream film historiography has provided neither evidence nor even references to contemporary sources. Film historians...

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... Take, for instance, two stories that have become veritable "founding myths" for cinema and radio broadcasting: the anecdote about the first spectators of the cinematograph panicking before the moving image of a train (often labeled "the train effect"), and the anecdote about the reaction of listeners to Orson Welles' "War of the Worlds" radio broadcast, who reportedly panicked at what they thought were actual news reports about the invasion of Martians. As historians of film and broadcasting have demonstrated, both anecdotes are apocryphal, or at least greatly exaggerated; yet, they became a veritable emblem for film's and broadcasting's early history, providing powerful narratives to represent their nature and their role in our society and helping consistently to structure early claims about media effects (Bottomore, 1999;Loiperdinger, 2004;Pooley & Socolow, 2013a). The two tales mirror established patterns by which encounters with new technologies and media forms have been told and imagined throughout history. ...
... As historians have convincingly documented, the anecdote of the "train effect" hardly reflects historical facts. Close examination of primary sources from several national contexts (Bottomore, 1999;Gunning, 1989a;Loiperdinger, 2004;Sirois-Trahan, 2004;Tsivian, 1994) revealed that, if there were any panic at all, it did not take the form of a full-scale escape or retreat but merely of a "drawing back" of some people in the audience before the image of a train-something which a contemporary viewer may perhaps have experienced in watching a spectacular scene of an action movie, or in experiencing for the first time the effects of high-definition 3D cinema (Elsaesser, 2013). Also, several elements in the conditions of early cinematic screenings suggest that audiences would have not reacted in such a dramatic way. ...
... Moving toward such approaches is crucial if we consider the extent to which narratives about media are frequently addressed within the history of a single medium or technology, rather than within the context of broader media histories. Scholars addressing the anecdote of cinema's panicking audience, for instance, have mainly worked on its significance within the history of the cinematic medium (Bottomore, 1999;Loiperdinger, 2004;Sirois-Trahan, 2004). In my brief examination of this case, I have employed a different perspective, pointing to the recurrence of anecdotes about panicking audiences within several contexts and in reference to different media. ...
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... The anecdote about the spectators frightened by the reality of the Lumières' L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat (1895) has already been disproven as a historical fact, but it is not entirely false. Even though it is unlikely that anyone really mistook the image for an actual train, Martin Loiperdinger and Bernd Elzer (2004) have pointed out that the spectators were nonetheless thrown off by its hyperreal quality. The moving image's deep focus and distorted proportions were unfamiliar features that assaulted the audience, displacing the more traditional grammar of perspective representation to the background of their perception. ...
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... Spectators did not want to see reality on the screen, but rather images of reality, which were different from reality". See (Loiperdinger and Elzer 2004). 41 (Plate 2017, p. 9). ...
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... In cinema, instead, the technology was openly presented as responsible for the performance of the illusion that deceived spectators. It is for this reason, perhaps, that the reception of early cinematic shows were sometimes characterized by a sense of uneasiness regarding the illusion and its effects on the spectators : take, for instance, the apocryphal anecdotes about early cinema's panicking audiences, which imagined spectators actually escaping from the illusory menace created by the projector (Bottomore 1999;Loiperdinger 2004;Sirois-Trahan 2004;Tsivian 1994). The spectacle of early cinema, in this sense, was produced by a dispositif that combined a particular positioning of the spectator, developed within the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century within the tradition of spiritualist exposés, with a material technology that offered visual illusions to the viewers of its shows. ...
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... When applying expectancy-value theory (Barrow & Swanson, 1988;Edwards, 1954;Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975;Tolman, 1932) to these early films, it is difficult to assess the direct response from audiences without access to modern metrics to measure viewership and gauge receptiveness. History documents that the Lumière brothers films were popular with audiences and that some were so enamored by the images, they screamed and hid under café tables at the sight of an oncoming train pulling into a station (Loiperdinger & Elzer, 2004). The works of Eisenstein and Vertov have survived the changing times because of the films' influence and importance as deemed by historians and enthusiasts (Aufderheide, 2007). ...
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... but there it lay, quite silent under its ashen sky. it was as though i could have heard even wind and church bells if only i had been more attentive". as in the case of brentano and kleist's 5). in the course of its reception, this event has become the "founding myth of cinema" (Loiperdinger, 2004). According to this myth, the film caused a panic among the spectators, because they mistook the approaching train on the screen for a real one. ...
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... Nevertheless, whether an anecdote is based on events that have or have not taken place, its social and cultural impact depends on the extent to which this story is reported, disseminated, and used by different agents, such as individuals and institutions. Thus, a fake or greatly exaggerated anecdote such as the one about early cinema's "train effect" has become a veritable founding myth for this technology, informing its representation as an illusory machine and contributing to its attractiveness for large audiences throughout the world (Loiperdinger, 2004). ...
... This founding myth of the cinema has been questioned by various scholars of early cinema; see Bottomore 1999;Gunning 1995;Loiperdinger 2004. The arrival of moving pictures in colonial Java coincided with changes in the make-up of the European population, mostly as a result of the lifting of certain restrictions on the immigration of, and marriage to, women from the Netherlands, as well as a lower tolerance of concubinage arrangements between Europeans and their Indonesian housekeepers (nyai). ...
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... En este punto, se hace interesante revisar aquella vieja historia según la cual los espectadores abandonaron la sala de proyecciones corriendo despavoridos ante la amenazante imagen viva del tren aproximándose en La llegada de un tren a la estación de La Ciotat (L'Arrivée D'un Train En Gare De La Ciotat, Auguste Lumière y Louis Lumière, 1895). A pesar de que la misma ha sido desacreditada como un falso mito (Loiperdinger y Elzer, 2004;Duckett, 2014), que no pertenece sino a la leyenda de la que el naciente medio cinematográfico se recubriría, bajo ella se evidencian dos condicionamientos muy claros que operan sobre el espectador: el primero es la naturaleza de la propia experiencia colectiva, compartida, que supone la proyección pública; en tanto que el segundo, ya nos insinúa la irrupción de una seminal estrategia de marketing, diseñada con el objeto de generar interés por dar a conocer del naciente espectáculo cinematográfico, para estimular su consumo. ...
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... The myth says that people started to run in fear from the cinema as they believed the train was real. There is no real evidence that this happened, and most scholars consider it an urban legend(Loiperdinger 2004). ...
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... This fifty-second film became particularly famous due to the illusion it created: the moviegoers of that time were amazed by the fact that the approaching train looked like it would break the screen and, instead of arriving at La Ciotat, would arrive right into the middle of the movie theatre. It is even believed that some viewers were so scared that they ran away from the theatre (Loiperdinger 2004). All this is wellknown. ...
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... This anecdote is questioned byLoiperdinger and Elzer (2004). The authors argue that there is no evidence that the panic of the audience really happened. ...
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... The cinematographic image in fact communicated and conveyed the impression of a real, intimate, direct encounter, whose effect Brunetta (1999) did not hesitate to compare to Lumière's cinématographe's famous "shock of the train". Admittedly, the image of the locomotive rushing at full speed toward the crowd of (supposedly) 'primitive' and 'defenceless' spectators (Bottomore, 1999;Loiperdinger, 2004;Sirois-Trahan, 2004) was certainly more "traumatizing than the first appearance of the pope on the screen […], with his entry on the stage in the carriage and his subsequent apostolic blessing", which "precisely, seemed designed to soothe". Yet it would not have been any less 'exciting' , as it carried a sense of a 'real event': "The Pope emerges from the darkness of the Vatican interior with his white robe and smiling face, and is so close to the eye of the camera […] that it almost makes one want to reach out and touch him" (Brunetta, 1999, p. 552). ...
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... We can also draw on our experience of other media, for there is no reason to believe that VR will be any more likely to deceive us than older media forms, which were once described as equally magical. In January 1896, when audiences first saw the Lumière Brothers' Arrival of a Train at Ciotat Station, they did not run from the theater in terror thinking it was an actual train as the oftrepeated legend has it, though they were no doubt startled and disoriented (Gunning, 1995;Loiperdinger and Elzer, 2004). As the film historian Tom Gunning (1995: 133) has explained, 'the first spectator's experience reveals not a childlike belief, but an undisguised awareness [of] (and delight in) film's illusionistic capabilities.' ...
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The revival of 3D film and television has engaged media retailers and analysts in discussion of the risks associated with novelty viewing, and the likely barriers to wide acceptance. Research by the University of Southern California shows that purchasing decisions are shaped by perceptions of the history of 3D, and its association with 'kitschy photos of '50s movie-house audiences'. In this article, I reflect on one of the most well known of these photographs, in relation to other depictions of the novelty viewing experience of the early 1950s. I suggest that both industry and scholarly analysis might benefit from a more nuanced account of 'the spectacle', based on the contribution of qualitative micro-research into the social nature of the audience experience, and argue that the 3D revival offers a valuable opportunity to develop this research.
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In Electric Animal, Akira Mizuta Lippit argues that when animals, understood in traditional Western thought as lacking language, become images on film, they are turned into languages or semiotic facilities. Inspired by Lippit’s claim, this study poses four interrelated questions. First, is Lippit referring to the animal in general or to specific kinds of animals? Second, how does cinema enact the process of signification? Third, are animals as filmic elements necessarily turned into signs? Finally, what is meant for animals to be transformed into signs? I address these questions by tracing the appearances and functions of dogs in early cinema in relation to Tom Gunning’s paradigmatic account of early cinema as a medium of attractions. Certain dogs in film, I argue, function as distractions that disrupt viewers’ absorption into either attractions or narratives and push them into reconsidering the status of the image in relation to their own viewing positions.
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The technological mediation of near and distant landscapes have long fascinated scholars and the public alike, and it seems like this interest peaks around times of large-scale technological transition, when new modes of both transportation and mediation become available. Few scholars have analyzed this relationship between technology, media, and the perception of landscape as convincingly as Wolfgang Schivelbusch, who famously argued that the landscape perceived by travelers was filtered through the machine ensemble of the railroad system. This article brings Schivelbusch’s thesis into the digital age as a way of examining the spatiality of digital media and the natural world. The article analyzes a series of technologically mediated digital representations of travel and movement through landscapes, in particular the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation’s “slow travel” series of digitally enhanced TV programs. These highly popular mediations of railroad or boat travel challenge Schivelbusch’s ideas of speed, distance, and experience of landscapes, but also direct our attention towards the role of digital media in making sense of a changing world.
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A review essay that moves from Huhtamo's book "Illusions in Motion" (2013) to illustrate the key theoretical tenets of Huhtamo's media archaeology.
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Sex Every Afternoon: Pink Film and the Body of Pornographic Cinema in Japan is a critical reconsideration of the modes and meanings of the Pink Film; a form of soft-core, narrative, theatrical adult film produced in Japan from the 1960s to the present day. Focusing on the period between the early 1980s and the early 2010s, I combine fieldwork with historiographical and theoretical reassessments to explore this industry through the three main dimensions of its contemporary existence???the pro-filmic spaces of production at shooting locations and in studios, the imaginary and remediated realms of the pornographic image on movie and TV screens, and the physical environments of the adult specialty cinema network in Japan. In counterargument to a growing body of knowledge that has, since the rapid spread of adult video formats in Japan in the early 1980s, emphasized the material and contextual specificities of Pink Film and reified the format as an essentially filmic, distinctly theatrical, and particularly Japanese cinema, I examine the ways in which Pink Film has acted instead as a (re)productive point of translation between presumably disparate moving image technologies and audiences. I challenge the assumption that pornographic film, as a ???body genre,??? has the unusual power to directly address or affect spectators??? bodies. I argue that while Pink Film does exhibit an intimate relationship with the bodies of producers and performers that create it, the films themselves focus as much on the spectacular coupling of media technologies as they do the simulated sexual contact of actors in the frame. I also show how adult cinema customers often have no interest in the movie at all, and instead utilize these spaces in ways that are directly disputed by theater management and disavowed by filmic narratives. Sex Every Afternoon recalibrates the ???bodies??? of this body genre to align with the real people who create Pink Films. It issues a challenge to film and pornography studies by arguing that a close textual and contextual evaluation of this medium reveals that the romantic relationship between the moving image and the living spectator is, at best, uncertain.
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This article discusses the role of documentary in memory transmission aimed at uncovering and redressing past legacies. It explores how memories on film are performed and interpreted on film with reference to my documentary, Close To The Bone (Ely-Harper, 2012). It also looks at the contribution documentary film can make to locating, preserving, transforming and protecting autobiographical memories and social histories.
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Suono e musica in Blade Runner: "si può condannare ciò che è effimero?” (MILAN KUNDERA (1984). L'insostenibile leggerezza dell'essere, trad. Antonio Barbato, Adelphi, 1985, p.1)
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This chapter begins with a discussion of the ambivalent chord Méliès struck for the pioneering documentary historians for whom Méliès was rendered an uncanny, estranged autre, an incontestable rival of the (by that time) nearly century-old documentary tradition. On the one hand, Méliès was never considered to be a meaningful or even relevant player in the progression of documentarism. On the other, film historians were then—as they are now—aware of the notion that no mythology is enabled or made viable without a perfect antagonist, a role for which Méliès’s personal characteristics and professional traits were perfectly suited: eccentric, rebellious, extremely innovative, wildly imaginative, hyper-aesthetic, and outrageously creative. In this chapter I present a close reading of a nearly forgotten paragraph from his private memoirs in which he describes his epic journey, with a camera, to the storm-swept beaches of Trouville and Le Havre. Back in Paris with the developed materials, the unexpected, excited audience reaction to the naturalistic documentary marvel he had just produced inspired him to shout at the top of his lungs: “That’s it, exactly!” a cry that, half a century later, would be echoed by the masters of direct cinema. This chapter begins with a discussion of the ambivalent chord Méliès struck for the pioneering documentary historians for whom Méliès was rendered an uncanny, estranged autre, an incontestable rival of the (by that time) nearly century-old documentary tradition. On the one hand, Méliès was never considered to be a meaningful or even relevant player in the progression of documentarism. On the other, film historians were then—as they are now—aware of the notion that no mythology is enabled or made viable without a perfect antagonist, a role for which Méliès’s personal characteristics and professional traits were perfectly suited: eccentric, rebellious, extremely innovative, wildly imaginative, hyper-aesthetic, and outrageously creative. In this chapter I present a close reading of a nearly forgotten paragraph from his private memoirs in which he describes his epic journey, with a camera, to the storm-swept beaches of Trouville and Le Havre. Back in Paris with the developed materials, the unexpected, excited audience reaction to the naturalistic documentary marvel he had just produced inspired him to shout at the top of his lungs: “That’s it, exactly!” a cry that, half a century later, would be echoed by the masters of direct cinema.
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Deepfakes are a new form of synthetic media that broke upon the world in 2017. Bringing photoshopping to video, deepfakes replace people in existing videos with someone else’s likeness. Currently most of their reach is limited to pornography, and they are also used to discredit people. However, deepfake technology has many epistemic promises and perils, which concern how we fare as knowers. Our goal is to help set an agenda around these matters, to make sure this technology can help realize epistemic rights and epistemic justice and unleash human creativity, rather than inflict epistemic wrongs of any sort. Our project is exploratory in nature, and we do not aim to offer conclusive answers at this early stage. There is a need to remain vigilant to make sure the downsides do not outweigh the upsides, and that will be a tall order.
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Since their inception in the XIX Century, mass media have been crucial in shaping the image of the urban environment on our collective subconscious. In the early 20th Century, newspapers and magazines bustled with exacerbated but fascinating images of the city of the future, which appeared as hyperbolic portrayals of the perception that the contemporary citizen had of his own effervescing modern environment. Cinema soon joined this process, as a privileged, mechanical eye that could record, analyse and reinvent the accelerated modern city and its evolution. Fritz Lang’s Metropolis (1926) epitomized the powers of the new medium, providing the viewers with a window that allowed them to see this Lacanian Other come alive, somehow encapsulating their own experience of the new urban reality. Over half a century later films such as Alien (1979) and Blade Runner (1982) took the torch as fictional future representations of postmodern space that provided the postmodern citizen with a suitably hyper-real substitute of reality. Three decades after that, the videogames and virtual reality experiences based on those very films promise to break the final barrier, allowing us to cross to the other side of the membrane, and freely move through that which is, literally, an augmented reality.
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This chapter examines the potential of media technologies in challenging established discourses regarding the Greek political, social, and financial crisis, through an analysis of two documentary projects that were launched in the same period, around 2011. The two platforms in focus, namely The Prism GR 2011 and The Caravan Project, were both initiated in an attempt to capture the onset and evolution of the economic recession in Greece, and its impact on social life and everyday politics, through the aggregation and display of micro-narratives of citizens living in the periphery of the country or of its major urban centers. By analyzing the diverse media methodologies implemented, and more specifically archival practices that are rooted in collective documentation, mobility, and interactivity, this chapter pursues a twofold goal. First, it aims to reveal the complications that arise from every act of representation, and in particular in relation to the abundance of representations of crisis in Greece, leading to a crisis of representation. Second, it addresses the complexity of the relationship between humans, technologies, narratives, material and non-material actors, and in particular in the process of filming external reality, suggesting the ability of this nexus to evoke new, critical subjectivities in times of crisis.
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This article explores the study of pre-cinematic toys and media within the context of a multidisciplinary childhood studies department, arguing that childhood studies and media archaeology share a number of critical preoccupations, analytical approaches, and possibilities for hands-on engagement with historical and contemporary media. From the perspective of childhood, historical media such as optical toys are linked to alternate intellectual genealogies than those that might be expected within the film and media studies classroom. Material engagement with optical toys in this distinct disciplinary space brings new critical and methodological issues surrounding objects such as nineteenth-century optical toys to the surface. The article traces several core concepts that have driven media archaeological inquiry – such as regression and play – and considers how these terms have been deployed, while the closely related concept of childhood has been excluded. Close consideration of children as historical creators and users of optical media offers new possibilities for hands-on classroom practice, from the expansion of archival possibilities and constellations of evidence to the incorporation of critical perspectives from the history of object-based education. While media archaeological inquiry encompasses technologies, devices, and apparatus of all sorts, optical toys and related playthings – of all objects – offer particularly fruitful case studies for experimental analysis. Drawing these two disparate fields together reveals important connections between children as historical creators and users of optical toys and the kinds of questions and conclusions contemporary researchers may draw in classrooms today.
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Bei aller Kritik am Begriff und den Zweifeln an der wesenhaften Neuigkeit des Phänomens ist das Etikett „Fake News“ insofern sinnvoll, als solche weniger Ursache denn Symptom einer aktuellen (Problem-)Situation sind. Diese betrifft nicht nur den Ruf und die Rolle von Journalismus in der digitalmedialen Welt oder die Regeln öffentlicher Kommunikation im Social Web, sondern den Stellenwertwandel publizistischer Faktizität. Ausgehend vom Kernbegriff der Fälschung fasst der Beitrag Fake News als aktuelle Erscheinungsformen eines, selbst im Falle etwa von Verhetzung, quasi-ironischen Spiels mit der Gattung „Nachricht“ und ihren konventionell-stilistischen Authentizitätsmarkern auf. Jenseits des propagandistischen Einsatzes, diesen aber prägend, sind sie stärker handlungstheoretisch und soziokulturell funktionalistisch in den Blick zu nehmen. Vergleichbar Internet-Memes gilt es, Fake News als Mittel phatischer Gemeinschaftsbildung und kollektiver Selbstverständigung mit bestenfalls gestischem Wahrhaftigkeitsanspruch zu verstehen. Dem ist folglich mit (Gegen-)Fakten, Warnhinweisen oder Medienkritikkompetenzbildung nur begrenzt beizukommen.
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Education has always been an important factor of life, being continuously analysed, in the attempt to improve its delivery in today’s classrooms. Although much has been done to give education more interesting ways of delivery, yet there are several generic instances when educational techniques used in today’s classrooms are deemed as outdated, both by educators and their students. Subjects, which are meant to enhance the knowledge and appreciation of a culture’s heritage, can at times not be exposed to students in the most exciting way possible, so as to enhance learning and maximise understanding. A country’s heritage is the map to its history. The accumulation of its languages, including its artistic endeavours and representations, stand as a reminder of our ancestors who have toiled hard to create the story that we are nowadays striving to keep alive and further enrich through contemporary means. Technology has become a tool which stands alongside the brushes and rasps of the artists and sculptors of antiquity. Today, computers and their burgeoning peripherals have given art newer twists and further methods of expression, which can in turn augment the way students are drawn into the magical world of their country’s heritage. This project is endeavouring to capture film language and transpose it into a 360-degree film environment, which combined with the enrapturing use of spatial sound will recreate an epic moment in the fairly unknown initial stages of the Great Siege of Malta. This immersion is aimed not only to excite the young minds of students through the narrative techniques used, but further create compassion through an increased sense of empathy.
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The Cambridge World History of Violence - edited by Louise Edwards March 2020
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Tracing the origins of the documentary from its birth as a non-fiction film medium in 1895 to its use by the Government of Canada as an influential promotional tool to stimulate immigration, the documentary film is examined closely in these early years to explore its evolution as an instrument of social change. With particular focus on the Canadian experience, this chapter chronologically details its first use by a Manitoba farmer in 1897 and how his modest “home movies” inspired government agencies and corporate entities to establish production divisions serving as models for other countries to follow.
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Primarni cilj ove knjige je proučiti različite teorije komunikacije, vidjeti kako se spomenute teorije mogu primijeniti u svakodnevnom životu, kako na privatnom tako i na poslovnom planu. Zato je drugi cilj ovog udžbenika ujedno i dati osnovne informacije o postojećim znanstvenim spoznajama, najvažnijim teorijama i istraživanjima u ovom polju te, što je možda i najvažnije, ukazati na izvore za daljnja proučavanja komunikologije i uopće ljudske komunikacije.
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Este livro propõe explorar os conceitos mais relevantes da linguagem audiovisual através da análise de alguns momentos específicos da história do cinema. Dirigido, principalmente, a alunos do ensino superior das áreas da Comunicação, Cultura e Artes, remete para notas de rodapé os elementos gramáticos audiovisuais, marcados a negrito e compilados em glossário, para facilitar a consulta. Muitas obras e movimentos cinematográficos ou autores incontornáveis não são analisados, nem sequer mencionados, tendo em conta que este trabalho não se debruça sobre a história do cinema, embora se sustente no discurso fílmico. A predominância da linguagem audiovisual na comunicação contemporânea é incontornável e, por isso, trona-se imperativo o seu domínio conceptual, estético, formal e técnico. A televisão, os videojogos, os conteúdos do Youtube, os metaversos online ou a realidade virtual, têm em comum uma base morfológica e sintática que nasceu e cresceu como o cinema. Este livro divide-se em três capítulos. No primeiro damos conta desse nascimento e da cimentação de uma linguagem que rapidamente se tornou universal. Para isso, usaremos uma metáfora: o comboio do amor. O Comboio, essa invenção anterior ao cinema, mas igualmente veloz na conquista de fãs e tão presente no cinema (como veremos). Na verdade, os passageiros do comboio anteciparam a experiência de ver imagens em movimento que o cinema trouxe, ao olharem pela janela. A influência mútua entre cinema e comboio, duas máquinas com essência na ideia de movimento, acompanhar-nos-á ao longo do livro. No segundo capítulo, falamos de idiossincrasias na criação e construção da diegese narrativa audiovisual. Perdemos o comboio quando apanhamos o batelão O Atalante, de Jean Vigo e nos desnorteamos no alegórico futuro que já é passado de Blade Runner, de Ridley Scott, mas voltamos a apanhá-lo na passagem de Disponível para amar para 2046, pela mão de Wong Kar Way. A viagem termina na estação de Montmatre, onde vamos estudar a estrutura da narrativa e debruçar-nos sobre o que ainda pode vir a ser a comunicação audiovisual. Portanto, sente-se confortavelmente. O comboio já está a apitar e vai partir.
Article
What aesthetic interest do we have in watching films? In a much debated paper, Roger Scruton argued that this interest typically comes down to the interest in the dramatic representations recorded by such films. Berys Gaut and Catharine Abell criticized Scruton’s argument by claiming that films can elicit an aesthetic interest also by virtue of their pictorial representation. In this article, we develop a different criticism of Scruton’s argument. In our view, a film can elicit an aesthetic interest that does not come down to an interest in the dramatic representation or in the pictorial representation. We will argue that this is a distinctively cinematic interest. In section I we outline Scruton’s argument. In section II we point out an interest in how the cinematic medium presents the portrayed subject as detached from the spectator’s environment. In section III, by referring to Wittgenstein’s account of the contemplation from outside, we contend that the interest in films introduced in section II can count as an aesthetic interest. In section IV we argue that both documentaries and fiction films can elicit this kind of interest. In section V we compare the three different kinds of aesthetic interest that, in our view, a film can elicit. In section VI we describe the corresponding kinds of cinematic achievements.
Veränderungen fangen immer wieder im Kopf an: 100 Jahre Kino: Was das Filmmuseum zum Jubiläum bietet
  • Angie Dullinger
Angie Dullinger, " Veränderungen fangen immer wieder im Kopf an: 100 Jahre Kino: Was das Filmmuseum zum Jubiläum bietet, " Abendzeitung (Munich), January 14–15, 1995.
German translation from the original French (Frankfurt am Main: Kommunales Kino Frankfurt, 1975), 100–101. This passage is missing from the English translation, The Haunted Screen
  • Lotte Eisner
  • Die
  • Leinwand
Lotte Eisner, Die dämonische Leinwand, German translation from the original French (Frankfurt am Main: Kommunales Kino Frankfurt, 1975), 100–101. This passage is missing from the English translation, The Haunted Screen (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969), 104.
Ain't It Lifelike! " introd 1896; so far it has not been possible to identify O
  • O Winter
O. Winter, " Ain't It Lifelike! " introd. Stephen Bottomore, Sight and Sound 51, no. 4 (1982): 294–96; rpt. of New Review, May 1896; so far it has not been possible to identify O. Winter (communication from Stephen Bottomore to the author, April 2, 1996).
1896): 89; for this reference and all further information in this paragraph, I am indebted to Anne Gautier and Jean-Marc Lamotte
  • See
  • Le
See " Le cinématographe, " Science française (Paris) 6, no. 59 (March 13, 1896): 89; for this reference and all further information in this paragraph, I am indebted to Anne Gautier and Jean-Marc Lamotte, Paris.
An Aesthetic of Astonishment
  • Gunning
Gunning, " An Aesthetic of Astonishment, " 122.
There one can also find Sadoul's explana-tion of the idea to grant L'arrivée d'un train à La Ciotat the status of a plan-séquence (sequence shot), which we cannot discuss in more detail here
  • Sadoul
  • Lumière
Sadoul, Lumière et Méliès, 44. There one can also find Sadoul's explana-tion of the idea to grant L'arrivée d'un train à La Ciotat the status of a plan-séquence (sequence shot), which we cannot discuss in more detail here.