Article

A Pedagogy of Force: Faculty Perspectives of Critical Thinking Capacity in Undergraduate Students

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Abstract

Interviews at a liberal arts university explored faculty perspectives of undergraduate critical thinking capacity. Questions focused on definitions of critical thinking, how they influence pedagogy, and the role of institutional culture. Constant comparative analysis revealed four predominant themes: pedagogical experimentation, the content connection, pedagogy of force, and the resistance factor.

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... More recent research on how faculty teach CT found that faculty generally experimented with pedagogical approaches when teaching CT (Halx & Reybold, 2005). The study reported that most faculty were good critical thinkers themselves, and supported the application of CT as part of their teaching mandate. ...
... The study reported that most faculty were good critical thinkers themselves, and supported the application of CT as part of their teaching mandate. However, Halx and Reybold (2005) treated faculty as a monolithic bloc without disciplinary analysis. When examining faculty approaches to assessing CT in the classroom, Nicholas and Labig (2013) found that faculty assessed CT implicitly through disciplinary assignments. ...
... This study confirmed previous research that faculty were teaching and assessing CT implicitly through disciplinary content (Halx & Reybold, 2005;Nicholas & Labig, 2013). We argue that the successful implementation of CT requires an explicit pedagogical approach. ...
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Elements of what we are calling a “hopeful pedagogy” emerged when faculty reflected on the question - Do you think your current approach to develop CT in students is successful? Faculty across disciplines and institutions used the word “hope” to characterize the outcome of their efforts. While attempting to disentangle the “hopeful pedagogy”, we found answers in (a) how faculty defined CT in disciplinary and non-disciplinary contexts; (b) a misalignment between faculty and institutional approaches to CT; (c) a disconnect between faculty and their own approaches to CT, and (d) logistical and curricular issues within general education programs that placed constraints on the ability of faculty to adequately focus on CT. The “hopeful pedagogy” brought to the forefront the serious implications of a misaligned system for student learning, faculty engagement, institutional improvement and accountability.
... For example, in a California study, only 19 percent of faculty could give a clear explanation of critical thinking even though the vast majority (89 percent) indicated that they emphasize it (Paul, Elder, & Bartell, 1997). In their interviews with faculty at a private liberal arts college, Halx and Reybold (2005) explored instructors' perspectives of undergraduate thinking. While participants were "eager to promote critical thinking" (p. ...
... Perhaps this variability in critical thinking definitions is to be expected given the range of definitions available in the literature. Critical thinking can include the thinker's dispositions and orientations; a range of specific analytical, evaluative, and problem-solving skills; contextual influences; use of multiple perspectives; awareness of one's own assumptions; capacities for metacognition; or a specific set of thinking processes or tasks (Bean, 1996;Beyer, Gillmore, & Fisher, 2007;Brookfield, 1987;Donald, 2002;Facione, 1990;Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009;Halx & Reybold, 2005;Kurfiss, 1988;Paul, Binker, Jensen, & Kreklau, 1990). Academic discipline can also shape critical thinking definitions, playing an important role in both the forms of critical thinking that faculty emphasize and the preferred teaching strategies used to support students' development of critical thinking capacities (Beyer et al., 2007;Huber & Morreale, 2002;Lattuca & Stark, 2009;Pace & Middendorf, 2004). ...
... Definitions from the tradition of critical philosophy focus more on affective, dispositional, and behavioral domains, where context, emotions, and other subjective elements play a role in CT (Tishman & Andrade, 1996). Halx and Reybold (2005) conclude that the definitions in this tradition "focus on the uncertainty of knowledge and knowing" (p. 295). ...
... Jones (2007) conducted a cross-disciplinary study on faculty conceptualizations of CT in history and economics. Halx and Reybold (2005) focused on pedagogical approaches used by faculty in a multidisciplinary sample but treat faculty as a bloc when presenting their findings. Moore (2011) studied faculty approaches to CT and focused on three disciplines in the humanities. ...
... Although faculty and universities were fully supportive of the move, there is evidence that educators were not fully trained to teach these skills, according to Clarke and Gabert, (2004: 31) and Halx and Reybold, (2005). Clarke and Gabert, (2004) further claim that in some cases this resulted in students becoming a part of a pedagogical adventure and experiment in implementation with little assurance students were actually developing these required skills. ...
... Moore, (2011), investigated, critical thinking and 'critical practices' of academics across three disciplines, History, Philosophy, and Literary/Cultural studies in a university in Australia, whereas Philips and Bond, (2007) interviewed undergraduates students enrolled in a management course in New Zealand. Tsui,(2001)andHalx and Reybold, (2005) also conducted interview research to find out teachers and students' perceptions on critical thinking skills and critical thinking instructions in an American context. The present research employed semi-structured interview to illuminate the scenario of critical thinking development, instruction and practice in engineering FY in the UK context. ...
Thesis
Critical thinking skills are regarded as one of the most highly valued skills for higher education. As such, critical thinking is acknowledged and widely accepted as one of the fundamental goals of tertiary education and a defining concept of graduate education. Therefore, developing students in critical thinking skills has paramount importance as an aid in cultivating personal and professional intellectual traits for students. However, recent discussion and research on critical thinking development show there is little empirical research on foundation and undergraduate courses. Besides that, research conducted on critical thinking skills lacks variation in research design, since many studies on students’ development in critical thinking skills mainly used single instrument quantitative methods, for example self-report surveys, to measure their classroom experience. Similarly, critical thinking research on assessment is also noted to have employed a single quantitative tool. This thesis argues that using a single method or quantitative method does not provide a full picture of critical thinking skills development among students, therefore there is a need for an in-depth discussion using qualitative methods for a better understanding of the issue. Hence, this research employed a mixed-method approach to explore the theory, practice and development of critical thinking skills within engineering foundation year programmes in the UK. The development of critical thinking skills among engineering foundation year students was investigated firstly, by analysing three selected critical thinking models relevant to the engineering syllabus; Dewey’s Critical Analytical Model, (1910 and 1933), Paul, Niewoehner and Elder, (2006) and the Conceive Design Implement Operate (CDIO) Critical Thinking Model, (2011). Secondly, both students and module instructors were interviewed, the students at three different stages of their study over a period of a year, followed by the module instructors. Document analysis was also conducted on the programme specifications of all the modules taught in the programme, which were then checked against the interview reports to find out to what extent they aligned with the teaching and learning process in critical thinking and the development of critical thinking skills as reported by the students. The findings showed there is an alignment between the students’ perception, understanding and the development of critical thinking skills with the aims and the learning outcomes of the programme syllabus. However, the analysis of module instructors’ interview shows there is a slight divergence of views with students’ on critical thinking skills and their development at engineering foundation level, and a debate on how far the module instructors should go when choosing between the subject matter and the critical thinking skills at the foundation level of engineering study.
... However, it is still important to use the findings examine in detail both the teaching strategies used and the depth of the curriculum in which the CAAP-tested skills are taught. For improvement of both writing and critical thinking, research (Kurfiss, 1988; Bean, 1996; Halz and Reybold, 2005; Peace, 2010) indicates that high level cognitive activities like essay writing, cooperative discovery of knowledge, divergent thinking, argumentative and persuasive writing, and project presentations are both good motivators and effective teaching tools. An essential element of enhancing critical thinking through writing is frequent and prompt feedback at the formative and summative levels (Smith, 1977; Terenzini et al., 1984; Astin, 1993). ...
Article
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of a new general education program at Qatar University (QU) in achieving English writing and critical thinking outcomes. Design/methodology/approach – Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency (CAAP) test was used as direct assessment tool to identify the extent to which QU students are making progress with respect to general education outcomes, and how well QU students perform compared to US students on general education outcomes that are measured by the CAAP test. Findings – Findings show evidence that students make progress in English and critical thinking during their QU educational careers. However, QU students lag well behind their US counterparts in writing skills, but they performed relatively better in critical thinking and essay writing. Research limitations/implications – The sample of students tested was limited to students who met certain criteria. Therefore, the sample was neither representative nor random and does not reflect the performance of the entire student body. English is a second language for most QU students, and cultural differences as well as students’ high school preparation and quality of faculty at QU add to the complexity of the study. Practical implications – Research finding may have implication on the general education program curriculum plan, assessment process, assessment plan and tools. It may also trigger comprehensive review of courses addressing writing and critical thinking skills. Moreover, the findings will have impact on institutional total approach and support to retain and enhance some of the cornerstone skills that general education program promise to achieve. The pilot study, results and findings can have implications on similar GCC general educations programs that focus on English writing and critical thinking skills. Originality/value – This original pilot study indicates a need for improvement of internal assessment processes and reconsideration of general education program courses contributing to skills examined. It also provides evidence on students’ performance on two important generic skills, both are important for QU and its stakeholders. The study’s findings are of broad interest to assess the efficacy of internal assessment at international institutions using an internationally available standardized test.
... Overcoming these barriers was possible because during the seminars (and through personal online correspondence among the four trainees), student teachers engaged in processes of anticipating problems and solving them beforehand, that is, critical thinking played a key role during the planning stage of the joint project. Halx & Reybold (2005) argue that educators who want to engage their students in critical thinking need to promote discussions in their classrooms and allow students to freely express their thoughts. We believe this was the situation in this practicum seminars, as Txell had claimed 'They were essential in order to solve questions about our teaching unit and change things to improve it' (see extract 1 above). ...
Chapter
The study of academic engagement has gained international visibility due to various factors operating in the social environment, such as fragmentation, 'liquidity' in interpersonal relations, etc., which end up affecting the persistence rates in studies, or its manifestation in an increasing rate of desertion in higher studies on the part of Argentine students. This research has been carried out within this framework, where 350 students of University and College education, who are enrolled in technical, humanistic-pedagogical and economic studies, completed the Academic Engagement Scale (Daura & Durand, 2018) with the purpose of analyzing, on the one hand, their level of involvement with their studies; and on the other hand, inquiring on the existing connection with demographic variables.
... CT has been defined in different ways within the theoretical literature. For example, it is defined as goal-oriented and logical thinking (Halx & Reybold, 2006); "the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking" (Paul & Elder, 2006, p. 88), inference, explanation, selfregulation, interpretation, and evaluation (Facione, 2007); analysis, evaluation with decision-making skills (Mendelman, 2007); having judgment and selection through cognition (Cottrell, 2011); and decision of facts and opinions with logical reasoning (Fahim & Pezeshki, 2012). In the current study, the definition used for CT was as a "reflective, reasonable thinking focus on deciding what to believe or do" (Ennis, 1993, p. 179). ...
Conference Paper
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National curriculum policy documents recommend different pedagogical practices like questioning, discussion, cooperative learning, etc. for the production of independent, rationale and critical thinkers. The aim of current qualitative case study was to analyze secondary school science teachers' practices for developing critical thinking skills among secondary school students. Six classrooms (2 from each Physics, Chemistry and Biology) were selected as cases. Observations were conducted through video recording of four lessons from each classroom. Thus in total 12 observations were conducted-each observation lasting for 35 minutes. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Findings of the observations revealed that all the teachers heavily relied on lecture method to cover the content within the specified time and there was no much focus on developing critical thinking skills of the students. In few of the classrooms, the students remained active and engaged with the teacher while learning the specific topics. The teachers mostly used whiteboards as audio-video aid for the topics they taught. To some extent, questioning and daily life examples were used for the conceptual understating of students. We recommend that professional development of teachers should be conducted so that they could focus on developing critical thinking skills through pedagogical practices recommended by the national curriculum policy.
... A group of scholars suggest that faculty should model critical thinking by critically reflecting on "their own belief system, preconceptions, and adaptability" (Clarke & Gabert, 2004, p. 33), because faculty attitudes toward critical thinking affect student critical thinking development and learning (Halpern, 1999;Halx & Reybold, 2006). However, students may not actually learn to think critically by watching their instructors (van Gelder, 2005). ...
Article
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One of the major issues related to critical thinking in higher education consists of how educators teach and inspire students to develop greater critical thinking skills. The current study was conducted to explore whether Decision-based Learning (DBL), an innovative teaching method, can enhance students’ critical thinking skills. This mixed methods ex-post facto study aimed to identify the areas of overlap between DBL and critical thinking components based on an empirically tested framework. The study was conducted at a large, private university in the western United States with two instructors and 89 undergraduate students. Data were collected via DBL publications, course midterm exam scores, and instructor interviews. Since this was an ex post facto study, the exam items were not initially written to target critical thinking skills as defined by the critical thinking framework we chose. An analysis was done on the cognitive processes elicited by the exam items after the fact, and it was found that they elicited three of the six skills described in this framework. In addition, participation in DBL activities related to statistically significant higher exam scores on these items after controlling for a standardized pre-test taken by both treatment and control groups prior to beginning the course. The effect sizes were large in favor of the DBL courses. In addition, two instructors reported their perspectives on the critical thinking skills exhibited by their students using DBL. The evidence collected across these three sources of information supports a connection between DBL and four of the six critical thinking components within the framework we selected.
... o Looking for a consistent and precise definition of critical thinking (Schmaltz, Jansen & Wenckowski, 2017;Lai, 2011;Black, 2008;Halx & Reybold, 2005;Donald, 2002). o Pedagogical approaches either described as standalone programs or incorporated into existing studies or activities. ...
Conference Paper
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The paper presents the results of research related to students’ perception of enhancing their critical thinking during studies at higher education institutions (HEIs). The authors developed a questionnaire and conducted the research at the public universities in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) in order to investigate students’ perception of enhancing their critical thinking during studies at the university. Namely, in a 21st century, the employability of fresh graduates highly depends on their soft skills, especially their ability to think critically in solving the problems. The aim of the presented research is to find if BH students are aware of the necessity to enhance their critical thinking abilities during their studies in order to be better prepared for their future jobs.
... Critical thinking has a central role in learning (Beyer, 1987;McPeck, 1981), and is regarded as a "core outcome in higher education" (Lederer, 2007, p. 525). At university, critical thinking is essential to meet assessment criteria (Elander, Harrington, Norton, Robinson, & Reddy, 2006), and is associated with employability and academic achievement (Facione, Facione, & Giancarlo, 2000;Halx & Reybold, 2005). Moreover, developing critical thinking skills can also enhance the ability to draw sound conclusions and make informed decisions (Dwyer, Hogan & Stewart, 2014). ...
Article
Critical thinking is an important focus in higher education and is essential for good academic achievement. We report the development of a tool to measure critical thinking for three purposes: (i) to evaluate student perceptions and attitudes about critical thinking, (ii) to identify students in need of support to develop their critical thinking, and (iii) to predict academic performance. Seventy-seven items were generated from focus groups, interviews and the critical thinking literature. Data were collected from 133 psychology students. Factor Analysis revealed three latent factors based on a reduced set of 27 items. These factors were characterised as: Confidence in Critical Thinking; Valuing Critical Thinking; and Misconceptions. Reliability analysis demonstrated that the sub-scales were reliable. Convergent validity with measures of grade point average and argumentation skill was shown, with significant correlations between subscales and validation measures. Most notably, in multiple regression analysis, the three sub-scales from the new questionnaire substantially increased the variance in grade point average accounted for by measures of reflective thinking and argumentation. To sum, the resultant scale offers a measure that is simple to administer, can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify students who need support in developing their critical thinking skills, and can also predict academic performance.
... The majority of the studies assess the effectiveness of specific teaching practices, collaborative and cooperative learning, and various classroom activities designed to develop and improve critical thinking skills [Halx, Reybold 2005;Shakirova 2006;Muryukina, Chelysheva 2007]. A number of articles, for instance, reveal a positive correlation between undergraduates' critical thinking skills and their involvement in debates, critical analysis, and teamwork [Smith 1977;Gibson 1985;Astin 1993;Tsui 1999;Coates 2009;Haskell 2016]. ...
Article
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This study explores the link between academic research, extracur-ricular engagement and the development of critical thinking of undergraduate students using a single statistical model. Empirical basis of the research was provided by the results of the Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) survey conducted in one of Russian national research universities in 2017 (N=3,344). Binary logistic regression reveals a statistically significant relationship between the development of critical thinking and student engagement in learning, research and extracurricu-lar activities, higher involvement corresponding to better critical thinking skills. The findings may be useful for developing curricula, allocating student work-load, and devising new initiatives for university students.
... Teaching thinking skills has become an important topic and goal in education (Halx and Reybold, 2006). By teaching thinking skills, the students are expected to be able to think more deeply, more consistently, more productively and more effectively than they otherwise might (Nagappan, 2001). ...
Article
Since it is believed that individuals with higher-order thinking skills are more welcomed in educational and vocational contexts, teaching them has become a desirable goal in education. For that reason, this study aimed at improving the students’ higher-order thinking skills by incorporating debate in inquiry-based teaching. The study used mixed-methods research design utilizing pre-test and post-test to collect quantitative data and observation checklist to collect qualitative data. The quantitative data were analyzed using a rubrics, while the qualitative data were analyzed using a checklist. The study revealed that the students’ higher-order thinking skills at all levels improved after the treatment. The improvement at Analyze level could be seen from the students’ better organization of information, at Evaluate level, the students showed improvement in seeing problems from various perspectives and at Create level, the students improved in communicating solutions better. Other than that, the improvement was also observed in terms of the students’ speaking ability.
... This Thinking Hats technique provides emphasis on raising awareness of multiple points of view and considering context in order to deepen and broaden thinking (Halx & Reybold, 2006). In this study, the researcher utilizes an approach to foster critical thinking developed by Edward de Bono called Six Thinking Hats technique. ...
Conference Paper
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Fostering Higher Order Thinking skills (HOTs) among students is an important educational goal, as emphasized in the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025. Realizing this, teachers must provide opportunities to develop HOTs among pupils and also enable pupils to master English language through specific teaching technique. This study explored how the researcher cum teacher utilizes the three out of six Thinking Hats technique by De Bono namely Red, Yellow and Green Thinking Hats to enhance the pupils in answering HOTs based comprehension questions. It involved six Year 6 pupils from a rural school situated in Pahang. Classroom observation was carried out on a few sessions of English Language lessons. Document analysis was done based on the pre-test and post-test conducted. Thus, triangulation was via observation and document analysis. Four subsections were introduced in stages and the findings indicated that pupils were able to utilize the technique to answer HOTs based comprehension questions. Based on the data obtained, the majority of them were able to show improvements in answering all three questions involving HOTs. Thus, it is recommended that teachers should consider practicing this Thinking Hats technique as this would help them in creating a different learning environment throughout their teaching and learning session.
... Critical thinking has been the focal area of countless empirical studies dating back to the early 1900s. The augmentation of critical thinking skills has been cited as the principal outcome of higher education in numerous empirical studies, both nationally and internationally (Barnett & Francis, 2012;Halpern, 1998;Halx & Reybold, 2005;Lia, 2011;Lombard, 2008). This principal outcome has not diminished over the years despite technological advances that have led to changes in the workplace. ...
Article
Empirical evidence highlighted the problem of underprepared graduates who lack the critical thinking skills required in the work environment. Institutions of higher learning have been mandated to provide graduates with these critical thinking skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the integrated assessment conducted with first-year university students has enhanced the critical thinking skills of these students. This study employed a quantitative strategy and it was longitudinal in nature. The target population consisted of two groups: an experimental group and a control group. All five categories of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal UK edition were administered to both groups in a pre-test and post-test measure. The findings revealed a statistical significance in the overall post-test scores in favour of the experimental group. It is recommended that integrated assessments, based on real world problems, should be conducted in both first year as well as subsequent years of study. © 2018
... Thus, communication skills and critical abilities are essential competencies for engineers. However, those skills are not sufficiently well acquired by means of standard educational approaches [1,2] and the most widely used teaching practices do not guarantee the development of a proper engineering epistemology [3,4]. ...
... Thus, communication skills and critical abilities are essential competencies for engineers. However, those skills are not sufficiently well acquired by means of standard educational approaches [1,2] and the most widely used teaching practices do not guarantee the development of a proper engineering epistemology [3,4]. ...
... Although Socrates was the master of Plato and Aristotle, these latter two philosophers also adapted strategies that served as pioneering work for critical thinking. Plato focused his teachings on getting students to distinguish between true and false claims (Leigh, 2007) whereas Aristotle emphasized the ability to identify different viewpoints (Halx & Reybold, 2005). In later years, Dewey (1910) developed his reflective thinking, which served as the first close definition of critical thinking and critical thinking is often used interchangeably with the term reflective thinking. ...
Conference Paper
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[The final form of this paper was published in the journal Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology.] Information Technology (IT) high school learners are constantly struggling to cope with the challenges of succeeding in the subject. IT teachers therefore need to be empowered to utilize appropriate teaching-learning strategies to improve IT learners’ success in the subject. By promoting critical thinking skills, IT learners have the opportunity to achieve greater success in the most difficult part of the curriculum, which is programming. IT teachers received a once-of face-to-face professional development where some teachers received professional development in critical thinking strategies and other IT teachers received professional development in critical thinking strategies infused in pair programming. To determine how teachers experience these suggested strategies, teachers participated in initial interviews as well as follow-up interviews after they had implemented the suggested strategies. From the interviews it became evident that teachers felt that their learners benefited from the strategies. Teachers in the pair programming infusing critical thinking strategies focused more on the pair programming implementation. Although teachers are initially willing to change their ways, they are not always willing to implement new teaching-learning strategies.
... Communication skills and critical thinking abilities are essential competencies for engineers concerning the safeguarding of life, property, economic interests, public welfare or the environment, among other things. However, those skills are not sufficiently well acquired by means of standard educational approaches (Lipman, 2003;Halx and Reybold, 2006). In non-English-speaking countries, students also have difficulties communicating in English, thus representing an additional limitation towards integration in the global market (Ferris and Tagg, 1996;Miller and Endo, 2004). ...
Article
This paper presents an integrated educational methodology to provide better, more extensive training to students in engineering disciplines. The methodology integrates both existing and ad hoc tools to improve mainly the following skills: holistic and comprehensive views and understanding of real problems, working in teams, communication abilities, and handling advanced numerical models and scientific computing. Experience by the authors with the implementation of the proposed methodology revealed a significant increase in the motivation and participation of the students: the more aware of the learning process they are, the more confident and motivated they feel. The implemented tools also help trigger student awareness towards a multidisciplinary, integrated and sustainable approach to face engineering problems, facilitating receptiveness to working with nature strategies. This methodology was developed for the field of marine and coastal engineering to overcome upcoming challenges such as problems due to climate change. Nevertheless, it can be easily extended to other engineering disciplines also pertaining to environmental problems and sustainability.
... Critical thinking is variously defined in the theoretical literature. It has been defined as learning to think (Dewey, 2004); meaningful, logical and goaloriented thinking (Halx & Reybold, 2006); inference, interpretation, explanation, selfregulation and evaluation (Facione, 2007); logical reasoning and deciding the facts after taking opinions and examining them (Fahim & Pezeshki, 2012); and a metacognitive process of analysis, synthesis and inferences based on domainspecific and general knowledge for logical conclusions and solution of different life problems (Garner, Pugh, & Kaplan, 2016). However, this study uses a mostly used definition in theoretical literature-which considers critical thinking as "reflective, reasonable thinking focus on deciding what to believe or do" (Ennis, 1993, p. 179). ...
Article
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Critical thinking is considered an important aspect of formal education and one of the 21st-century skills in contemporary literature. Policy documents National Education Policy 2009 and National Curriculum for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Grades IX-X, 2006 all focus on developing students" critical thinking to become independent, logical, rationale and decision-makers. The purpose of the current qualitative study was to explore teachers" perspectives regarding pedagogical practices for the development of critical thinking skills of secondary school science students. Using basic qualitative research design, twelve secondary school teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology were purposively selected as participants from a district in Punjab through criterion sampling technique. In-depth semi-structured interviews in which questioning and probing often continued for as long as an hour were conducted for data collection. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze interview data through NVivo 12 software. According to the findings of the study, the teachers used different pedagogical practices that are, questioning, group work, activity-based teaching, discussion, demonstration, learning by doing and audiovisual aids in their classrooms. However, their main focus was only to get good grades for students instead of developing critical thinking. It is suggested that a top-down (policy to practice) change should be implemented in order to ensure that science teachers use relevant pedagogical practices for developing critical thinking in students. Assessment system should also be revised so that these skills may be developed in science students.
... Indeed, several authors point out convincingly that critical thinking is given more emphasis at college or university level. They provide case studies that show the ways in which it is taught, its problems and opportunities (Williams, Oliver, and Stockdale 2004;Bellaera, Debney, and Baker 2016;Halx and Reybold 2006;Çavdar and Doe 2012). However, the existing literature on critical thinking suggests again that it starts all the way from childhood at the time when a child is learning language skills (Murphy et al. 2014). ...
Article
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This paper studies the motivations of 130 women who returned to education after the genocide against Tutsi. After 1994, Rwandan mature women embraced university education in greater numbers due to marginalisation at work, inhabiting a subaltern position as a consequence of their gender and secondary level of education. One way of overcoming work marginalisation was to enrol in an undergraduate programme that coincided with their current job or their prospective career. This article explores how attending university increased female students’ critical thinking skills. It will examine the impact of the university on their social and professional lives. By using a range of qualitative and quantitative research methods, this paper will explore the motivation of mature female students from four private and public universities in Rwanda. This paper, which draws upon a constructivist approach, argues that the female mature students who participated in this study became critical thinkers whilst at university, after acquiring both theoretical and practical skills. This was further reinforced by the critical thinking, research and self-directed study skills that they developed, which in turn enabled them to continue learning by themselves. Consequently, participation in tertiary education enabled female mature students in Rwanda to become lifelong learners.
... She did not discourage the student for her partial answer rather motivated her and other students to share their answers. Probing questions always challenge students to think and share (Halx & Reybold, 2005;Arend, 2009). Further, teacher scaffolding increase student's participation and engagement in classroom activities. ...
Article
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The present position paper explores to examine the lexical effects of the English language on Khowar (the regional language of Chitral, Pakistan). In the recent past, the said language has, to a greater extent, received influence from the English language, which, because of the least research has been unrecorded. The reason behind the Anglicisation of Khowar is the establishment of the growing number of educational institutions and mounting use of social and electronic media. In order to locate and highlight the above-said effects and their likely reasons, the researchers employed the tools of observation, interviews, and personal experiences, to arrive at the conclusive results of the issue in hand. The target population for the said purpose is a group of female students of intermediate level studying at the English medium colleges; while the locale for research is a lower district of Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The study is carried out at the lexical level of spoken Khowar juxtaposed with spoken English, not necessarily focusing the syntactic, semantic and phonological levels. The study finds out that influences are recorded in the dress and language codes, too, besides lifestyle and socio-cultural norms and values of Chitrali society at large. Keywords: Khowar, lexemes, social and electronic media.
... Teaching thinking has been strongly advocated by educators and researchers to raise educational standards and to prepare learners for lifelong learning and has become a desirable goal in higher education worldwide (Halx & Reybold, 2006). The teaching of thinking is also important in terms of cultivating learners' competitiveness in a global job market (Au, 2006), and strengthening economic growth (World Bank, 2011). ...
Article
This study conducted a higher-order thinking approach in the L2 classroom and examined students’ attitudes towards and perceptions of learning with high cognitive thinking. Teaching higher-order thinking is essential for learning and teachers are encouraged by education authorities to integrate high cognitive thinking into teaching. Yet, little is known about the extent to which students who are used to learning with lower-order thinking skills like reciting and comprehension in the L2 classroom can adapt to learning using higher-order thinking. This paper addresses this issue by exploring students’ attitudes towards and perceptions of the importance of thinking in L2 learning and how it impacts on learning through the analysis of data collected from a case study design, including 40 self-completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with 16 students. This study shows that three-quarters of the students hold positive attitudes towards learning using higher-order thinking, and such learning facilitated their learning performance and learning behavior, while one quarter resisted. The findings of the study reflect on teaching higher-order thinking, and provide recommendations for integrating thinking skills into L2 teaching.
... Critical Thinking has been defined in different ways within the theoretical literature. For example, it is defined as goal-oriented and logical thinking (Halx & Reybold, 2006); "the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking" (Paul & Elder, 2006, p. 88), inference, explanation, self-regulation, interpretation, and evaluation (Facione, 2007); analysis, evaluation with decision-making skills (Mendelman, 2007); having judgment and selection through cognition (Cottrell, 2011); and decision of facts and opinions with logical reasoning (Fahim & Pezeshki, 2012). In the current study, the definition used for CT was as a "reflective, reasonable thinking focus on deciding what to believe or do" (Ennis, 1993, p. 179). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the National curriculum policy documents, to produce rationale and independent critical thinkers, different pedagogical practices have been recommended like cooperative learning, questioning, discussion, etc. This qualitative case study aimed at analyzing secondary school science teachers' practices for the development of critical thinking skills in secondary school students. There were twelve classrooms (four from each subject of Physics, Chemistry and Biology) selected as cases. Video recording was used for the observations for six lessons in each classroom. In this way, a total of 72 observations were conducted lasting for approximately 35 minutes. Qualitative content analysis was used for data analysis through Nvivo 12. The findings of the observations revealed that all the teachers used the lecture method. They used this to cover the content at a given specific time. There was not much focus on the development of critical thinking. In a few of the classrooms, the students were engaged and active during learning different specific topics. Whiteboard was used as a visual aid by most of the teachers. Furthermore, to some extent, discussion, questioning, and daily life examples were used in different classrooms. It is recommended that teachers' professional development should be conducted to focus on the development of critical thinking skills through pedagogical practices which have been recommended by the national education policy documents.
... In adversarial thinking, people are usually restricted by their stances and tend to focus on unnecessary oppositions. This makes it much less likely for them to create and produce new things due to a lack of constructiveness (Halx & Reybold, 2006;Mellers et al., 2001;Rogers, 2006). Parallel thinking ensures the depth and comprehensiveness of thinking by requiring all parties to think in the same direction at any moment and then switch to a different direction together. ...
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Though we have advocated explicit argumentation instruction in science classes for decades, daily instructions are still found insufficient in improving students’ argumentation competence. It is therefore important to explore effective instructional strategies through classroom research. This paper compares instructional strategies for classroom argumentation. We report on a quasi-experiment conducted with tenth-grade students (n = 92) that compares adversarial and parallel argumentation designs for the topic genetic inheritance, an inquiry-based socio-scientific issue (SSI) unit. The instruction was conducted through the online platform, Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE). In the parallel design, student dyads were assigned to the same initial stances and were asked to change to multiple perspectives together, while in the adversarial design, students were assigned to opposite stances, and a debate was launched between the two sides. Students’ overall argumentation performance improved significantly in both cases, yet the progress was greater in terms of counterarguments for students in the parallel design. Such findings highlight the value of parallel thinking in developing students’ argumentation competence, especially in producing counterarguments. Suggestions on instructional design for scientific argumentation activities are proposed accordingly.
... Thus, many instructors rely on teaching and assessing core content, assuming the CT skills will automatically develop along with deeper disciplinary knowledge [17,24]. Further, educators typically lack training on CT instruction [25]. Perhaps not surprisingly, on average, very small or empirically nonexistent gains in CT or complex reasoning skills have been found in a large proportion of students over the course of 4-year college programs [6,7,26]. ...
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Critical thinking (CT) underpins the analytical and systems-thinking capacities needed for effective conservation in the 21st century but is seldom adequately fostered in most postsecondary courses and programs. Many instructors fear that devoting time to process skills will detract from content gains and struggle to define CT skills in ways relevant for classroom practice. We tested an approach to develop and assess CT in undergraduate conservation biology courses using case studies to address both challenges. We developed case studies with exercises to support content learning goals and assessment rubrics to evaluate student learning of both content and CT skills. We also developed a midterm intervention to enhance student metacognitive abilities at a light and intensive level and asked whether the level of the intervention impacted student learning. Data from over 200 students from five institutions showed an increase in students’ CT performance over a single term, under both light and intensive interventions, as well as variation depending on the students’ initial performance and on rubric dimension. Our results demonstrate adaptable and scalable means for instructors to improve CT process skills among undergraduate students through the use of case studies and associated exercises, aligned rubrics, and supported reflection on their CT performance.
... Calma and Davies, 2020). While there is debate about the specifics of critical thinking, there is consensus that it comprises at least two dimensions (Feiner and Roberts, 1995;Halx and Reybold, 2006): the ability to think deeply (technical dimension), and to do so from different perspectives (philosophical dimension). Evidence suggests that business students are as proficient as other university students in the technical dimension but may be less capable in the philosophical dimension (Facione et al., 1995;Giancarlo and Facione, 2001;Sampson et al., 2007). ...
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Friedman’s maxim “The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits” (p. 32) has shaped what managers consider effective management. This Financial Bottom Line approach to management has been challenged by both Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) and Critical Management Studies (CMS). POS highlights how enhancing prosocial and other nonfinancial considerations can increase profits, consistent with the current dominant Triple Bottom Line approach. In contrast, CMS tends to critique any approach that seeks to maximize profits by creating dysfunctional power symmetries and marginalization. This study introduces a third option, the Social and Ecological Thought approach, which promotes maximizing social and ecological well-being while remaining financially viable. A longitudinal pre-post intervention in a sample of undergraduate management students showed that teaching multiple approaches to management—Financial Bottom Line, Triple Bottom Line, and Social and Ecological Thought—resulted in learners becoming less likely to espouse profit-related goals (e.g. to maximize efficiency, productivity, profitability) and more likely to identify nonfinancial ones (e.g. extra-organizational prosociality and reduction of marginalization) when characterizing effective management. However, the results did not support predictions regarding intra-organizational prosociality and marginalization, or power asymmetries. We discuss implications for pedagogy and the future development of POS and CMS.
... Higher-order thinking refers to the mental processes of analysis, synthesis, evaluation described in Bloom et al.'s (1956) taxonomy of the cognitive domain. Teaching thinking is an important part of the educational curriculum in many countries and a desirable goal in higher education (Halx & Reybold, 2006). Fisher (1998) has postulated that thinking can be developed through training, implying that students may become active thinkers when the pedagogy used in classrooms allows them to think independently, critically and creatively. ...
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This study investigated the impact of thinking instruction on students’ metacognition and thinking behavior. Higher-order thinking occurs when individuals use their underlying metacognitive strategies which increase the probability of achieving a desirable result. The study was designed as a case study of an intervention and a posttest-only control group design was adopted. Participants consisted of students with a variety of majors were recruited from a medium-size university located in southern Taiwan. Two classes of the Developing Thinking course, totaling 78 students, comprised the group receiving the intervention, while 196 students in six General English classes comprised the comparison group. The intervention students were introduced to thinking skills, facts and opinions, question stems, and thinking from different perspectives. The quantitative results show strong evidence that the thinking instruction exerts statistically significant positive effects on students’ metacognition. Qualitative evidence also shows improvements in cognitive awareness with students demonstrating a more consistent application of thinking skills, an increased ability to think critically with thinking dispositions cultivated, and most importantly, a transfer of thinking behavior across the curriculum and in their personal lives. The researcher suggests the value of introducing thinking instruction to promote critical thinkers.
... For example, research discovered that although the overwhelming majority of instructors (89%) claimed critical thinking to be a primary objective of their instruction, only 19% were able to provide a clear explanation of what critical thinking is, and only 9% were actually teaching critical thinking in their class (Paul, Elder, & Bartell, 1997). Halx and Reybold (2006) argued that "most faculty members have developed a keen sense of how to think critically, …few are prepared to teach critical thinking" given the challenges in articulating this complex skill (Lucas et al., 2013). ...
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Critical thinking has become an essential skill required by both higher education and the workforce. Research to date has reported moderate cross‐sectional learning differences in critical thinking as students progress through a 4‐year college. However, retention, differential participation, and students’ low test‐taking motivation possibly confounded conclusions from prior studies. Controlling for such factors, we found a cross‐sectional difference of .24 SDs after 4 years in college (n = 2,381 students, 46 institutions), considerably smaller than what's reported in prior studies. Natural science majors performed the highest and business majors performed the lowest. Minority students achieved only half of the cross‐sectional difference (.18 SDs) of white students (.39 SDs), and only 6% of them scored at the Advanced level, compared to 24% of white students.
... In the theoretical literature, CT has been defined in different ways. It is defined as logical and goaloriented thinking (Halx & Reybold, 2006); self-regulation, inference, explanation, interpretation, and evaluation (Facione, 2007); decision-making skills with inference, analysis, and evaluation (Mendelman, 2007); a cognitive activity having judgment and selection (Cottrell, 2011); logical reasoning and deciding the facts after taking opinions and examining them before acceptance (Fahim & Pezeshki, 2012) and -the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking‖ (Paul & Elder, 2006, p. 88). The current study used the most used definition for CT in literature, which stipulates it as a -reflective, reasonable thinking focus on deciding what to believe or do‖ (Ennis, 1993, p. 179). ...
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This multiple case study aimed to develop an understanding of science teachers’ interpretations and enacted practices about policy documents’ recommendations for developing critical thinking skills among secondary students in public schools. Four public secondary schools were selected through the purposive sampling technique. Data were collected in three different phases. First, four education policy documents, including National Education Policy (2009) and National Curriculum for Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Grades IX-X (2006), were analyzed. In the second phase, 12 science teachers from four public schools (3 from each school teaching Physics, Chemistry, and Biology) were interviewed. Besides, these 12 science teachers were observed (every six times) while teaching in a real-life context through video-recorded classroom observations and reflective field notes. With the facilitation of NVivo 11, qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data obtained from all sources. The findings revealed that critical thinking was emphasized in all policy documents, and different pedagogical practices for developing critical thinking were suggested to be used in science classrooms. Analysis of interview data revealed that teachers had some awareness about critical thinking. Furthermore, the classroom observations revealed that they were mainly using the lecture method with some other pedagogies without focusing on critical thinking. A top-down change is also recommended for the implementation of the policies. The assessment system might also be revised, focusing on critical thinking skills development.
... At tertiary level, critical thinking is essential to meet assessment criteria (Elander, Harrington, Norton, Robinson & Reddy, 2006). It is also associated with employability and academic achievement of graduating students (Halx & Reybold, 2005). Dwyer, Hogan and Stewart (2014) suggest that graduates with critical thinking skills have enhanced ability to draw sound conclusions and make informed decisions, which enhances innovation in the workplace and society (Davies, 2006). ...
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Many teacher education programs globally are undergoing significant changes in response to government policy, imperatives driven by global competitiveness, as well as local conditions. This is particularly relevant in the South African context where teacher education seeks to navigate from the ravages of apartheid education towards addressing the developmental needs of the majority of its citizens. This book records and explores efforts by academic staff members within the Faculty of Education at Stellenbosch University, South Africa, responding to the demands of a new program in initial teacher education. It brings together diverse views seeking to present a coherent program in the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE). It examines how curriculum design unfolds across disciplines in the program, and crucially, the commonalities in the presentation of course material. Lecturers examine the purpose, structure and content of their teaching as they engage with putting democratic policy goals into practice in the core, as well as subject-specific modules of the program.
... Research conducted by Halx and Reybold (2005) ascertained that while learning entails energy, critical thinking requires a great deal of intellectual exertion as well as personal reflection which oftentimes is uncomfortable for both students and teachers. Due to the level of discomfort and lack of time critical thinking is often not addressed at the K-12 level. ...
... Thinking skills programs have begun to be an important topic and desirable goal in higher education (Halx and Reybold, 2006). Critical thinking is not a new method in the teaching and learning process. ...
... Thinking skills programs have begun to be an important topic and desirable goal in higher education (Halx and Reybold, 2006). Critical thinking is not a new method in the teaching and learning process. ...
... Aun cuando se reconoce su importancia, es notable la carencia de esta competencia tanto en estudiantes universitarios como en profesionales (Rowles et al., 2013;Choy y Cheah, 2009;Henderson-Hurley y Hurley, 2013). Se percibe un descuido en educación básica y media en cuanto al cultivo de esta habilidad; el resultado es que los profesores universitarios tienen que invertir recursos en su desarrollo para poder alcanzar el estándar educativo deseado (Halx y Reybold;2005). ...
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El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la influencia de un material didáctico ad hoc en el fomento del pensamiento crítico en un curso de lectura de inglés como lengua extranjera. Los sujetos fueron estudiantes en el tercer curso de Lectura de Inglés Científico y Técnico de la Universidad Simón Bolívar, Venezuela. Es una investigación cuantitativa, de campo, con diseño pre-post test con grupo control. Los resultados confirman la hipótesis nula (t=1,710,g.l. 149, p= 0,083) y sugieren que se deben aumentar y mejorar los esfuerzos para fomentar el pensamiento crítico.
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In recent decades, the field of art education has seen an increasing interest in issues of social justice and social reconstruction which has led to pre-service art educators often being encouraged to include potentially controversial topics in their pedagogy. Surprisingly, however, there seems to have been little concurrent discussion concerning the inherent risks involved in introducing polemical themes within the classroom. Indeed, despite its obvious importance, the subject of censorship is often given little attention in art education circles, save for when it has already become an active problem, such as when an instructor is accused of censorship by a student, or when forces outside the classroom seek to involve themselves in pedagogical decisions. In this article, I describe my experience creating and implementing an undergraduate pre-service art education course on the subject of censorship. I begin by examining my students’ reactions to some of the themes explored, and then explain how discussing cases of art censorship and controversy can serve as a platform for introducing students to the key role that context plays in how we perceive, value and react to artworks. Finally, I make the argument that by including censorship as a subject within their curriculum, teachers can help students better to navigate the psychological, moral and ethical complexities of contemporary art making.
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The answers to critical issues begin with wondering. Have you ever witnessed an event or phenomenon for instance: unusual weather patterns, war or unrest, pollution and in response posed questions such as: Why is this happening? What can be done to change this situation? What is going on? These ponderings are the beginning phase of finding solutions. In order to allow students to explore critical issues and develop insights and potential solutions, schools must advocate critical thinking and give students opportunities to figure out problems independently.
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From 2012 to 2015 I was the first Eugene H. Fram Chair in Applied Critical Thinking at Rochester Institute of Technology, in Rochester, NY. To the best of my knowledge it is the only such endowed position devoted solely to this at a major North American university. It was made possible by a generous 3 million dollar gift from an anonymous alumnus who wished to honor a retired faculty member who had taught for 51 years. The honoree was revered for his devotion to Bloom’s taxonomy and his academic rigor, which infused case studies and the Socratic method. A primary motivation for the chair was a belief that an alarming number of college graduates lack the necessary critical thinking skills in order to advance successfully in their careers. My responsibilities included collaborative leadership, advocacy and oversight for critical thinking across the entire campus. It provided a unique opportunity to reflect on the current state of critical thinking instruction–very broadly construed, as well as to examine its specific role at RIT, an institution with its own unique history, mission, and character.
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This study examined the group critical thinking skills of students in a first-year general education course. A compound rubric was designed to assess critical thinking in group papers on social policies. Results indicate that revision in writing and the use of a rubric are associated with improved group thinking skills.
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While there is large body of literature discussing critical thinking in higher education, there is a less substantial body of scholarship exploring methods for teaching it. There are several tests being used nationally to assess critical thinking. Rather than just assessing critical thinking, we explored the use of performance tasks with a common rubric as a way of raising student and instructor awareness of the tools and practices involved in critical thinking. In this exploratory study, faculty in three different fields, Teacher Education, Social Sciences, and Life Sciences, designed performance tasks in a problem-based learning environment that were appropriate to their disciplines and aligned to the skills of critical thinking. Although the tasks differed for each cohort, they were structured similarly and explicitly taught using a common rubric with corrective feedback, aiding both the development and assessment of critical thinking. Students completed a pre-post assessment on a critical thinking assessment test. Some cohorts evidenced measurable improvements in critical thinking skills with less discernable improvement among other cohorts. Qualitative results tended to confirm the value of student participation in rigorous and challenging performance tasks. We conclude that using performance tasks with corrective feedback on a common rubric may be useful in many fields. We further suggest that regular use of performance tasks in a problem-based learning environment can contribute to the transferability of critical thinking skills and dispositions.
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Цель данной работы – изучить в рамках одной статистической модели связь вовлечения студентов в академическую, научную и внеучебную сферы университета с развитием навыка критического мышления студентов. Эмпирическую базу исследования составили данные опроса «Студенческий опыт в исследовательском университете», проведенном в одном из национальных исследовательских университетов России в 2017 году (N=3,344). С помощью метода бинарной логистической регрессии была выявлена статистически значимая связь между развитием навыка критического мышления и академической вовлеченностью студентов в образовательный процесс, их участием в научной и внеучебной деятельности. Таким образом, чем сильнее студент вовлечен в образовательный процесс в классе, научные и внеучебные проекты, реализуемые в университете, тем выше уровень критического мышления. Результаты проведенного исследования могут быть полезны при формировании учебного плана студентов, распределении образовательной нагрузки и развития новых студенческих инициатив в вузе.
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This study explores the impact of Peer Assisted Reflection (PAR), a structured active learning strategy that emphasizes peer feedback and reflection, on students’ perceptions of mathematical thinking and of the roles their peers and their instructors play in their learning process. This study also examines the impact of PAR on the students’ ability to evaluate mathematical arguments and communicate those evaluations in writing, which has not been specifically measured in prior research on PAR. The findings suggest that the PAR intervention not only increases students’ ability to communicate effectively, but also gives them a newfound recognition of the importance of developing communication skills in mathematics. Additionally, students’ thinking about mathematics shifts as they come to value the exploration of multiple perspectives in solving math problems. Many students explicitly note their increased appreciation for the role of their peers in the learning process.
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Qualitative data analysis from open‐ended comments written by 206 undergraduates illustrates student attitudes, beliefs, and practices that reveal an academic reading paradox. Consistently, undergraduates report that reading is valuable, yet their noncompliance with reading assignments suggests otherwise. Undergraduates report that they achieve their academic goals with little reading and that they perceive reading as too voluminous and irrelevant to class outcomes. The data highlight a misalignment between conventional academic expectations that undergraduates will read in scholarly ways and their actual academic reading practice. Qualitative analysis illustrates that students do not experience academic reading as a venue for scholarly engagement in disciplinary discourse. Whereas the academic reading literature proposes that students develop along a continuum from novice to expert reader, findings suggest that the undergraduate experience of academic reading is not representative of that continuum.
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In seeking to strengthen pedagogical and research outcomes in tourism students' fieldtrips to assess community sustainability and resilience in Cheung Chau Island, Hong Kong, and maximize experiential learning opportunities, the relatively neglected methodologies in tourism research of visual anthropology and Rapid Appraisal and the rarely reported concept of Habermas' communicative action to promote teamwork through consensus-based decision-making in tourism studies, were combined with more commonly utilized ethnographic participant observation. While taking photographs is fundamental for millions of tourists and has been researched from many perspectives, the use of visual anthropology and participatory photo elicitation not only to record but to generate new knowledge as a major component of research-oriented data collection, is comparatively novel in tourism studies. In isolation, all four methodologies are not new and are common in a range of social studies: but their fusion especially for tourism research, is atypical and assumes an additional element of innovation.
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The 15th century marked the last century of medieval Europe. With its ending came the beginnings of the modern era, a shift in the balance of power, both in trade and in finance, and the beginnings of the spread of double entry bookkeeping across Europe made possible by the method being available in print. But, if bookkeeping was to become increasingly important, were the bookkeepers to be trusted? Did they know what they were doing? Did the journals and ledgers they maintained represent a true and fair view of the transactions they purported to reflect? To understand the answers to these questions, we need to look to the society in which they lived, the culture surrounding their work, who they were, how they were educated and to the work ethic of their craft. We begin by looking at the late medieval world of commerce.
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Accounting Ethics Education: Teaching Virtues and Values gathers a diversity of contributions from invited, well-known experts. It promotes a comprehensive reflection around how ethics can and should be taught to accounting students, discussing and highlighting the most updated research on accounting ethics education, and it is an essential reference in the field. The subject of accounting ethics education is critical to foster ethical awareness that may prevent the way in which one acts or behaves, especially towards others. The point is that accounting education cannot exist without ethical education and accountants must be technically proficient and ethically sensible since ethical behavior is vital to the status and credibility of the accountancy profession. And this sensibility must be developed while the future professional is still cultivating his or her moral and intellectual structure within the school learning environment: character and practical reasoning are crucial because they include not only knowledge of rules and principles, and their correct application but also values and virtues. Examining multiple perspectives, Accounting Ethics Education: Teaching Virtues and Values advances the scholarly debate by providing cuttingedge and insightful research vital for all those interested and immersed in these matters. It begins with a historical perspective of accounting ethics education and continues by exploring challenges, opportunities and developments in the area. It will be of great value to academics, students, researchers and professionals in the fields of accounting, accounting education and ethics.
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Critical thinking features in university syllabi, programmes and classes both in the UK and US and is considered one of the primary learning outcomes of higher education. Yet empirically we still know very little about how critical thinking is taught in practice or the extent to which teaching practice is informed by academic research. Further work is needed to understand teaching practice across disciplines through the light of critical thinking research. In the present study, we surveyed 176 UK and US university instructors from a range of humanities and social sciences about their teaching practices. The instructors ranked ten critical thinking skills drawn from the research literature, and they identified the approaches and learning activities that they used to teach critical thinking. The key findings showed that there was broad consensus in the critical thinking skills that instructors considered most important (analysis, evaluation, and interpretation) and the skills that they considered least important (creativity, deductive reasoning, description, and problem-solving). The findings were similar irrespective of subject taught or country of instruction. We also found that instructors were more likely to report teaching critical thinking with an implicit approach as opposed to an explicit approach, and that instructors reported using dialogue-based activities to develop critical thinking. We use these findings to consider how we can further ‘close the gap’ between critical thinking research and teaching practice.
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Critical-thinking skills are a desired higher education outcome and a primary goal in education.This research focuses on fostering college students’ critical thinking through reflective writing. During an 18-week study, a total of 60 English majors were recruited. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected, including 1) the pre- and post-tests of the 5-point Likert scale Reflection Questionnaire, and 2) nine students’ reflective essays. The results showed that students significantly improved their critical thinking and revealed four prevalent changes. More specifically, self-worth and volunteerism (two major conceptual changes), as well as patience and gratefulness (two key behavioral changes) stood out among these changes. The implications of using reflective writing to promote students’ critical thinking are discussed.
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Critical thinking encapsulates contested ground due to variable definitions and means of assessment for this construct. This paper highlights findings from an international qualitative Delphi study that examines social work faculty members’ understanding of critical thinking within social work education. The themes identified via thematic analysis support a reconsideration of the concept of critical thinking to a more holistic, iterative process that is shaped and framed by epistemological and pedagogical influences of both educators and students. Findings provide some direction to support curriculum design and pedagogical approaches to foster and promote critical thinking in social work and the higher education sector more broadly.
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Studied the relationship between reflective judgment and standardized critical thinking tests and examined whether component critical thinking skills (CTSs) were present at some reflective judgment stages and not at others. 20 freshmen, 40 seniors, and 40 graduate students completed 3 instruments, including the Reflective Judgment Interview and the Cornell Critical Thinking Test. Overall scores for each measure increased across the 3 educational levels. The more educationally advanced Ss scored higher than their counterparts at earlier educational levels. Ss who reasoned using the assumptions of higher stages of reflective judgment demonstrated better CTSs than Ss who used lower stage assumptions, suggesting a developmental basis for the acquisition of CTSs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This two-step approach uses classroom dialogues to guide students in developing and applying critical thinking skills. Students evaluate written dialogues for biases, evidence, interpretations, and errors in reasoning, then take part in discussion as "role players." They analyze errors in thinking, identify reasoning skils, evaluate ethical implications, and analyze how roles facilitate or hinder group discussion.
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The American education system perpetuates the social inequalities of a class hierarchy by allocating differential "educational capital" along class lines. As the culminating stage of an ongoing sorting process operating within the formal schooling structure, higher education enables members of privileged status groups to accrue greater educational advantages while those of less privileged backgrounds go educationally disadvantaged. Through a synthesis of evidence found in the literature, this review strives to show that unequal critical thinking development at institutions of varying selectivity, coupled with the positive association between socioeconomic status and institutional selectivity, constitutes one way by which postsecondary institutions engage in social reproduction.
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In Adler's view of education, learning is not something one acquires externally like a new suit. It is, in his own words, "an interior transformation of a person's mind and character, a transformation which can be effected only through his own activity." It is as painful, but also as exhilarating, as any effort human beings make to make themselves better human beings, physically or mentally. The practices of educators, even if they are well-intentioned, who try to make learning less painful than it is, not only make it less exhilarating, but also weaken the will and minds of those on whom this fraud is perpetrated. The selling and buying of education all wrapped up in pretty packages is what is going on, but, Adler tells us, it is not the real thing. This essay was published in The Journal of Educational Sociology (February1941.) G.V.D. ON E of the reasons why the education given by our schools is so frothy and vapid is that the American people generally-the parent even more than the teacher-wish childhood to be unspoiled by pain. Childhood must be a period of delight, of gay indulgence in impulses. It must be given every avenue for unimpeded expression, which of course is pleasant; and it must not be made to suffer the impositions of discipline or the exactions of duty, which of course are painful. Childhood must be filled with as much play and as little work as possible. What cannot be accomplished educationally through elaborate schemes devised to make learning an exciting game must, of necessity, be forgone. Heaven forbid that learning should ever take on the character of a serious occupation-just as serious as earning money, and perhaps, much more laborious and painful. The kindergarten spirit of playing at education pervades our colleges. Most college students get their first taste of studying as really hard work, requiring mental strain and continual labor, only when they enter law school or medical school. Those who do not enter the professions find out what working at anything really means only when they start to earn a living-that is, if four years of college has not softened them to the point which makes them unemployable. But even those who somehow recover from a college loaf and accept the responsibilities and obligations involved in earning a living-even those who may gradually come to realize the connection between work, pain, and earning-seldom if ever make a similar connection of pain and work with learning. "Learning" is what they did in college, and they know that that had very little to do with pain and work.
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Part 1: Learning and Teaching in Higher Education 1.Introduction 2.Ways if Understanding Teaching 3.What Students Learn 4.Approaches to Learning 5.Learning form the Student's Perspective 6.The Nature of Good Teaching in Higher Education 7.Theories of Teaching in Higher Education Part 2: Design for Learning 8.The Goals and Structure of a Course 9.Tecahing Strategies for Effective Learning 10.Assessing for Understanding Part 3: Evaluating and Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning 11.Evaluating the Quality of Higher Education 12.What Does it Take to Improve Teaching?
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Americans dissatisfied with higher education typically have one of two gripes. Either the problem is the curriculum, which might be too liberal or too conservative, too changeful or too stodgy, too current or too retrograde, too utilitarian or too useless; or the problem is the university's structure, which often is deemed too businesslike and soulless. The first critique, the curricular one, began to surface in the United States in the 19th century, when colleges moved gingerly away from classical and seminary curricula toward the liberal arts, and then began to integrate with technical and scientific schools. Most anxiety about higher education today remains focused on curricular matters: what books are required to be read. The second critique, that universities are run like businesses, also is not new. In 1927 the historian Bernard DeVoto wrote in Harper's Monthly about a student who had written a letter explaining his disillusionment with traditional schooling. "I have learned," the anonymous boy wrote, "that running a university is a damned good business and the most respected con-game in the world." While the first critique was popular in the 1980s, when it ignited debates about the canon and political correctness, the second is in vogue now. Universities do appear more than ever like large companies, as they seek to patent inventions and team up with biotechnology firms, become more revenue-driven, engage with student and faculty unions, and employ "vice presidents for finance" and the like. Both of those critiques are important, but they are trivial in comparison with my chief complaint: that college and graduate-school teaching is quite bad, and bad in a particular way. Leaving aside for the moment my ornery opinion, it is fascinating to note that discussions of pedagogy are relatively rare in higher education. Even though pedagogical matters dominate debates about elementary and secondary education, practically to the exclusion of curricular content, they are considered beneath the dignity of the academy, for two reasons. First, scholars tend to assume that it is their scholarship that matters, and that fine teaching will flow necessarily from their knowledge of the subject matter. The fact that tenure decisions depend mostly on published output reinforces the belief that scholarship is primary.
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solving strategies, or abstract heuristic procedures. Further, virtue epistemology supercedes matters of knowledge ,justification since an individual’s intellectual character has important ramifications for moral reasoning as well. James Montmarquet cites one of Hitler’s leading biographers to elucidate this point: Hitler’s was a closed mind, violently rejecting any alternative view, refusing to criticize or allow others to criticize his assumptions. He read and listened, not to learn, but to acquire information and find additional support for prejudices and opinions already in his mind.,
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Critical thinking comes in many forms, but all possess a single core feature. They presume that human arguments require evaluation if they are to be worthy of widespread respect. Hence, critical thinking focuses on a set of skills and attitudes that enable a listener or reader to apply rational criteria to the reasoning of speakers and writer. Those classrooms that encourage critical thinking possess distinguishing features that assist programme evaluators and teachers themselves to assess whether critical thinking is a regular occurrence in a particular classroom. This article suggests that a critical thinking classroom commonly reects the following attributes: frequent questions, developmental tension, fascination with the contingency of conclusions and active learning. These attributes reinforce one another to provide developmental stimuli for enhanced critical thinking.
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Critical thinking pedagogy offers a supportive environment for teaching ethics in the professional communication classroom. Four important aspects of critical thinking which particularly encourage ethical thought and behavior are identifying and questioning assumptions, seeking a multiplicity of voices and alternatives on a subject, making connections, and fostering active involvement. Focusing on these behaviors allows an ongoing incorporation of ethics into many different aspects of the classroom.
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Critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry of late. But its endorsement by educators, paradoxically, is highly uncritical. This article argues that the conventional critical thinking model fallaciously assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking; good thinking, however, also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to "vulcanize" students by training them in but one aspect of thinking.
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This article draws six key lessons from cognitive science for teachers of critical thinking. The lessons are: acquiring expertise in critical thinking is hard; practice in critical-thinking skills themselves enhances skills; the transfer of skills must be practiced; some theoretical knowledge is required; diagramming arguments (“argument mapping”) promotes skill; and students are prone to belief preservation. The article provides some guidelines for teaching practice in light of these lessons. Download from https://sites.google.com/site/timvangelder/publications-1/teaching-critical-thinking
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In this paper, the ® rst of two, we analyse three widely-held conceptions of critical thinking: as one or more skills, as mental processes, and as sets of procedures. Each viewis, wecontend, wrong-headed, misleadingor, atbest, unhelpful. Somewhowrite about critical thinking seemtomuddle all three views in an unenlightening me lange. Apartfromtheerrorsorinadequaciesof the conceptionsthemselves, theypromote or abet misconceived practices for teaching critical thinking. Together, they have led to the view that critical thinking is best taught by practising it. We oÄ er alternative proposals for the teaching of critical thinking. Critical thinkingisasubject of considerablecurrentinterest, bothinterms of theory and pedagogy. A great deal is written about critical thinking, conferences on the subject abound, and educational initiatives aimed at fostering critical thinking proliferate. 1 It is our view that much of the theoretical work and many of the pedagogical endeavours in this area are misdirectedbecause they are basedon faulty conceptions of critical think- ing. Critical thinking is frequently conceptualized in terms of skills, pro- cesses, procedures and practice. Much of the educational literature either referstocognitiveorthinkingskillsorequatescriticalthinkingwithcertain mental processes or procedural moves that can be improved through practice. In this paper we attempt toexplain the misconceptions inherent in such ways of conceptualizing critical thinking. It is important to note thatmuchof theliteraturecontainsapervasivemiasmaof overlappinguses of such terms as skill, process, procedure, behaviour, mental operations,
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The Journal of General Education 50.1 (2001) 1-28 Critical thinking is viewed as a major teaching goal by faculty (Siegal, 1988). When 2,700 teachers from 33 two- and four-year colleges were asked to identify among a list of choices what they perceived as their primary teaching role, "helping students develop higher-order thinking skills" tied with "teaching students facts and principles" for the highest number of responses; each was selected by 28% of those surveyed (Cross, 1993). Yet, there is evidence that little critical thinking development actually takes place in college classrooms (Barnes, 1983; Braxton & Nordvall, 1985; Paul, Elder, & Bartell, 1997). This discrepancy between what is valued and what is pursued ought to be a perennial concern of practitioners and educational researchers alike. A central premise of this study is that classroom instruction, and thus student learning, is intensely influenced by the actions of teachers. Teacher behavior is heavily guided by intent, which is in turn linked to teachers' personal self-efficacy. Presumably those faculty members who intentionally infuse critical thinking into their courses do so because they feel reasonably confident in their ability to execute the actions needed to achieve the desired outcome; those who lack such confidence are apt not to invest the necessary time and effort. This study borrows from the conceptual framework of the exercise of human agency insofar as it recognizes that "teachers' beliefs in their personal efficacy to motivate and promote learning affect the types of learning environments they create and the level of academic progress their students achieve" (Bandura, 1993, p.117). A study by Gibson and Dembo (1984) examined differences between teachers possessing high instructional self-efficacy with those possessing low instructional self-efficacy. Findings reveal that the former group is more apt to devote classroom time to academic learning, provide assistance to those experiencing learning difficulties, and praise students for their accomplishment. Meanwhile, the latter group is more apt to spend time on nonacademic activities, give up on students when they do not achieve the desired results, and criticize students for failures. In their study, Woolfolk and Hoy (1990) found that teachers' sense of personal efficacy not only affected the choice of instructional practices, but also the educational orientation fostered inside the classroom. Teachers with a high self-efficacy supported the development of students' intrinsic interests and academic self-directedness; those with low self-efficacy adopted a custodial orientation, and were more likely to utilize extrinsic inducements and negative sanctions. There is also empirical evidence showing that instructional self-efficacy significantly impacts students' perceived academic performance (Midgley, Feldlaufer, & Eccles, 1989), as well as actual achievement (Ashton & Webb, 1986). Instructional self-efficacy is by no means formed in a vacuum. Rather, it is molded by a wide spectrum of factors from one's background experiences and current contextual setting. In a study by Joan Stark et al. (1988), students and faculty at eight institutions were interviewed in an effort to investigate how courses are planned and taught. Results show that among the strongest influences on course planning are academic content, materials, student characteristics, and faculty beliefs. The importance of faculty beliefs was confirmed through another study examining influences on the planning of introductory college courses. Based on exploratory interviews conducted with 89 faculty members, researchers concluded that faculty members are most strongly influenced by their discipline orientations, scholarly and pedagogical backgrounds, and beliefs about the purpose of education (Stark et al., 1990b). A current deficit exists in the research literature regarding faculty attitudes associated with the development of students' critical thinking skills. This study strives to redress this dearth through an in-depth investigation of the underlying faculty beliefs and perceptions that are related to instructional self-efficacy and teacher intentions towards critical thinking development efforts. This exploratory study was designed to probe faculty members' feelings on a wide range of potentially relevant contextual factors, some of which were suggested by the work of other researchers. These included but were not limited to faculty members' educational background, disciplinary field, institutional mission and support, student characteristics, and available resources. Qualitative case study methods were used to gather data for this study. In a...
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Analysis of interview and classroom observation data collected through four institutional case studies reveals some consistent findings regarding how writing assignments and class discussions can be made conducive to critical thinking development.
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Asserts that becoming adept at understanding the logic of subjects, issues, and questions is a competency that, once learned, becomes a foundation for highly skilled and practical teaching and learning. Promotes the model of teaching students to seek the logic of things through the logic of science. (VWC)
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In this article, the author stresses that teachers need to teach their students to think critically and to reason their way. One prerequisite for teaching critical thinking is a classroom climate of high expectations, teacher warmth and encouragement, and pleasant physical surroundings. Schools should see to it that students become progressively more disciplined in their reasoning, and more self-critical and self-directed in the process and products of their thinking as they advance through the grades. She also states that the students need opportunities to analyze their own thinking according to standards of clarity, accuracy, relevance, logic, and fairness. Moreover, she notes that teachers should give necessary information and thinking tools to solve problems that focus more on affective and cognitive features of learning; and for students to become good critical thinkers, teachers must be good thinkers themselves. Furthermore, she discusses some of the possible things that a teacher should do in order to develop the students' thinking skills.
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Focuses on three key ideas students need to understand in order to become master students: the importance of ideas or concepts in thinking, how to think within the ideas of a subject or discipline, and how to learn important ideas from textbooks. Makes suggestions to students, including creating a glossary of ideas learned in each course. (NB)
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National governments and employers have argued that it is important for all sectors of education to prepare individuals who are able to think well and for themselves. 'Good thinking' and 'thinking well' are commonly used terms bound up with what is called 'critical thinking' in the research literature. Evidence is presented in this paper, however, which suggests that not all students may be good at critical thinking; nor do some teachers appear to teach students 'good thinking' skills. A review of the research literature in this area was undertaken and the methods and conceptions of teaching likely to inhibit and enhance critical thinking are outlined, as well as what is required to improve students' thinking skills. Ways forward in teaching critical thinking, and in helping students to learn to think well and for themselves, are described and discussed.
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The implications of research on teacher belief for the nature of teaching and teacher education are discussed. In addition, ignored or minimally addressed issues that could provide avenues for future research are raised. Teacher belief is defined broadly as tacit, often unconsciously held assumptions about students, classrooms, and the academic material to be taught. After summarizing the heterogeneous research on teacher belief, I point out that we lack direct evidence concerning the processes that effect change in teacher belief. However, we can assume that they are similar to those needed to effect conceptual change in other kinds of personal belief. This leads to a discussion of research on conceptual change and its relevance to teacher education. I next suggest that the need for an elaborate personal belief system among teachers arises out of the many uncertainties endemic to classroom teaching: In a landscape without bearings, teachers create and internalize their own maps. The need for a personal belief system also suggests that teachers engage in problem finding, an activity characteristic of all forms of creativity. Teaching, like any form of creative invention, is situated in person, and professional growth is an intensely private affair. Finally, I raise several relatively ignored issues, including transfer mechanisms that may explain how teachers' beliefs become less contextualized, the possibility that key instructional activities are the vehicles that translate teacher belief into classroom instruction, and the value of a curriculum script as a Rosetta stone—a concrete historical record of how one teacher's belief evolved.
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Investigated in a longitudinal study whether students attending college would show higher levels of critical thinking after their freshman year than counterparts not attending college. 17 college-bound and 17 non-college-bound high school seniors were matched for ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and 1986 scores on the American College Test and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal—Form A (CTA). 13 additional college Ss were matched to existing pairs, and Ss completed the CTA after freshman year. Findings suggest that college produced a modest enhancement in the ability to weigh evidence and the validity of data-based conclusions, and to distinguish between strong and weak arguments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A perennial goal of college instruction is critical thinking, but until recently the actual research on these skills was limited. This chapter offers a discussion of where we have been and a four-part model showing where we should be.
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This study describes the development of initial faculty identities of doctoral students in education as they transition and adjust to the professorate. The findings are based on constant comparative analysis of semi-structured interviews with 30 participants at 14 universities. Interview data are supplemented by participant journals and materials, including curriculum vitae, website materials, and program documents. I identified five archetypal pathways to the professorate: anointed, pilgrim, visionary, philosopher, and drifter. Discussion of these pathways focuses on how these students decide to pursue a career in education and how they characterize their socialization and transition into the professorate.
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Using grounded theory as an example, this paper examines three methodological questions that are generally applicable to all qualitative methods. How should the usual scientific canons be reinterpreted for qualitative research? How should researchers report the procedures and canons used in their research? What evaluative criteria should be used in judging the research products? We propose that the criteria should be adapted to fit the procedures of the method. We demonstrate how this can be done for grounded theory and suggest criteria for evaluating studies following this approach. We argue that other qualitative researchers might be similarly specific about their procedures and evaluative criteria.
The modern American college
  • A W Chickering
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Study of 38 public universities and 28 private universities to determine faculty emphasis on critical thinking in instruction. Executive summary
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Critical thinking: Teaching students how to study and learn (part III)
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Rethinking university teaching Learning that lasts: Integrating learning, development, and performance in college and beyond
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The essence of critical thinking
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Gong, R. (2005). The essence of critical thinking. Journal of Developmental Education, 28(3), 40.