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The crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Vitis trifolia was investigated for its possible antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing model in mice. The extract significantly (P<0.001) reduced the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction (writhing) in mice at 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight, which was comparable to the standard drug, diclofenac sodium.
Several cultivars of Allium cepa L. have been studied for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities but there is inadequate information on such biological activities of the concentrated extracts of the Nigerian grown red cultivar A. cepa bulb.
The anti-inflammatory models used in this study were Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and formalin-induced paw lick in rats, while acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate reaction, hot water tail flick tests in mice were the analgesic models.
At 30 min post-induction (pi), the inhibition of paw oedema (62.50%) by 200 mg/kg of methanol extract of red cultivar A. cepa bulb (MERCACB) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of indomethacin (15.63%) at 10 mg/kg. The paw oedema inhibition at 60 min pi by MERCACB (76.92%) was significantly higher than that of indomethacin (41.03%). At the early phase of formalin paw-lick test, the pain reaction time (PRT) of rat treated with MERCACB (400 mg/kg) was significantly lower than that of indomethacin and the control groups. The hotplate test revealed that PRT of mice treated with 800 mg/kg of MERCACB were significantly (p<0.01) longer in comparism to indomethacin and control groups. The PRT of mice subjected to thermal pain due to hot water and treated with 800 mg/kg of MERCACB was significantly (p<0.05) longer than that of the control group.
These findings indicate that MERCACB possesses potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties which confirm the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and may be useful as a future therapeutic agent.
Kalanchoeblossfeldiana(Flaming katy) is mostly a household plant from the family of succulent plants Crassulaceae, which includes mainly shrubs and herbs. K. blossfeldianaplant is used for its cleansing property and aesthetic value. Review of literature revealed various medicinal properties of K. blossfeldiana. In present study the antioxidant potential of plant leaf extracts was measured using the DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenols (39.99±1.52 & 63.21± 0.62 µg gallic acid equivalents/mg extract) and flavonoids (6.47±0.16 & 6.64±0.15 µg quercetin/mg extract) were calculated in the methanol and ethanol extracts respectively. The chemical composition of plant’s methanol extract was determined using GC-MS analysis. Search through the database, revealed the presence of biologically appreciable compounds like Palmitic acid, Delta-Tocopherol, beta-Tocopherol, gamma-Tocopherol, Vitamin E, Dihydrobrassicasterol, gamma.-Sitosterol, Lupenyl acetate and Trilinolein etc. exhibiting properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous and cancer-preventive capabilities.
Ficus benghalensis is has been used in traditional medicinal practices such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and homoeopathy. All parts of the tree such as fruits, aerial roots, bark and leaves are known to be traditionally associated with diarrhea, dysentery, menorrhagia, nervous disorders and tonic properties. However, in Ayurveda it is mainly known for the diabetes treatment.There are no reports giving a detailed profiling of phytochemicals present in the aerial roots of F. benghalensis. The study aims to evaluate its bioactive compounds and comprehend its biological activities with traditional knowledge.Methanol and ethanol extracts from the aerial roots healthy tree of F. benghalensis were prepared and their antibacterial activity against various pathogenic gram’s positive and gram’s negative bacteria were evaluated using disc diffusion assay. DPPH & FRAP bioassays were performed to establish its traditional use as antioxidants. Total phenol and total flavonoids were estimated to correlate its antioxidant potential. The chemical composition of methanol extract was accomplished by GC-MS and bioactivity of these compounds was determined. Lupenyl acetate (35.4 %), α-Amyrenyl acetate (16.34%), γ-Sitosterol (5.45%), Palmitic acid (5.17%) and Lupeol (4.44%) were found to dominate the phytochemical composition. These compounds are known to exhibit various important pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-cancerous etc. Various phytochemicals in aerial root can be screened to evaluate its potential role in treatment of various diseases
The methanolic extract of leaves of Lippia nodiflora Linn. was tested for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The extract showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity comparable to phenylbutazone against carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats and a significant (P < 0.001) antinociceptive activity comparable to diclofenac sodium in acetic acid induced writhing in white albino mice.
An extension of the "squirming test" is described which makes the method specific for nonnarcotic analgesics. The intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid causes squirming and an increase in capillary permeability that is measured by direct estimation of plasma-bound dye (Pontamine Sky Blue) which has leaked into the peritoneal cavity. Nonnarcotic analgesics inhibit squirming and leakage of dye. Values for the oral ED50s for both effects are given for a number of typical compounds. Narcotic analgesics, in doses that produce analgesia, inhibit squirming but do not significantly affect leakage of dye. Drugs that stimulate the central nervous system and also inhibit squirming have no significant effect on leakage of dye over the range of doses which inhibit squirming. Corticosteroids do not significantly inhibit either squirming or leakage of dye.