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A "Truly International" Archive for the Women's Movement (IAV, now IIAV): From its Foundation in Amsterdam in 1935 to the Return of its Looted Archives in 2003

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Abstract

It is a great pity that so many documents about the difficult period in the beginning of the struggle for the vote and rights for women, have been destroyed. Therefore we hope to convince the women of the world that here in Holland we have a safe place and that everything: books, letters, pamphlets a.s.o. can be send to us to build up a library, where the women interested in the women's movement will have the possibility to study this movement in past and present. _Letter from the IAV Librarian, E. Ferf, to Phyllis Lovell, 9 October 1936.

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... It has somewhat resembled the bus trips that provide a glimpse of a big city's highlights in half a day: they offer a quick orientation, but much is passed by and there is little time for closer examination. We have neglected the old university and national libraries, some specialized social movement libraries, 85 the grey literature hidden in police and government archives, and many other repositories of printed matter that labour historians tend to visit. More importantly, it was impossible to go into the contents of the collections mentioned, the collection development policies of the institutions, or their classification systems, which are often as good an indication as any of their considerations and intentions. ...
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Though there are approximately 400 women’s libraries or information centres internationally they are not generally the focus of research within either library studies or feminist research. This thesis addressed this gap in relation to women’s libraries in the British Isles, focusing particularly on Wales where there is currently no physical women’s library. The research analysed the nature of current women’s libraries; examined their place within librarianship and feminist research and investigated whether there is potential for a women’s library in Wales. Interviews were held with staff at nine women’s libraries or archive projects: Archif Menywod Cymru/Women’s Archive of Wales, Feminist Archive (South), Feminist Library, Glasgow Women’s Library, Swansea Multicultural Women’s Resource and Training Centre, Women’s History Project, Women in Jazz, Women’s Library, and the Women’s Resource Centre. The findings reveal three models of women’s libraries: research-orientated institutions; community-based women’s resource centres and online databases of material pertaining to women. A fourth model is developing in Wales: that of distributed donations of material in local record offices. On the positive side, all the physical women’s libraries have extensive and important collections, and they provide spaces for women’s learning. Conversely, they are constrained by limited financial and human resources. They are not closely engaged with librarianship or with feminism; and librarianship and feminist research do not appear to be closely linked to them. Given the resource implications of creating and maintaining a physical women’s library in Wales, possible future developments include a mapping exercise of women’s archives in Wales; raising awareness of the value of women’s archives; and developing the work of Swansea Women’s Centre to meet contemporary information needs of women. Whilst these organisations contribute to the field of librarianship and archives there does not appear to be the potential to create a physical women’s library in Wales along traditional lines. Department of Information Studies, UWA
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This original study discusses the role of women in developing and dispersing caring power and, vice-versa, the role of caring power in constituting 'women' as modern social subjects, processes which began around 1800. Based on the historian-/philosopher Foucault's concept of pastoral power, "caring power" also takes into account the vital role played by gender. Both humanitarian and religious motives fostered the ideal of serving the well-being of individual 'others' and thereby the interest of society as a whole. With the rise of caring power, this book argues, women began to feel responsible for 'those of their own sex' and to organize themselves in all-female organizations. In the process they carved out new gender identities for themselves and the women in their care. The authors illustrate this profound historical change with the work of the reformers Elizabeth Fry (1780-1845) and Josephine Butler (1828-1906) and trace their impact in Britain and the Netherlands.
  • H Posthumus-Van De Goot
H. Posthumus-van de Goot, " Manus, Rosette Susanna (1881–1943), " Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland 1 (Den Haag 1979).
Een moderne vrouw van formaat, 60, mentions 17 According to Archive Rosa Manus, Appendix A (but unclear to what), IIAV
  • Meijers
Meijers, Een moderne vrouw van formaat, 60, mentions 17 August 1941. According to Archive Rosa Manus, Appendix A (but unclear to what), IIAV, it was 16
the wife of a nephew of Manus's, 15
  • Een Meijers
  • Moderne Vrouw Van
Meijers, Een moderne vrouw van formaat, 42–44, 60; and interview with " Mrs. K., " the wife of a nephew of Manus's, 15 December 1987, cited in A. du Burck et al., " Laat ze maar lachen. Wij komen er toch wel!! Een ontmoeting met Rosa Manus " (unpublished typescript, The Hague 1988), 20. 80
118 and 122.The IAV is listed incorrectly as " International Archives of Women The names of the two women mentioned and the address of the IAV also contain mistakes
  • Report Of The Thirteenth Congress
IAWSEC, Report of the Thirteenth Congress, Copenhagen... 1939 (Kent, n.d.), 118 and 122.The IAV is listed incorrectly as " International Archives of Women. " The names of the two women mentioned and the address of the IAV also contain mistakes. 52
Gender and the Politics of Office Work, 27–30; and Francisca de Haan Unser Land ist in Aufruhr: Geschlechterdebatten in den Niederlanden um 1900
  • On Hilda Van Suylenburg
  • See De Haan
On Hilda van Suylenburg, see De Haan, Gender and the Politics of Office Work, 27–30; and Francisca de Haan, " Unser Land ist in Aufruhr: Geschlechterdebatten in den Niederlanden um 1900, " Feministische Studien 18, no. 1 (2000): 8–21. 62
Ferf in her letter to Dr Bertha van Hoosen in New York So we owe for a great deal to her [Rosa Manus], that we are in touch with women's organisations from all over the world
  • As
As acknowledged by E. Ferf in her letter to Dr. Bertha van Hoosen in New York, 4 December 1936: " So we owe for a great deal to her [Rosa Manus], that we are in touch with women's organisations from all over the world. " Archive IAV, no. 22, IIAV. 57
Women's Archives Recovered
  • Annette Mevis
Annette Mevis, " Women's Archives Recovered, " in The Return of Looted Collections, 115–16.
Strijd tegen de stilte
  • Grever
Grever, Strijd tegen de stilte, 74–75.
Monthly News-Sheet of the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace
  • Archive Aletta Jacobs Bussey
Archive Aletta Jacobs, no. 449, Monthly News-Sheet of the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace, no. 3, 1 September 1915, IIAV; and Bussey and Tims, Pioneers for Peace, 25 and 32. 25
Gerda Walther was known as a philosopher and someone who was interested in parapsychology, mysticism, and so on. 74 " Die deutschen Frauen wussten vermutlich nichts davon und konnten es sich also nicht wünschen, vielleicht die Leiterin der Nazifrauenschaft, Frau Scholz- Klinck—aber sonst?
  • Dr
Dr. Gerda Walther was known as a philosopher and someone who was interested in parapsychology, mysticism, and so on. 74 " Die deutschen Frauen wussten vermutlich nichts davon und konnten es sich also nicht wünschen, vielleicht die Leiterin der Nazifrauenschaft, Frau Scholz- Klinck—aber sonst? " Archive IAV, no. 161, Letter by Dr. Gerda Walther to W.H.
Na tien jaren 1898–1908: herdenking der Nationale Tentoonstelling van Vrouwenarbeid
  • J W A Naber
J. W. A. Naber, Na tien jaren 1898–1908: herdenking der Nationale Tentoonstelling van Vrouwenarbeid (Groningen: G. Römelingh, 1908); and J. W. A. Naber, Wegbereidsters (Groningen: G. Römelingh, 1909).
Collections and Research in Social and Economic History: The International Institute of Social History, the Netherlands Economic History Archive and Related Institutions Maria Hunink, De papieren van de revolutie: Het Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis
  • Jan Lucassen
  • Tracing
  • Past
Jan Lucassen, Tracing the Past: Collections and Research in Social and Economic History: The International Institute of Social History, the Netherlands Economic History Archive and Related Institutions (Amsterdam: Stichting Beheer IISG, 1989), 13–15, quotation on 14. Maria Hunink, De papieren van de revolutie: Het Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis 1935–1947 (Amsterdam: Stichting IISG, 1986), 116–17. 39
New Clues in the Records of Archival and Library Plunder: The ERR and the RSHA VII Amt Operations in Silesia
  • Patricia Kennedy
Patricia Kennedy Grimsted, " New Clues in the Records of Archival and Library Plunder: The ERR and the RSHA VII Amt Operations in Silesia, " in The Return of Looted Collections (1946–1996): An Unfinished Chapter (Amsterdam: St. Beheer IISG, 1997), 60. 83
Rosette Susanna Manus
  • Bosch
Bosch, " Rosette Susanna Manus, " 142.
IIAV, also printed in Van de Loo
  • Slichtenbree-Tiddens
  • Iav Librarian
Slichtenbree-Tiddens, IAV librarian, 16 May 1960, IIAV, also printed in Van de Loo, " Moet terug, " 14–15.
Rusland geeft Nederlandse archieven terug, " (Russia returns Dutch archives) NRC Handelsblad
  • Marc Jansen
Marc Jansen, " Rusland geeft Nederlandse archieven terug, " (Russia returns Dutch archives) NRC Handelsblad (14 January 1992), also printed in Van de Loo, " Moet terug, " 26–27.
The International Women's News (IWN) February
  • For Instance
For instance, The International Women's News (IWN) February 1936, June 1936, February 1937, August–September 1937. 50 Archive IAV, no. 14, Jaarverslag van de Bibliothecaresse Januari 1939– Februari 1940, 3, IIAV. 51
Moet terug 21. Unfortunately, the information about this (Archive IAV, no. 38, annual report about 1947 and 1948, and no. 498, report about the reopening, IIAV) is not very precise and we only know that the boxes contained books
  • Loo Van De
Van de Loo, " Moet terug, " 21. Unfortunately, the information about this (Archive IAV, no. 38, annual report about 1947 and 1948, and no. 498, report about the reopening, IIAV) is not very precise and we only know that the boxes contained books. 93
Een moderne vrouw van formaat: Leven en werken van Rosa Manus
  • Clara M Meijers
Clara M. Meijers, Een moderne vrouw van formaat: Leven en werken van Rosa Manus (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1946), 11–16.
Archive IAV, no. 161, IIAV. The original transcript of Scholtz-Klink's interrogation is in the Institut für Zeitgeschichte
  • Annie Adama
  • Van Scheltema
Annie Adama van Scheltema (IISH librarian), 23 February 1949, Archive IAV, no. 161, IIAV. The original transcript of Scholtz-Klink's interrogation is in the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Munich, no. OMGUS 51344. 77
The process [in the inter-war period] of recruiting members and sections in parts of the world where the groups were not well represented came to be called making the [international women's] movement 'truly international Challenging Imperialism in International Women's Organizations
  • Iav Archive
  • J Leila
  • Rupp
Archive IAV, no. 20, outgoing correspondence, IIAV. 58 " The process [in the inter-war period] of recruiting members and sections in parts of the world where the groups were not well represented came to be called making the [international women's] movement 'truly international.' " Leila J. Rupp, " Challenging Imperialism in International Women's Organizations, 1888–1945, " NWSA Journal 8 (1996): 11. 59 Both quotations in Archive IAV, no. 22, outgoing correspondence, IIAV.
Een moderne vrouw van formaat
  • Elly Archive
  • Winkel
  • Diary
Archive Elly Winkel, Diary, IIAV; Meijers, Een moderne vrouw van formaat, 42–44; and Vrouwen vochten voor de vrede, 216. 79
European Feminisms 1700–1950: A Political History Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement
  • M Karen
  • J Offen Leila
  • Rupp
Karen M. Offen, European Feminisms 1700–1950: A Political History (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000); and Leila J. Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997).
  • Mary Gray See
  • Carrie Chapman Peck
  • Catt
See, for example, Mary Gray Peck, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography (New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1944), 373–89.
See Archive IAV Treaty of Friendship IIAV. According to Archive IAV, no. 3, minutes of IAV board meeting 2
  • Ibid
Ibid., 160. See Archive IAV, no. 146, " Treaty of Friendship, " IIAV. According to Archive IAV, no. 3, minutes of IAV board meeting 2 July 1940, IIAV, the annual sum was 600 guilders. 42
Pioneers for Peace: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
  • Een Meijers
  • Gertrude Moderne Vrouw Van Formaat
  • Margaret Bussey
  • Tims
Meijers, Een moderne vrouw van formaat, 39–40; Gertrude Bussey and Margaret Tims, Pioneers for Peace: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom 1915– 1965 (Oxford: Alden Press, 1980), chap. 1; and Bosch, " Rosette Susanna Manus. " 24
IIAV, also quoted in Van de Loo
  • Posthumus-Van Der Goot
Posthumus-van der Goot, 7 June 1947, IIAV, also quoted in Van de Loo, " Moet terug, " 19. 75
16 The most complete biography so far is Meijers, Een moderne vrouw van formaat See also Mineke Bosch Rosette Susanna Manus
16 The most complete biography so far is Meijers, Een moderne vrouw van formaat. See also Mineke Bosch, " Rosette Susanna Manus, " BWSA 6 (Amsterdam: St. Beheer IISG, 1995), 139–42, and for a very brief biographical sketch in English, Bosch, with Kloosterman, eds., Politics and Friendship, 13–14.