ArticlePDF Available

Assessing Forest Plantation Productivity of Exotic and Indigenous Species on Degraded Secondary Forests

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Problem statement: There is general agreement that human activities such as deforestation and land use change to other land use types have contributed to degraded secondary forests or forestland and increases the emission of greenhouse gases which ultimately led to global climate change. An establishment of forest plantation in particular is regarded as an important approach for sequestering carbon. However, limited information exists on productivity and potential of fast growth exotic and indigenous tree plantations for sequestering CO 2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. This study aimed at assessing the productivity and biomass accumulation along with the potential for sequestering CO 2 of planted exotic and indigenous species on degraded forestland. Approach: This study was conducted at Khaya ivorensis and Hopea odorata plantations, which was planted at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Research Station in Sega mat Johor, Malaysia five years ago. In order, to evaluate the forest productivity and biomass accumulation of both species, we established plots with a size of 40×30 m in three replications in each stand, followed by measuring all trees in the plots in terms of height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). To develop allometric equation, five representative trees at each stand were chosen for destructive sampling. Results: The growth performance in terms of mean height, DBH, annual increment of height and diameter and basal area of exotic species (K. ivorensis) was significantly higher than that of the indigenous species (H. odorata). We used the diameter alone as independent variable to estimate stem volume and biomass production of both species. The stem volume of K. ivorensis stand was 43.13 m 3ha -1 and was significantly higher than H. odorata stands (33.66 m 3 ha -1). The results also showed that the K. ivorensis and H. odorata stands have the potential to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere which was stored in aboveground biomass with value 15.90 Mg C ha -1 and 13.62 Mg C ha -1, respectively. In addition, the carbon content in root biomass of H. odorata stand was higher than that in K. ivorensis stand with value 7.67 Mg C ha -1 and 4.58 Mg C ha -1, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendation: The exotic (K. ivorensis) and indigenous (H. odorata) species which was planted on degraded forestland exhibited different growth rate, biomass production and ability to absorb CO 2 from the atmosphere in each part of the tree. In general, forest productivity and ability to absorb CO 2 from the atmosphere of exotics species (K. ivorensis) was higher than that indigenous species (H. odorata). These findings suggest that forest plantation productivity has been affected by species characteristics and suitability of species to site condition. Thus, to sustain high productivity with suitable species selection for carbon sequestration, these factors should be considered for future forest establishment.
Content may be subject to copyright.
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 (2): 201-208, 2011
ISSN 1557-4989
© 2011 Science Publications
Corresponding Author: Arifin Abdu, Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia,
43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Tel: +603-89467177 Fax: +603-89432514
201
Assessing Forest Plantation Productivity of Exotic and
Indigenous Species on Degraded Secondary Forests
1
Yetti Heryati,
1,2
Arifin Abdu,
4
Mohd Noor Mahat,
1,2
Hazandy Abdul-Hamid,
3
Shamshuddin Jusop,
1
Nik Muhamad Majid,
2
Ika Heriansyah and
5
Khairulmazmi Ahmad
1
Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry,
2
Laboratory of Sustainable Bioresource Management,
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products,
3
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture,
University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Malaysia
5
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences,
University Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak
Abstract: Problem statement: There is general agreement that human activities such as deforestation and
land use change to other land use types have contributed to degraded secondary forests or forestland and
increases the emission of greenhouse gases which ultimately led to global climate change. An
establishment of forest plantation in particular is regarded as an important approach for sequestering
carbon. However, limited information exists on productivity and potential of fast growth exotic and
indigenous tree plantations for sequestering CO
2
from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. This study
aimed at assessing the productivity and biomass accumulation along with the potential for sequestering
CO
2
of planted exotic and indigenous species on degraded forestland. Approach: This study was
conducted at Khaya ivorensis and Hopea odorata plantations, which was planted at the Forest Research
Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Research Station in Sega mat Johor, Malaysia five years ago. In order, to
evaluate the forest productivity and biomass accumulation of both species, we established plots with a size
of 40x30 m in three replications in each stand, followed by measuring all trees in the plots in terms of
height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). To develop allometric equation, five representative trees at
each stand were chosen for destructive sampling. Results: The growth performance in terms of mean
height, DBH, annual increment of height and diameter and basal area of exotic species (K. ivorensis) was
significantly higher than that of the indigenous species (H. odorata). We used the diameter alone as
independent variable to estimate stem volume and biomass production of both species. The stem volume of
K. ivorensis stand was 43.13 m
3
ha
1
and was significantly higher than H. odorata stands (33.66 m
3
ha
1
).
The results also showed that the K. ivorensis and H. odorata stands have the potential to absorb CO
2
from
the atmosphere which was stored in aboveground biomass with value 15.90 Mg C ha
1
and 13.62 Mg C ha
-
1
, respectively. In addition, the carbon content in root biomass of H. odorata stand was higher than that in
K. ivorensis stand with value 7.67 Mg C ha
1
and 4.58 Mg C ha
1
, respectively.
Conclusion/Recommendation: The exotic (K. ivorensis) and indigenous (H. odorata) species which was
planted on degraded forestland exhibited different growth rate, biomass production and ability to absorb
CO
2
from the atmosphere in each part of the tree. In general, forest productivity and ability to absorb CO
2
from the atmosphere of exotics species (K. ivorensis) was higher than that indigenous species (H. odorata).
These findings suggest that forest plantation productivity has been affected by species characteristics and
suitability of species to site condition. Thus, to sustain high productivity with suitable species selection for
carbon sequestration, these factors should be considered for future forest establishment.
Key words: Biomass production carbon content, exotic and indigenous species, Hopea odorata, Khaya
ivorensis, root biomass, carbon sequestration, forest plantation productivity, non-
government sectors
Am. J. Agri. & Biol. Sci., 6 (2): 201-208, 2011
202
INTRODUCTION
Development of plantation forest through forest
plantation or afforestation of exotic or indigenous
species would bring various benefits such as replacing
natural forest in meeting the needs of timber, to restore
degraded land due to deforestation (Evans, 1999;
Sawyer, 1993) and also providing environmental
service as CO
2
sequestration to reduce global warming
(Brown, 1999). Moreover, according to Evans (1999),
forest rehabilitation through forest plantation
establishment serves to sequester large volumes of
carbon. However, to achieve multiple benefits of forest
plantation in terms of productivity and potential carbon
sequestration, an understanding on the suitability of a
species planted on degraded forestland is crucial. The
suitability of species on the site is a very important
factor to be considered, may be a land has a potential
for timber plantation, but appropriate species need to be
determined (Appanah and Weinland, 1993). The
selection of tree species for forest plantation is not only
to obtain the optimal timber productivity, but also
potentially for increasing carbon stock as well as carbon
sink in forest ecosystems.
Currently, in Malaysia, the development of forest
plantation is initiated by the introduction of plantation
programmed with planting of high quality indigenous
species (Appanah and Weinland, 1993; Heryati et al.,
2011) and fast growing exotic species (Majid et al.,
1994). Khaya ivorensis (exotic species) and Hopea
odorata (indigenous species) are among the promising
tree species for forest plantation in Malaysia as
alternatives to Acacia mangium (Appanah and
Weinland, 1993). K. ivorensis is included in the eight
selected species for the National Timber Industrial
Policy 2004 formulated by the Malaysian government,
through the Malaysian Timber Industrial Board
(MTIB).
In this study, we evaluated productivity in terms of
growth performance and tree biomass content along
with elucidating the potential for sequestering CO
2
of K.
ivorensis and H. odorata plantations planted on similar
site condition which was subjected excessive forest
harvesting and subsequently regarded as degraded
forestland. As we have known that forest vegetation has
the potential to absorb CO
2
from the atmosphere during
photosynthesis and store it as organic material in forest
biomass per unit area and per unit of time. Thus, forest
production in this case is forest plantation of K.
ivorensis and H. odorata which has the potential or
ability to absorb CO
2
from the atmosphere, calculated
based on the content of biomass. Furthermore, the
potential of forest plantation biomass to absorb CO
2
from the atmosphere varies according to species, age
and stand density. By calculating the accumulation of
biomass in a forest stand we can quantify the increment
in forest yield, growth or productivity (Kueh and Lim,
1999) and estimates carbon content in forest (Brown
and Lugo, 1984; Brown, 1997) and determine the
amount of carbon that will be lost due to deforestation
or harvesting (Houghton, 2005).
Therefore, assessing the productivity and tree
biomass content of planted exotic and indigenous
species is important for future forest plantation
establishment not only for timber productivity, but also
for sequestering CO
2
as greenhouse gas in the
atmosphere. Such fundamental information is crucial if
the government and non-government sectors intend to
turn the unproductive degraded forestland areas into
carbon sink through forest plantation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study site: The study was carried out at K. ivorensis
and H. odorata plantations, which was established in
2004 (5-year-old) at the Forest Research Institute
Malaysia (FRIM) Research Station in Segamat, Johore,
Malaysia. The plantation is located between latitudes
02° 34’ 683 N and longitudes 102° 58’ 643 E, with
mean altitude of 82 m above sea level. The mean
annual temperature is 27°C and humidity is 94%. The
mean annual rainfall from 2004-2008 was 2508
mm/year with the dry season and the wet season varies
every year. The area topography is flat to undulating.
The soil in the study site is Rengam Series. It is
developed over acid igneous rocks, including granite.
The soil is deep, strong brown, coarse sandy clay,
friable and well drained. Based on USDA soil
taxonomy, the soil is classified as Ultisols which is the
most widespread soil in Peninsular Malaysia
(Paramananthan, 2000). The soils are extremely
leached, highly weathered and well drained. Therefore,
the soil is dominated by kaolinite and sesquioxides with
pH ranging from 4-5. The soils are high in aluminum
saturation and low base saturation. The charge on the
exchange complex varies with the pH. Before planting,
the area was cleared by land clearing. Each species was
planted with monoculture system with initial planting
spacing of 4×3 m. The seedlings were applied with the
same fertilizer for three years. Two hundred g of
phosphate rock per tree was applied during cultivation
Am. J. Agri. & Biol. Sci., 6 (2): 201-208, 2011
203
and 500 g of organic fertilizer/tree was applied after
cultivation for every six months for three year; weeding
was done once in three months.
Description of planted K. ivorensis and H. odorata:
For this study, we chose two fast growing species with
different characteristics such as exotic species (K.
ivorensis) and indigenous species (H. odorata). K.
ivorensis A. Chev (Meliaceae) is an exotic species in
Malaysia. It is distributed throughout coastal West
Africa, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, southern Nigeria and
Cameroon. It was first introduced to Malaysia in the
late 1950s where it was planted in Kedah and Selangor.
The species is deciduous only in drier climates
(Appanah and Weinland, 1993) and required
biophysical limit to growth at altitude between 0-450
m, mean annual temperature 24-27°C, mean annual
rainfall of 1600-2500 mm and it prefers cool land, wet
and humid alluvial soils. The trade name of this species
is African mahogany. The timber from K. ivorensis is
light hardwood (Appanah and Weinland, 1993). The
wood commands a very high price on the marketplace
and can be used for high quality furniture, paneling,
cabinet making, molding, turnery, handrails, canoes and
other decorative works. The average wood density is
560 kg m
3
. The tree is large with height can reach up to
40 m and diameter at breast height reach up to 200 cm.
H. odorata Roxb. (Dipterocarpacea) is an
indigenous species in Malaysia. It is distributed in
Andaman Islands, Myanmar, Thailand and Indo-China
and the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. In
Malaysia it is known as ‘Merawan Siput Jantan’ and
reportedly found in all districts of the Peninsular
Malaysia, except Matang, Krian and Lower Perak
(Symington et al., 2004). It is a medium to large size
that can reach up to 45 m height with straight bole,
diameter reach up to 1.2 m and branching reach up to
25 m. The habitat of H. odorata is riparian and is rarely
occur on deep rich soil up to 600 m altitude. It survives
on a wide variety of soil types such as on sandy and
alluvial soils and Spodosols or/and soil derived from
limestone. The species best growth is in areas with
annual rainfall more than 1200 mm and means annual
temperature of 25-27°C. The timber from H. odorata is
a strong light to medium-heavy hardwood. The wood
density is 620-693 kg m
³ at 15% moisture content and
the timber is suitable for making rollers in textile
industry, piles and bridge construction. It is also
cultivated as a shade or ornamental tree in villages
especially in Kelantan and Terengganu. The species is
also suitable for rehabilitation of degraded lands.
Growth measurement: To assess the growth
performance of planted K. ivorensis and H. odorata, the
three plots of 40×30 m/plot were established randomly
within each stand. All of the trees within each plot were
measured for total height and Diameter at Breast Height
(DBH) at 1.3 m above the ground to estimate the tree
biomass, carbon sequestration and stem volume of the
planted K. ivorensis and H. odorata. Mean annual
increment diameter at breast height, total height and
stem volume were calculated from dividing mean
diameter or tree height by the plantation age (5 years).
Tree height was measured using an ultrasonic
hypsometer and DBH was measured using diameter
tape. The number of trees at each plot was recorded.
Destructive sampling of K. ivorensis and H. odorata:
Five sample trees for destructive sampling in each
stands were chosen. We chose the representative trees
by sorting the DBH and tree height data in each stands
from the lowest to the highest. Thereafter, the basal
area data were summed and divided into five groups
and each group had the same sum. In each group, one
tree sample in the middle of each group was chosen.
The tree samples were chosen to destructive sampling
that has diameters in the range of 9-20 cm for K.
ivorensis and 7-17 cm for H. odorata. The method for
destructive sampling was done by digging roots out and
fell the tree. After falling, the total height of the tree
was measured and then the stems were separated into
component logs, for example, 0-30 cm, 30-130 cm,
130-330 cm and every 2 m to the top (Heriansyah et al.,
2007). The destroyed trees were divided into four
components as follows: stems, leaves, branches and
twigs (branches) and roots. About 5 cm disc stem
samples were taken from each part of component log.
The samples disc stem were taken from the base of the
component log. The diameter of each stem disc was
measured with the diameter tape. The samples disc
stem and the other component samples, such as
branches, leaves and roots, were collected and brought
to the laboratory to be oven-dried. The total fresh
weight of each component was weighed using a balance
in the field.
Data analysis: The samples of tree components were
oven-dried at 85°C until a constant weight was reached
(about 7 days for the stem and 4 days for the other
components). The dry weight/fresh weight ratios were
used to estimate the dry weights of the biomass
components for the individual trees. The total dry
weight of individual trees was calculated by the whole
Am. J. Agri. & Biol. Sci., 6 (2): 201-208, 2011
204
weight of the components. The stem volume of an
individual tree is the total volume of each stem log.
Smalian’s formula was adopted to estimate the volume
of each stem log of a sample tree.
The allometric equation was used to estimate the
biomass of the tree components and stem volume was
established using the independent variable D and
combination of D square and Height. The relationship
between the independent variable and the biomass of
components and stem volume was described by a power
function Wi = a(D)
b
and Wi = a(D
2
H)
b
, where a and b
are the regression constants, D is the tree diameter at
breast height (cm), H is total height and Wi is the dry
biomass (kg) of a tree component i (stem, branches,
leaves and roots) or stem volume (m
3
).
The aboveground biomass was determined by
calculating the sum of the biomasses of the stems,
branches and leaves. The total tree biomass was
calculated as the sum of the aboveground biomass and
root biomass. The total biomass in each plot was
calculated from the summed biomasses of all trees in
the plots. Thus, we had estimated carbon sequestration
assuming that carbon content in dry weight of biomass
is approximately 50% (Brown and Lugo, 1982; Brown,
1997). The tree biomass, stem volume and carbon
sequestration were converted into hectares. The
regression analysis was conducted between tree growth
parameters with tree component biomass and stem
volume values. The power functions were include from
the linear regression on log-transformed data using the
model log(Y) = log (a) + b[log(X)]. All the data were
analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS)
software ver. 9.1.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Growth performance of K. ivorensis and H. odorata:
Table 1 shows the growth performances of K. ivorensis
stand in terms of mean DBH, mean total height, mean
annual increment of DBH and total height and basal
area which tended to be higher compared with H.
odorata stand. However, when compared with growth
rate at several sites, growth performance of K. ivorensis
plantation in the present study indicates slower growth.
For example, K. ivorensis was planted on Rengam soil
at Bukit Lagong Forest Reserve can achieve an average
diameter of 12.3 cm after 4 years of planting, while in
Mata Ayer, Perlis, 4-year-old K. ivorensis planted on
Penambangan soil had average 2.28 cm and 1.63 m for
mean annual increment of diameter and height,
respectively (Krishnapillay, 2002). In Cote d’Ivoire, 4-
year-old K. ivorensis attained 2.3 m in mean annual
increment of height and 2.5 cm in mean annual
increment of diameter. However, the growth
performance of H. odorata in this study was higher
compared with that of the previous study. 5-year-old H.
odorata planted on slime in Bidor, Perak, Malaysia had
average of 0.90 m yr
1
for mean annual increment of
height and 1.11 cm yr
1
for mean annual increment of
DBH.
The amount of basal area in K. ivorensis stand was
9.65 m
2
ha
1
, which was higher compared with that of
H. odorata stand (8.00 m
2
ha
1
). It means that stand
density showed a relationship with the amount of basal
area, where the high stand density planting produces a
high basal area. Stand density in the K. ivorensis stand
was 808 trees/ha, while in the H. odorata stand it was
783 trees/ha.
The results showed that K. ivorensis planted on
Rengam soil in this study grew slower than that planted
on the same soil at other places. This shows that beside
soil characteristic, growth is affected by other factors
such as altitude, climate and silviculture treatment.
Although the growth performance of 5-year-old H.
odorata in this study was lower than the growth
performance of K. ivorensis stand, it is better than that
of the previous study. This indicates that H. odorata is
suitable to be planted in the condition prevailing in this
study area. Besides that, according to Evans (1992),
indigenous trees have some other advantages such as
resistance to pests and diseases. Based on the
observation in the field, H. odorata stands seems to be
more healthy compared with K. ivorensis stands, while
K. ivorensis stands was beginning to be attacked by
shoot borers, Hypsiphylla robusta. The pest attack will
inhibit further growth of K. ivorensis.
Biomass storage of K. ivorensis and H. odorata: The
proportion of each tree component biomass of planted
K. ivorensis and H. odorata are shown in Table 2. The
proportion of stem biomass was highest among the
tree components. It was appropriately stated by West
(2009) that in the stem of tree there was large
proportion of biomass. The contribution of tree
component biomass to total biomass was in the order
of stems > roots > branches > leaves. The
contributions of stems, roots, branches and leaves of
K. ivorensis plantation was 44.35, 21.66, 19.01 and
14.69%, respectively, while for the H. odorata stand
it was 42.84, 36.18, 16.08 and 4.90%, respectively
(Table 2). According to Evans (1992), the high
proportion of root biomass for both plantations was
caused by years after planting.
Am. J. Agri. & Biol. Sci., 6 (2): 201-208, 2011
205
Table 1: Growth performance of the K. ivorensis and H. odorata plantations at five years after planting
Diameter
Stand at breast MAI Total
Planting density height (DBH) MAI DBH Total height height Basal
Species spacing (trees/ha) (cm) (cm/year) (m) (cm/year) area
Khaya ivorensis 4×3 m 808 11.60±0.31a 2. 32±0.06a 7.85±0.50a 1.57±0.10a 9.65a
Hopea odorata 4× 3 m 783 10.64±0.40b 1.93±0.07b 6.84±0.38b 1.24±0.07b 8.00b
Note: Means followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 by Least Significant Different (LSD).
Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation for three replicates plots; MAI: Mean annual increment
Table 2: The proportion of tree component biomass of planted K. ivorensis and H. odorata
Species Stems (%) Branches (%) Leaves (%) Roots (%)
Khaya ivorensis 44.35±2.86a 19.01±1.84a 14.98±1.54a 21.66±2.43b
Hopea odorata 42.84±2.35b 16.08±1.60b 4.90±0.78b 36.98±2.72a
Note: Means followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 by Least Significant Different (LSD).
Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation for three replicates plots
Table 3: Alllometric equation used to estimate the biomass of K. ivorensis and H. odorata plantations using independent variable D and
combination of D square and height
Khaya ivorenis Hopea odorata
(5- year-old) (5- year-old)
Trees Independent ------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------
No. component variable a b r
2
Sig A b r
2
Sig
1 Stem D 0.07315 2.30400 0.98 ** 0.07230 2.390170 0.99 **
D
2
H 0.08596 0.79971 0.99 ** 0.06067 0.865830 0.99 **
2 Branch D 0.01079 2.65330 0.78 * 0.04428 2.187640 0.95 **
D
2
H 0.01316 0.91917 0.79 * 0.03843 0.078975 0.94 **
3 Leaf D 0.01266 2.49264 0.76 * 0.02098 2.030420 0.86 *
D
2
H 0.01776 0.84276 0.73 ns 0.01685 0.074562 0.88 *
4 Root D 0.03004 2.36025 0.92 ** 0.06274 2.376280 0.95 **
D
2
H 0.03599 0.81710 0.93 ** 0.05565 0.853020 0.93 **
5 Stem volume D 0.00014 2.36435 0.99 ** 0.00010 2.503750 0.99 **
D
2
H 0.00017 0.81925 0.99 ** 0.00008 0.908410 0.99 **
Note: r
2
means coefficient of determination; * and ** indicate significant difference at levels of P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively; ns, no
significant difference
(Evans, 1992) found that root biomass of Shorea
robusta constitutes 33.55% of the total biomass when
tree are young, 15.7% at the age 15 years and 14% at 26
years. Meanwhile, Onyekwelu, (2007) reported that
Pinus caribaea in Nigeria have the proportion root
biomass about 20% of the total. Besides age factor,
changes in root biomass among tropical forest depend on
climate and soil characteristics (Brown and Lugo, 1982).
According to the regression analysis, using D as
independent variable, the stem, branch, root and stem
volume of H. odorata as well as that of the stem, root
and stem volume of K. ivorensis were significantly
higher than 90% at the level P<0.01. This means that
the biomass of these parts proportionately increased
with the increase in D (Diameter). However, the leaf
and branch biomass of K. ivorensis was significantly
less than 80% at the level P<0.05. Meanwhile, leaf
biomass of H. odorata was significantly higher than
80% at the level P<0.05 and branch biomass was
significantly higher than 90% at the level P<0.01.
Allometric equation was developed based on
relationship between combination of D squared and
height (D
2
H) with tree component biomass to estimate
tree biomass. Stem volume of K. ivorensis and H.
odorata plantation has a slightly different in r-square
value compared with allometric equation using D as
independent variable (Table 3). Therefore, we
considered using allometric equation with D as
independent variable for estimating the tree component
biomass and stem volume in the sample plot. Besides,
the equation is statistically was right, using diameter
only as independent variable will be easier to work in
the field in estimating a forest stand (Zianis, 2008; Pilli
et al., 2006; Segura, 2005; Hashimoto et al., 2004;
Aboal et al., 2005). In addition, the developed
allometric equation that incorporate diameter alone
would be practical, simple and economical
(Onyekwelu, 2007).
Am. J. Agri. & Biol. Sci., 6 (2): 201-208, 2011
206
Table 4: Biomass of tree component and stem volume of stands of K. ivorensis and Hopea odorata at five years after planting
Stem Stem Branch Leaf Aboveground Root Total
Volume biomass biomass biomass biomass biomass T/R ratio biomass
Species (m
3
ha
1
) (Mg ha
1
) (Mg ha
1
) (Mg ha
1
) (Mg ha
1
) (Mg ha
1
) *(t t
1
) (Mg ha
1
)
Khaya ivorensis 43.13±3.72a 19.25±1.61a 7.10±0.71a 5.46±0.50a 31.80±2.93a 9.16±0.79b 3.47±0.02a 40.96±3.73a
Hopea odorata 33.66±3.27b 18.31±1.72a 6.79±0.59a 2.17±0.18b 27.39±2.51b 15.34±1.43a 1.78±0.00b 42.90±3.97a
Note: Means followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 by Least Significant Different (LSD).
Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation for three replicates plots; * T/R ratio: ratio of aboveground biomass to root biomass
Table 5: Carbon content of K. ivorensis and H. odorata plantations at five years after planting
Stems Branches Leaves Aboveground Roots Total
Species (Mg C ha
1
) (Mg C ha
1
) (Mg C ha
1
) (Mg C ha
1
) (Mg C ha
1
) (Mg C ha
1
)
Khaya ivorensis 9.62±0.80a 3.55±0.35a 2.73±0.25a 15.90±1.41a 4.58±0.39b 20.48±1.80a
Hopea odorata 9.15±0.86a 3.38±0.30a 1.08±0.09b 13.62±1.24b 7.67±0.72a 21.29±1.96a
Note: Means followed by the same letter in the same column are not significantly different at P<0.05 by Least Significant Different (LSD).
Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation for three replicates plots
Forest productivity of K. ivorensis and H. odorata:
The productivity of biomass of each component of
individual stand of K. ivorensis and H. odorata in the
sample plot were calculated using allometric equation
with diameter alone as independent variable. The
aboveground biomass of individual stand was estimated
by summing up the stem, branch and leaf, while the
total tree biomass was calculated by summing up the
aboveground biomass and root biomass. The total
biomass in each stand was calculated from the summed
biomass of all trees in the plot.
The biomass accumulations of each species are
shown in Table 4. The mean aboveground biomass of
K. ivorensis was 31.80 Mg ha
1
which is significantly
higher compared with H. odorata (27.39 Mg ha
1
).
The stem biomass of K. ivorensis stand was 19.25 Mg
ha
1
higher than in H. odorata stand (18.31 Mg ha
-1
)
leaves biomass was higher in K. ivorensis plantation
(7.10 Mg ha
-1
and 5.46 Mg ha
-1
, respectively) than in
H. odorata plantation (6.79 Mg ha
1
and 2.17 Mg ha
-1
,
respectively). Conversely, the total tree biomass of H.
odorata stand was 42.90 Mg ha
-1
, which was higher
than that in K. ivorensis stand (40.96 Mg ha
1
). This
could be due to high root biomass in H. odorata stand
(15.34 Mg ha
1
) as compared to K. ivorensis stand
(9.16 Mg ha
-1
).
The total ratio of aboveground biomass to root
biomass (T/R ratio) is a standard to estimate the
biomass allocation pattern to the underground part of
the plant (Komiyama et al., 2000). In the temperate
forest, T/R ratio ranges from 2.68-3.70 (Yamada and
Shidei, 1972; Komiyama et al., 2000). However, the
T/R ratio of K. ivorensis stand was 3.47 higher than that
in H. odorata stand (1.78). The result our study are
similar to those reported by Kamo et al. (2008) where
the T/R ratio of exotic species (Acacia species) was
higher (5.2-6.1) compared with slow growing of
indigenous species (Pterocarpus macrocarpus and
Xylia xylocarpa) which were T/R ratio 2.8-2.9,
respectively. The low T/R ratio indicates that the
amount of tree biomass was accumulated at below-
ground root biomass, as studied by Komiyama et al.,
(2000) on Ceriops tagal that have a T/R ratio of 1.05,
where the root biomass was higher than that above-
ground biomass. This indicates that the estimate of
root accumulation of the tree species is needed to
understand the overall carbon stock process in the
tropical forest areas.
Based on biomass production in each tree
component and assuming that carbon content is
approximately 50%, of tree biomass, the carbon content
in the tree component biomass of K. ivorensis stand and
H. odorata stand five years after planting were
calculated (Table 5). The carbon content in stem
biomass of both species was higher compared with
other tree component in each stand. The carbon content
of stem in K. ivorensis and H. odorata were 9.62 Mg C
ha
-1
and 9.15 Mg C ha
1
, respectively, followed by root
which was 4.58 Mg C ha
1
and 7.67 Mg C ha
1
,
respectively. The carbon content of leaves of both
species is smallest with values of 2.73 Mg C ha
1
and
1.09 Mg C ha
1
for K. ivorensis and H. odorata,
respectively, while the carbon content of branches of K.
ivorensis and H. odorata stands were 3.55 Mg C ha
1
and 3.38 Mg C ha
1
, respectively. Thus, 5-year-old K.
ivorensis stand has the ability to absorb CO
2
from the
atmosphere and stored in aboveground biomass as
much as 15.90 Mg C ha
1
, while the aboveground
biomass of H. odorata stand has the ability to absorb
13.62 Mg C ha
1
CO
2
which was lower compared with
that of K. ivorensis stand (Table 5).
According to West (2009), the principal
commercial product of forest is wood. In this study,
stem wood of both species were estimated by using
allometric equation which is presented in Table 2. The
result shows that the stem volume of K. ivorensis stand
Am. J. Agri. & Biol. Sci., 6 (2): 201-208, 2011
207
was 43.13 m
3
ha
1
, which was higher than that in H.
odorata stand (33.66 m
3
ha
1
) Table 3. Therefore, the
Mean Annual Increment (MAI) of stem volume for K.
ivorensis stand was higher compared with H. odorata.
The mean annual increment of stem volume for K.
ivorensis and H. odorata were 8.63 m
3
ha
1
yr
1
and
6.73 m
3
ha
1
yr
1
, respectively. Compared with previous
studies, the mean annual increment of stem volume of
K. ivorensis was higher. Based on the study, the mean
annual increment of stem volume of 40-year-old K.
ivorensis stand was 7.64 m
3
ha
1
yr
1
, it was lower than
that of MAI volume of K. ivorenis in this study. This is
due to the younger stand age of K. ivorensis (5 years),
where in general, the tree growth tend to be faster when
the tree is still young. Meanwhile, the lower value of
stem volume of H. odorata stand than K. ivorensis
stand showed that the growth of indigenous species is
slower than exotics species. This indicates that the
exotic species have high adaptability to site conditions
at the degraded forest land in Johor.
CONCLUSION
The exotic and indigenous species which were
planted on degraded forest land exhibited different
growth rate. In general, growth performance of exotic
species (K. ivorensis) was higher than that indigenous
species (H. odorata) in terms of mean total height,
mean diameter, mean annual increment of height, mean
annual increment of diameter and basal area. However,
compared with the previous studies at other site, growth
of K. ivorensis was slower.
K. ivorensis produced significantly higher stem
volume and aboveground biomass than that of H.
odorata, while the root biomass was higher in H.
odorata stand than that in K. ivorensis stand. Thus, K.
ivorensis stand has higher ability to absorb CO
2
from
the atmosphere and stored in aboveground biomass
compared to H. odorat; however, carbon content which
was stored in root biomass was higher in H. odorata
stand than in K. ivorensis stand. In general, exotics
species have higher productivity than that of indigenous
species. These findings suggest that forest plantation
productivity seems to be affected by species
characteristics and suitability of species to site
condition. Thus, to ensure sustainability in producing
high productivity, these factors should be considered
for future forest plantation establishment.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Funding for this research was received from Forest
Research Institute and Fundamental Research Grant
Scheme from the Ministry of Higher Education of
Malaysia (MOHE) through Universiti Putra Malaysia,
Malaysia. We also appreciate the FRIM staff who
helped us with the fieldwork. We would like to
acknowledge two anonymous reviewers for their kind
editorial suggestions and comments. Thanks to Ms.
Zarina Abdul Rahman, Ms. Debora, Ms. Norisah, Mr.
Leslie, Mr. Arwel and Mr. Hafizuddin for their
laboratory and field assistant.
REFERENCES
Aboal, J.R., J.R. Arevalo and A. Fernandez, 2005.
Allometric relationships of different tree species
and stand above ground biomass in the Gomera
laurel forest (canary Islands). Flora-Morphol.,
Dist., Func. Ecol. Plants, 200: 264-274. DOI:
10.1016/j.flora.2004.11.001
Appanah, S. and G. Weinland, 1993. Planting quality
timber trees in Peninsular Malaysia: A Review. 1st
Edn., Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Malaysia,
ISBN-10: 9839592181, pp: 221.
Brown, S. and A.E. Lugo, 1982. The storage and
production of organic matter in tropical forests and
their role in the global carbon cycle. Biotropika,
14: 161-187.
Brown, S. and A.E. Lugo, 1984. Biomass of tropical
forests: A new estimate based on forest volumes.
Science, 223: 1290-1293. DOI:
10.1126/science.223.4642.1290
Brown, S., 1997. Estimating biomass and biomass
change of tropical forest. 1st Edn., Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
USA., ISBN-10: 9251039550, pp: 55.
Brown, S., 1999. Opportunities for mitigating carbon
emission through forestry activities. Winrock
International, Airlington, V.A., USA.
http://www.winrock.org/ecosystems/files/Opportun
_for_mitigating_carbon.pdf
Evans, J., 1992. Plantation Forestry in The Tropics:
Tree Planting for Industrial, Social, Environmental
and Agroforestry Purposes. 2nd Edn., Oxford
University Press, USA., ISBN-10: 0198542577,
pp: 424.
Evans, J., 1999. Planted forests of the wet and dry
tropics: their variety, nature and significance. New
Forests, 17: 25-36. DOI:
10.1023/A:1006572826263
Hashimoto, T., T. Tange, M. Masumori, H. Yagi, S.
Sasaki and K. Kojima, 2004. Allometric equations
for pioneer tree species and estimation of the
aboveground biomass of a tropical secondary forest
in East Kalimantan. Tropics. 14: 123-130.
Am. J. Agri. & Biol. Sci., 6 (2): 201-208, 2011
208
Heriansyah, I., K. Miyakuni, T. Kato, Y. Kiyono and Y.
Kanazawa, 2007. Growth characteristics and
biomass accumulations of Acacia mangium under
different management practices in Indonesia. J.
Tropical Forest Sci., 19: 226-235.
Heryati, Y., D. Belawan, A. Abdu, M.N. Mahat and H.
Abdul-Hamid et al., 2011. Growth performance
and biomass accumulation of a khaya ivorensis
plantation in three soil series of ultisols. Am. J.
Agric. Biol. Sci., 6: 33-44. DOI:
10.3844/ajabssp.2011.33.44
Houghton, R.A., 20005. Aboveground forest biomass
and the global carbon balance. Global Change
Biol., 11: 945-958. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-
2486.2005.00955.x
Komiyama, A., S. Havanond, W. Srisawatt, Y.
Mochida and K. Fujimoto et al., 2000. Top/root
biomass ratio of a secondary mangrove (Ceriops
tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob.) Forest Ecol. Manage., 139:
127-134. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00339-4
Krishnapillay, B., 2002. A Manual for forest plantation
establishment in Malaysia. 1st Edn., Forest
Research Institute Malaysia, Malaysia, ISBN-10:
9832181283, pp: 286.
Kueh, R.J.H. and M.T. Lim, 1999. An estimate of forest
biomass in ayer hitam forest reserve. Pertanika J.
Trap. Agric. Sci., 22: 117-123.
Majid, N.M., A. Hashim and I. Abdol, 1994.
Rehabilitation of ex-tin mining land by
agroforestry practice. J. Trop. For. Sci., 7: 113-127.
Onyekwelu, J.C., 2007. Growth, biomass yield and
biomass functions for plantation-grown Nauclea
diderrichii (de wild) in the humid tropical
rainforest zone of south-western Nigeria. Biores.
Technol., 98: 2679-2687. DOI:
10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2006.09.023
Paramananthan, S., 2000. Soil of Malaysia: their
characteristics and identification. 1st Edn.,
Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Malaysia, ISBN-
10: 9839445065
Pilli, P., T. Anfodillo and M. Carrer, 2006. Towards a
functional and simplified allometry for estimating
forest biomass. Forest Ecology Manage. 237:583-593
.
DOI:10.1016/J.FORECO.2006.10.004
Sawyer, J. 1993. Plantations in the tropics:
environmental concerns. 1st Edn., World
Conservation Union, U.K., ISBN-10: 2831701392,
pp: 96.
Segura, M. and M. Kanninen, 2005. Allometric models
for tree volume and total aboveground biomass in a
tropical humid forest in Costa Rica. Biotropika, 37:
2-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2005.02027.x
Symington, C.F., P.S. Ashton and S. Appanah, 2004.
Forester's manual of dipterocarps. 2nd Edn., Forest
Research Institute Malaysia, Malaysia, pp: 519.
West, P.W. 2009. Tree and forest measurement. 2nd
Edn., Springer, USA., ISBN-13: 978354095965-3,
pp: 190.
Zianis, D., 2008. Predicting mean aboveground forest
biomass and its associated variance. Forest Ecol.
Manage., 256: 1400-1407. DOI:
10.1016/j.foreco.2008.07.002
... Another initiative of the government to off-set the reducing supply of wood from the natural forests was the establishment of forest plantations, with several fast growing exotic species such as Acacia mangium Willd., Gmelina arborea and Paraserianthes falcataria (NATIP 2009). Large-scale forest plantations of Acacia mangium were established throughout the country since the mid-1980s as this plantation has better site-adaptability and fast growing characteristics (Yetti et al. 2011). In fact, the successful acceptance of rubberwood and Acacia wood by the wood-based industries was increasingly apparent since the late 1990s, when rubberwood furniture accounted for almost 75% of all wooden furniture exports from the country (Ratnasingam et al. 2015b). ...
... According to Woon and Norini (2002), Malaysia is committed to maintain its natural forest at about 50%, in order to achieve Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). As a consequence, there has to be a reduction in the supply of timber, and therefore alternative timber from plantation forests, especially Acacia and rubber will gain popularity for the rapidly growing wood-based industry (Yetti et al. 2011). rubber plantation was to be 3000 to 6000 million tonnes of carbon. ...
Article
Critical political analyses on decentralisation policies have revealed that such approaches may not achieve their formal goal, and might even support centralisation efforts. A number of previous studies on decentralisation separated the analyses of administrative process from the analyses of political power of administrative actors across levels of government. Using bureaucratic politics theory, this article presents close examinations of both process and power relations reconfigured by decentralising and recentralising forces across governmental levels. This study illustrates how the Indonesian central government is on its way to reclaiming its authority for forest administration and management through so-called Forest Management Units (FMU) and closely related community forestry programmes. This study reveals that the sources of real contention in KPH and community forestry policies are the power struggles between national, provincial and district bureaucracies. The conceptual model and the results of this study contribute to the understanding of underlying dynamics of bureaucratic politics in the process of political power reconfigurations.
... Another initiative of the government to off-set the reducing supply of wood from the natural forests was the establishment of forest plantations, with several fast growing exotic species such as Acacia mangium Willd., Gmelina arborea and Paraserianthes falcataria (NATIP 2009). Large-scale forest plantations of Acacia mangium were established throughout the country since the mid-1980s as this plantation has better site-adaptability and fast growing characteristics (Yetti et al. 2011). In fact, the successful acceptance of rubberwood and Acacia wood by the wood-based industries was increasingly apparent since the late 1990s, when rubberwood furniture accounted for almost 75% of all wooden furniture exports from the country (Ratnasingam et al. 2015b). ...
... According to Woon and Norini (2002), Malaysia is committed to maintain its natural forest at about 50%, in order to achieve Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). As a consequence, there has to be a reduction in the supply of timber, and therefore alternative timber from plantation forests, especially Acacia and rubber will gain popularity for the rapidly growing wood-based industry (Yetti et al. 2011). rubber plantation was to be 3000 to 6000 million tonnes of carbon. ...
Article
This study explores how the proposed activities by the Congo Basin countries to reduce drivers of land emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) could support the transition to a green economy and low carbon development future. By employing a content review and analysis of national REDD+ strategies and REDD+ readiness proposals submitted to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, we found out that many of the proposed REDD+ activities by the Congo Basin countries including: climate smart agricultural practices and certification of large scale agricultural plantations; establishment of wood fuel energy plantations and improvement in energy efficiency; forests certification and implementation of the VPA-FLEGT; land use planning and zoning of mined sites; and the implementation of construction projects in low forested areas aligns with several green economy sectorial programmes of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). We conclude that the effective implementation of forestry and REDD+ programmes are instrumental in supporting outcomes of human wellbeing, reduced environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and social equity in the Congo Basin which are the main components of a green economy.
... Rehabilitation efforts on degraded forest land require comprehensive understanding and assessment on the ecosystem involved, such as soil condition and fertility towards the establishment and progress of rehabilitation techniques in the future. The progress of rehabilitation program has been reported by several researchers (Nik et al., 1994;Cole et al., 1996;Suhaili et al., 1998;MacNamara et al., 2006;Heryati et al., 2011b). ...
... However, most researchers have focused on species selection for replanting in relation to the growth performance with less concern on soil fertility or forest/soil health. Although, several studies concerned with soil fertility have been conducted on monoculture plantation of fast growing exotic species (Tiki and Fisher, 1998;Norisada et al., 2005;Heryati et al., 2011b). Under the rehabilitation of degraded forest land with high quality of dipterocarp species, limited studies have been conducted to characterize the soil properties, soil fertility (nutrient stock) as well as, the status of forest/soil health comprehensively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although, soil properties of tropical rainforest in Southeast Asia have been characterized by several researchers, limited information exists on soil characteristics due to conversion of natural forest into various land use types such as oil palm plantation, rubber plantation, forest plantation and secondary forest. A study was conducted to characterize the soil properties under various land use types of logged-over forest (LF), rehabilitation forest (RF), oil palm (OP) and rubber plantation (RP) at Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Soil profiles were dug up to 100 cm depth and 50 cm width and were followed by soil sampling according to soil horizon. Soil morphology was determined in the field while soil physico-chemical properties were determined in the laboratory using standard soil analysis. The soils at RF, LF, OP and RP were derived from sandstone intercalated with shale which gives silty loam and sandy clay loam texture. The soils are acidic to weakly acidic with pH increases with depth. The Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and Total Carbon (TC) of soils tend to decrease with depth and it seems to be higher under OP and RP as compared to RF and LF. The Alo, Ald, Feo and Fed increased with depth in all of the profiles. The values of Point Zero of Salt Effect (PZSE) and σp are low in all sites with dominated by kaolin minerals and sesquioxide properties indicating that the soils are highly weathered and low soil fertility status.
... One of concerns related to planted forests is use of non-native tree species which can be invasive. The rationale of introduction of new genes (species and provenances) during establishment of planted forests lies in evidences of higher productivity of non-local provenances (Schmidtling and Myszewski 2003;Ivetić et al. 2005;Krakowski and Stoehr 2009) and non-native species (Heryati et al. 2011;Kawaletz et al. 2013;Guo and Ren 2014b;Kjaer et al. 2014;Ivetić 2017) compared to local (native) populations at a specific site. In addition, the non-native species can be used to fulfill some specific market demands. ...
... In the case of a productive goal, the new genes (species, provenances) can be introduced with the aim to exploit the focal site production capacity to the highest amount. Many examples show higher productivity of non-local provenances (Schmidtling and Myszewski 2003;Ivetić et al. 2005;Krakowski and Stoehr 2009) and non-native species (Heryati et al. 2011;Kawaletz et al. 2013;Guo and Ren 2014;Kjaer et al. 2014) compared to local populations at a specific site. Non-native species could play an important role in cases where they provide short-term benefits to ecosystem function and promote the potential for longer-term succession to native species, but this practice is controversial and debated vigorously (Thomas et al. 2014;Jacobs et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Projections of the regional climate model for Southeast Europe generally predict an increasing of temperature and a decrease in precipitation, with some local variations. Higher frequency of extreme weather events and increased flooding can also be expected. This climate change will, among other things, result in changes in habitats and species distribution, and a decrease in biodiversity. In most cases, forest ecosystems will be unable to adapt fast enough to keep pace with changes in climate. Extreme weather events and low precipitation during the growing season will cause high mortality of seedlings after planting. New forests will face the whole range of these changes because of the long lifetime of trees. Reforestation programs must take projections of climate change into consideration. In the long term, new guidelines for site-species matching, provenance selection, and genetic diversity need to be adopted. In the short term, site preparation, planting techniques, and post planting protection need to be improved. In addition, seedling quality (morphological, physiological, and genetic) and planting time need to be specific for each site. New site preparation, planting, and post-planting protection methods are useful tools for short term success measured in seedling survival and initial growth. Seedling quality is essential for short and long term success. Different strategies, such as assisted migration and increased genetic diversity of planting material, can provide better chances for long term success measured in growth, fitness, and capability to produce the next, better adapted generation.
... Forest rehabilitation usually incorporates mix planting of tree species or monoculture according to the plantation management aims (Heryati et al., 2011a; Heryati et al., 2011c; Karam et al., 2011). Forest rehabilitation is carried out in order to supply more woody and non woody products to the industry (Heryati et al., 2011b). Goel and Behl (2004) suggested that it is suitable to plant indigenous and exotic species of dipterocarp species which are fast growing on rehabilitated areas. ...
... Wood or non-wood products harvesting have created large tracts of degraded secondary forest. Nowadays, degraded forest lands are becoming predominant and important forest type in the tropical countries due to scarcity of natural forest (Heryati et al., 2011a; 2011b). Forest plantation program in Malaysia mostly involves dipterocarp species and other fast growing exotic species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Soil fertility (both physical and chemical) is one of the important factors limiting plant growth. So, the fertility of the soils should be determined before growing crops and after the establishment of forest rehabilitation. A study was conducted to determine the fertility status of soils at rehabilitated degraded land in Universiti Putra Malaysia. The main objective was to compare the fertility of soils planted forest and pasture. Three sites studied were pines plantation (Pinus caribaea), mahogany plantation (Swietenia macrophylla) and pasture area. At each site, three squares of 20×20 m were selected and two depths of soil sample were collected, topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm), from six points within the squares. The physical properties of the soils analyzed were bulk density, soil texture and moisture content, while the chemical properties were pH, total C and N, cation exchangeable capacity and exchangeable cations (Al, Ca, Mg, K and Na). The mean annual increment of height, diameter and volume of planted forest were also taken. The increment of height, diameter at breast height and volume of P. caribaea and S. macrophylla did not show any comparative difference for the cause of the similarity in the increment of patterns catalysed at the same location and climatic condition. P. caribaea showed higher SFI value compared to the other study plots, especially for the topsoil. In contrast, pasture plot had higher SEF, followed by P. caribaea and S. macrophylla plantation plots. P. caribaea showed the highest SFI value, while pasture plot had highest SEF, followed by P. caribaea and S. macrophylla plantation plots. Further study on bigger forest plantation having different types of plant species and land topography needs to be conducted to allow individuals and bodies in the field of forest plantation to gain the opportunity and implement the right approaches to establish forest plantation with good planting establishment practices. © 2015 Mohammad Nazrin Abdul Malik, Arifin Abdu, Daljit Singh Karam, Shamshuddin Jusop, Hazandy Abdul Hamid, Aiza Shaliha Jamaluddin, MohdHadi Akbar Basri and Nur-NazirahMohd Patek.
... Hiratsuka et al. (2005) and Meunpong et al. (2010) sampled only five teak trees at their field sites in Thailand (Table S1). A similar pattern occurs for the development of several below-ground equations: e.g., Kamo et al. (2008) sampled only four trees per species, while Heryati et al. (2011a) sampled five Hopea odorata trees (Table S2). Wood density was included in above-ground biomass equations in only the studies of Kiyono et al. (2007) and Oo et al. (2006). ...
Article
Our review of biomass studies conducted for 11 Southeast Asian countries, Papua New Guinea, and southern China uncovered 402 above-ground and 138 below-ground biomass allometric equations for the following major land covers: forest, peat swamp forest, mangrove forest, logged over forest, orchard and tree plantation, rubber plantation, oil palm plantation, bamboo, swidden fallow, and grassland/pasture/shrub land. No equations existed for non-swidden agroforest and permanent croplands, two other important land covers involved in current and projected land-cover transitions. We also found 245 stem-volume equations and 50 height-diameter equations. Applying existing allometric equations out of convenience is potentially a key source of uncertainty in above- and below-ground carbon stock estimates in many SE Asian landscapes. Differences in environmental conditions and vegetation characteristics should preclude the use of many pre-existing equations at locations outside of the geographical location where they were developed, without first verifying their applicability. While use of site-specific equations is preferred to reduce uncertainty in estimates, there are few in existence for many land covers and many geographical areas of the region. For example, few or no equations exist for Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, and Timor Leste. Ten or fewer above-ground biomass equations exist for rubber plantation, oil palm plantation, non-swidden agroforest, grassland/pasture/shrublands, and permanent croplands for the entire region. Even site-specific equations can introduce uncertainties to biomass estimates if they were determined from an insufficient sample size. Difficulties associated with sampling below-ground root biomass accurately often leads to allometric equations that potentially under-estimate below-ground biomass. In addition, substantial errors may be present if these below-ground equations are conveniently used by researchers in lieu of site-specific measurements. Although the importance of including wood density in allometry is increasingly recognized, only 26 of the reviewed studies did so. Ideally, when wood density values are used to estimate biomass, new on-site measurements should be taken, rather than relying on pre-existing values. This review demonstrates that more research in SE Asia is needed on biomass in general, specifically for several land covers including peat swamp forest, rubber and oil palm plantations, bamboo, swidden fallow, non-swidden agroforest, and permanent cropland. Importantly, for the purpose of informing the development and implementation of policies and programs such as REDD+, our meta-analysis highlights the pressing need to address the insufficient number of allometric equations and the possible inappropriate use of some when estimating vegetation biomass related to current and potential land cover changes in the region.
... Differential effects of native and home range soil biota on plant growth, as shown in our experiments, are potentially important in explaining several increasingly recognized biogeographical patterns. For example, tree species introduced for production forestry purposes sometimes achieve higher growth rates in the regions to which they are introduced (Richardson & Rejmanek, 2011;Yetti et al., 2011). Likewise, nonnative or range-expanding native invaders often exhibit higher growth rates or densities within communities relative to their historical ranges (Hawkes, 2007;Lamarque et al., 2012). ...
Article
Studies evaluating plant-soil biota interactions in both native and introduced plant ranges are rare, and thus far have lacked robust experimental designs to account for several potential confounding factors. Here, we investigated the effects of soil biota on growth of Pinus contorta, which has been introduced from Canada to Sweden. Using Swedish and Canadian soils, we conducted two glasshouse experiments. The first experiment utilized unsterilized soil from each country, with a full-factorial cross of soil origin, tree provenance, and fertilizer addition. The second experiment utilized gamma-irradiated sterile soil from each country, with a full-factorial cross of soil origin, soil biota inoculation treatments, tree provenance, and fertilizer addition. The first experiment showed higher seedling growth on Swedish soil relative to Canadian soil. The second experiment showed this effect was due to differences in soil biotic communities between the two countries, and occurred independently of all other experimental factors. Our results provide strong evidence that plant interactions with soil biota can shift from negative to positive following introduction to a new region, and are relevant for understanding the success of some exotic forest plantations, and invasive and range-expanding native species.
Article
The natural regeneration of forests is an important part of the recovery of former shifting-cultivation areas. Regenerating secondary forests are reported to have the potential to assimilate and store large quantities of carbon. However, there is a lack of information on biomass accumulation by pioneer species that dominate early successional processes, especially in tropical Asia. This information would help quantify their role in carbon storage and sequestration. The objectives of this study were to estimate the biomass accumulation and develop a biomass estimation model for a Dillenia suffruticosa stand. Six 10 × 10-m plots were established in a D. suffruticosa stand. A destructive harvesting method was used to estimate the total and tree component (stem, branches, and leaves) biomass values. An analysis showed that the biomass relationship for each tree component using diameter at breast height (dbh) as an independent variable in a log relationship accounted for 63∼89% of the variations at p ≤ 0.01. The estimated total aboveground biomass of the D. suffruticosa stand was 5.2 t ha-1. The high variability of the estimated total biomass in each study plot indicated that the stand was at different stages of succession, but the low biomass accumulation is a reflection of severely degraded conditions and may require a longer period for recovery. However, the natural regeneration of D. suffruticosa has contributed to biomass and carbon accumulation in a former shifting-cultivation area.
Article
Full-text available
Forests must be measured, if they are to be managed and conserved properly. This book describes the principles of modern forest measurement, whether using simple, hand-held equipment or sophisticated satellite imagery. Written in a straightforward style, it will be understood by everyone who works with forests, from the professional forester to the layperson. It describes how and why forests are measured and the basis of the science behind the measurements taken.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRAK Daripada inventori yang dijalankan di Hutan Ayer Hitam (AHFR), min dbh berjulat dari 20.6 ke 26.0 cm manakala keluasan pangkal berjulat dari 9.16 ke 21.57 m 2 /ha. Modifikasi persamaan regresi biojisim digunakan untuk menanggarkan biojisim. Kepadatan biojisim untuk pokok dbh 10 cm dan ke atas di semua kompartment di AHFR berjulat dari 83.69 ke 232.39 t/ha. Jumlah biojisim di 1248 ha AHFR yang dianggarkan adalah 223,568 t. Variasi dalam kepadatan biojisim antara kompartment menunjukkan peringkat pemulihan yang berbeza atau pada peringkat sasaran yang berbeza. Maklumat biojisim boleh digunakan untuk menanggarkan parameter yang lain seperti kandungan karbon dan kandungan tenaga. Kandungan karbon yang dianggarkan adalah 111,784 t manakala kandungan tenaga dianggarkan adalah 3.74 x 10 12 kJ. Pengumpulan kandungan karbon tahunan berjulat dari 0.30 ke 0.50 t/ha/yr manakala tenaga yang dihasilkan berjulat dari 1.00 x 10 7 ke 1.67 x 10 7 kJ/ha/yr. Hutan juga memainkan peranan yang penting dalam kitaran karbon dan pengeluaran tenaga. Biojisim adalah bahan organik yang dihasilkan oleh pokok dan ia adalah punca kepada pengeluaran hutan yang lain. ABSTRACT From an inventory conducted in Ayer Hitam Forest (AHFR), the average dbh ranged from 20.6 to 26.0 cm while the basal area ranged from 9.16 to 21.57 m 2 /ha. Modified biomass regression equation was used in the biomass estimation. The biomass density for trees of 10 cm dbh and above in all the compartments in AHFR ranged from 83.69 to 232.39 t/ha. The total biomass in the 1248 ha of AHFR is estimated at 223,568 t. Variations in biomass density among the compartments indicate the different stages of recovery or different stages of succession. Biomass information was used to estimate other parameters such as carbon content and energy content. The estimated carbon content is 111,784 t while the energy content is 3.74 x 10 12 kJ. The estimated annual carbon accumulation ranges from 0.30 to 0.50 t/ha/yr while the energy fixed ranges from 1.00 x 10 7 to 1.67 x 10 7 kJ/ ha/yr. Forest also plays an important role in carbon cycle and energy production. Biomass is the organic matter fixed by the tree and is the source of all other productivity of the forest.
Article
Full-text available
Estimation of net above ground primary productivity in forest ecosystems by non-destructive means requires the development of allometric equations, to allow prediction of above ground biomass from readily measurable variables such as diameter-at-breast-height (DBH). Equations of this type have not been well developed for trees of the Macaronesian laurel forest. In the present study, we characterized trees of five species (Erica arborea, Ilex canariensis, Laurus azorica, Myrica faya and Persea indica) in four types of laurel forest in the Garajonay National Park on Gomera Island in the Canary Islands, with the aim of developing appropriate allometric equations. Among forests, within each species, the slope and elevation (y-axis intersect) of the equations obtained did not vary significantly, so that we were able to pool the data and obtain a single equation for each species. However, considering each species separately, there was significant variation among the slopes and elevations of the equations obtained for each. The difference between DBH-biomass relationships among these species can be attributed to differences in (a) the distribution of biomass among trunk-plus-primary-branches, secondary branches and leaves, and (b) woody tissue density. We applied the new allometric equations to six different forest types in the Garajonay National Park. Above ground biomass ranged from 65,631 to 352,683kgd.w.ha−1. Comparison of these results with those obtained using a previously published allometric model revealed differences of more than 100% for some forests. When we applied the new allometric equations to data from other forests on the island of Tenerife we obtained differences of more than 20% in above ground biomass which ranged from 159,469 to 310,580kgd.w.ha−1. We believe that all previous data corresponding to above ground biomass in Macaronesian laurel forest may contain errors, and propose the new equations to be used in the future, and that other one have to become developed for the remaining species.
Article
Full-text available
Problem statement: There was no information about the relationship between growth parameters, such as diameter and height and tree component biomass of Khaya ivorensis plantations with different soil types. The objectives of this study were, first, to determine and compare the growth of K. ivorensis in three different (Padang Besar, Durian and Rengam) soil series of Ultisols and, second, to develop an allometric equation that estimates the biomass accumulation of the K. ivorensis plantation in three different soil series five years after planting. Approach: This study was conducted at a K. ivorensis plantation in the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Research Station in Segamat, Johor, Malaysia. The tree height (H) and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) were measured to evaluate the growth performance of the K. ivorensis plantation. Five sampled or trees stand of K. ivorensis in each soil series were destructively analyzed. Results: The highest growth rates in terms of MAI diameter and height, and basal area were found for the Padang Besar soil series, which was followed by the Durian and Rengam soil series. The best fit regression of site-specific equations developed from the independent variable D are recommended for estimating tree component biomass and stem volume in each site. A single allometric equation using D was applicable for the estimation of biomass and stem volume however, in Padang Besar, stem biomass and stem volume were estimated with an equation using D 2H. The highest stem volume and biomass accumulation value were recorded at Padang Besar (77.99 m 3 h -1 and 63.16 t ha -1, respectively), which was followed by the Durian (53.10 m 3 h -1 and 46.33t ha -1, respectively) and Rengam soil series (43.13 m 3 h -1 and 40.96 t ha -1, respectively). Conclusion: Differences in the growth and biomass accumulation data indicate that forest productivity of K. ivorensis was affected by different site conditions. The higher growth performance and productivity of K. ivorensis in terms of the stem volume and biomass accumulation in Padang Besar compared those in the Durian and Rengam soil series shows that the species was able to adapt to the soil characteristics of the Padang Besar soil series.
Book
Forests must be measured, if they are to be managed and conserved properly. This book describes the principles of modern forest measurement, whether using simple, hand-held equipment or sophisticated satellite imagery. Written in a straightforward style, it will be understood by everyone who works with forests, from the professional forester to the layperson. It describes how and why forests are measured and the basis of the science behind the measurements taken. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009. All rights are reserved.
Article
A pilot research project to rehabilitate ex-tin mining land was initiated in Semenyih, Selangor in 1989. This project initially involves the planting of two fast-growing timber species (Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria). The experiments conducted were (1) fertilisation, (2) inoculation, and (3) mulching experiments. The basic philosophy is to rehabilitate the sandy areas based on new technology and low capital expenditure. It is hoped that the findings will benefit not only the farmers in Malaysia but also those in other countries such as Indonesia and Thailand where such soils are in abundance and underutilised. -from Authors
Article
Tree biomass accumulations and age-related changes of Acacia mangium plantations were determined using a destructive sampling technique. These data were used to estimate optimum harvesting time. Tree biomass samples were collected in 3-, 5-, 8- and 10-year-old plantations in West Java, and in 2.5-, 5.5-, 8.5- and 10.5-year-old plantations in South Sumatra. About 15 trees were sampled from each stand. Tree growth characteristics were evaluated for both sites. Specific wood density in unthinned plantation was higher than in thinned plantation. Proportion of stem biomass in thinned plantation was constant during thinning period and thereafter slightiy increased with age, whereas leaf biomass decreased. In unthinned plantation, proportion of stem biomass increased with age, while leaf biomass drastically decreased when competition occurred in the young stage but became relatively constant thereafter. Allometric equations were developed for each site to estimate root, stem, branch, leaf, aboveground and total biomass and stem volume. Using these equations, the stem volume and biomass of each component for each stand age were estimated. A single allometric relationship for all sites was found just for estimation of root biomass and stem volume. Therefore, the use of site-specific equation is recommended. According to the optimum productivity values, longer rotation is available to enhance wood quality and wood utilization for thinned plantation in West Java. A rotation of six and eight years is recommended to maximize biomass accumulation and benefits respectively for unthinned plantation in South Sumatra.