A Mistaken Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Due to Hemoglobin N-Baltimore
Division of Endocrinology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA.The American Journal of the Medical Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.39). 01/2009; 336(6):524-6. DOI: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318164bcd3
Glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) estimation is the gold standard for assessing long-term glycemic control in diabetic patients. Some hemoglobin variants interfere with HbA1c assay, thus, limiting its utility. Over 150,000 diabetic patients are estimated to have hemoglobin variants in the United States; but this number may be up to 30% in some parts of the world. Although, most of the hemoglobinopathies are clinically silent, some of them cause biochemical aberrations, which could interfere with HbA1c assay. However, hemoglobin N-Baltimore has not been reported to give false HbA1c estimation. We present a woman with mistaken diagnosis of diabetes due to hemoglobin N-Baltimore that produced a spuriously elevated HbA1c level.
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ABSTRACT: Glycohemoglobin, also known as hemoglobin (Hb) A(1c), is a marker of long-term glycemic control in patients with diabetes. We present two South-Asian diabetic patients whose HbA(1c) peaks were not measurable using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Further investigations showed that these patients were homozygous for a hemoglobin variant, HbE (beta26 Glu-->Lys). Because of the increasing numbers of immigrants in Japan, area-specific hemoglobinopathies are now encountered more frequently than before. Thus, if discrepant results are found on an HbA(1c) assay or if the HbA(1c) value cannot be measured, such patients should be screened for hemoglobinopathies and alternative measurements for monitoring diabetes should be considered.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase at an alarming rate around the world, with even more people being affected by prediabetes. Although the pathogenesis and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes are fairly well known, its treatment has remained challenging, with only half of the patients achieving the recommended hemoglobin A(1c) target. This narrative review explores the pathogenetic rationale for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with the view of fostering better understanding of the evolving treatment modalities. The diagnostic criteria including the role of hemoglobin A(1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes are discussed. Due attention is given to the different therapeutic maneuvers and their utility in the management of the diabetic patient. The evidence supporting the role of exercise, medical nutrition therapy, glucose monitoring, and antiobesity measures including pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery is discussed. The controversial subject of optimum glycemic control in hospitalized and ambulatory patients is discussed in detail. An update of the available pharmacologic options for the management of type 2 diabetes is provided with particular emphasis on newer and emerging modalities. Special attention has been given to the initiation of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes, with explanation of the pathophysiologic basis for insulin therapy in the ambulatory diabetic patient. A review of the evidence supporting the efficacy of the different preventive measures is also provided.
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