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Student Burnout as a Function of Personality, Social Support, and Workload


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Measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), personality (General Temperament Survey), and workload were related to psychological burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory) among 149 college students (M = 20.8 yrs.). High levels of burnout were predicted by negative temperament and subjective workload, but actual workload (academic and vocational) had little to do with burnout. Low levels of burnout were predicted by positive temperament, participation in extracurricular activities, and social support, especially from friends.
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MAY /JUNE 2003 XVOL 44 NO 3 291
Student Burnout as a Function of Personality,
Social Support, and Workload
Sheri R. Jacobs David K. Dodd
Measures of social support (Multidimen-
sional Scale of Perceived Social Support),
personality (General Temperament Survey),
and workload were related to psychological
burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory) among
149 college students (M = 20.8 yrs.). High
levels of burnout were predicted by negative
temperament and subjective workload, but
actual workload (academic and vocational)
had little to do with burnout. Low levels of
burnout were predicted by positive tempera-
ment, participation in extracurricular
activities, and social support, especially from
The term burnout was first introduced by
Freudenberger (1974), who defined it as “to
fail, to wear out, or become exhausted by
making excessive demands on energy,
strength, or resources” (p.159). The concept
of burnout was further popularized with the
development of the Maslach Burnout Inven-
tory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Research
on burnout originally focused on people in
various occupational groups, including
human service workers, teachers, nurses, and
psychologists. Although several studies of
burnout among college residential assistants
(RAs) have been conducted (e.g., Hardy &
Dodd, 1998), little is known about burnout
among college students in general, and that
is the focus of the current study.
Maslach and Jackson (1981) defined
burnout as a syndrome that is composed of
three dimensions: emotional exhaustion,
depersonalization, and reduced personal
accomplishment. Emotional exhaustion
refers to demands and stressors that cause
people to feel overwhelmed and unable to
give of themselves at a psychological level.
Depersonalization is the development of
negative and cynical attitudes that can create
a callous view of others, perceiving them as
deserving of their troubles. Reduced sense
of personal accomplishment is the tendency
to view oneself negatively and to be dis-
satisfied with accomplishments. Burnout is
related to various personal dysfunctions,
such as physical exhaustion, insomnia, and
increased drug and alcohol use. Some
symptoms of burnout include lower moti-
vation and satisfaction with work, increased
risk of health impairments, social conflicts,
and lower efficiency (Maslach, Jackson, &
Leiter, 1997). Many college students who
seek counseling may be experiencing burn-
out or several of its consequences. Thus,
identifying factors that affect burnout is
important in order to improve treatment and
prevention models for student burnout.
Job stress is commonly attributed to
external factors related to the work environ-
ment, such as work demands, working
conditions, and poor supervision. Maslach
and Jackson (1981) emphasized the psycho-
logical nature of the burnout syndrome rather
than the physical work environment. Sub-
sequent research has substantiated their
theory, by demonstrating the importance of
internal (e.g., personality) and interpersonal
Sheri R. Jacobs is a doctoral student of Psychology at University of South Florida. David K. Dodd is a
senior lecturer of Psychology at Washington University in St. Louis.
292 Journal of College Student Development
Jacobs & Dodd
(e.g., social support) factors, as well as
external factors (e.g., workload).
Personality characteristics have gen-
erally been related to burnout, but research
results depend upon which specific traits are
correlated with which of the dimensions of
burnout. Some researchers have found
extroversion to be correlated only with
emotional exhaustion and reduced sense of
personal accomplishment (Eastburg, Wil-
liamson, Gorsuch, & Ridley, 1994; Mills
& Huebner, 1998), whereas others have
reported extroversion to be correlated only
with depersonalization and reduced personal
accomplishment (Huebner & Mills, 1994;
Zellars, Perrewe, & Hochwarter, 2000). The
relation of neuroticism to burnout is also
varied, with Mills and Huebner reporting
significant correlations with all three dimen-
sions of burnout, but Zellars et al. (2000)
reporting a significant correlation only with
emotional exhaustion. Although this liter-
ature that relates personality to burnout is
promising, additional research is necessary
to further understand this important
Social support has also been related to
burnout (Greenglass, Fiksenbaum, & Burke,
1994; Kahill, 1986; Koniarek & Dudek,
1996), with greater support generally related
to lower levels of burnout. Like the research
on personality, however, this relationship
varies considerably, depending upon the type
of social support. Several studies of burnout
in the workplace have shown that social
support from supervisors is related to lower
levels of burnout, whereas other sources of
social support (e.g., from family, friends, and
coworkers) are less strongly related to
increased burnout (Huebner, 1994; Ross,
Altmaier, & Russell, 1989; Russell, Altmaier,
& Van Velzen, 1987).
Most researchers who have examined
the relationship between workload and
burnout have reported a positive relationship,
with greater workload associated with
greater burnout. Some studies have found
this relationship to be true only for emotional
exhaustion (Male & May, 1997, 1998), but
Greenglass, Burke, and Fiksenbaum (2001)
found that workload correlated to all three
dimensions of burnout. Inadequate measures
of workload as well as incomplete models
relating workload to burnout may have
hampered the investigation of how these two
variables interrelate (Koeske & Koeske,
1989). It is reasonable to assume that
objective workload contributes causally to
burnout, but many workers seem to cope
successfully with heavy workloads, whereas
others do not. Perhaps it is the subjective
response to workload, rather than the
workload itself, that contributes most to
burnout. Separate measures of objective
workload and subjective workload need to
be developed and differentially explored as
predictors of burnout.
The vast majority of research on burnout
has been conducted on occupational popu-
lations, including: salespeople (Sand &
Miyazaki, 2000); teachers (Greenglass et al.,
1994; Russell et al., 1987), nurses (Eastburg
et al., 1994; Koniarek & Dudek, 1996;
Zellars et al., 2000), human service workers
(Wade, Cooley, & Savicki, 1986), counselors
(Ross et al., 1989), psychologists (Kahill,
1986), and school psychologists (Huebner
& Mills, 1994; Mills & Huebner, 1998;
Sandoval, 1993). Research on burnout
among college students has been restricted
primarily to those who are in supervisory and
advisory roles, namely RAs (Benedict &
Mondloch, 1989; Fuehrer & McGonagle,
1988; Hardy & Dodd, 1998; Hetherington,
Oliver, & Phelps, 1989). The researchers in
these studies have focused almost exclu-
MAY /JUNE 2003 XVOL 44 NO 3 293
Predictors of Student Burnout
sively on individual (e.g., gender and
experience level) and situational (e.g., floor
assignment) factors, and little is known about
how intrapersonal (e.g., personality) and
interpersonal (e.g., social support) factors are
related to burnout among students. It is also
risky to generalize findings from RAs to the
general college population, because students
who become RAs may be a very select
group. For example, Hetherington et al.
(1989) reported lower scores on sense of
personal accomplishment (i.e., greater
burnout) among general students than among
On the other hand, there has been a
substantial amount of research on stress
among general college students. Stress has
been shown to be correlated with college
students’ health behaviors (Weidner, Kohl-
mann, Dotzauer, & Burns, 1996), anxiety
concerning exams (Abouserie, 1994; Ever-
son, Tobias, Hartman, & Gourgey, 1993;
Sloboda, 1990), self-esteem (Abouserie;
Newby-Fraser & Schlebusch, 1997), and
coping strategies that students use (Dwyer
& Cummings, 2001). To the extent that stress
is an important component of burnout
(Maslach & Jackson, 1981), this research is
relevant to the development of a model of
burnout among college students. Between
classes, exams, employment, and extra-
curricular activities, students are likely to
experience high levels of stress, but do they
experience burnout? Much research is
needed to determine the prevalence of
burnout, to identify important intrapersonal
and interpersonal factors that influence
burnout, and to develop effective inter-
ventions to prevent and reduce burnout in
college students.
For the current research, we had two
important goals related to the replication and
extension of prior research on burnout: First,
we explored the relations of personality and
social support to the three components of
burnout. Second, we examined the role of
workload, as measured both objectively and
Participants were 149 undergraduate stu-
dents (103 women and 46 men) enrolled in
a mid-sized, private university in the
Midwest. Consistent with the enrollment of
the university, the ethnicity of the sample
was approximately 62% Caucasian, 20%
Asian American, 6% African American, and
12% “other.” The university, located in an
urban setting, has highly selective admis-
sions criteria, and its students are generally
considered to be very motivated academ-
ically. Participants were recruited through
the psychology department’s research
participant pool.
The participant pool consists of all
students enrolled in any of approximately
eight psychology courses, including intro-
ductory psychology, introductory statistics,
developmental psychology, and abnormal
psychology, all courses which count toward
the general education requirements at the
university. Students who participate in
research or alternative options receive extra
credit in their enrolled courses. It is estimated
that 90% or more of all students in the
university take at least one of these psycho-
logy courses, and about 90% of those choose
to participate in research. By extrapolation,
it is estimated that at least 80% of all
university students participate in this
research pool, suggesting that research
samples drawn from the pool are likely to
be highly representative of the undergraduate
student population at large. Informal studies
294 Journal of College Student Development
Jacobs & Dodd
of the participation pool reveal that it closely
resembles in demographics the university’s
undergraduate student body, with one
notable exception. Women are more highly
represented in the participant pool (about
70%) than in the student body (50%),
reflecting the fact that women enroll in
psychology courses at a higher rate than
men. The proportion of women in the current
sample (69%) closely reflects the proportion
in the participation pool.
Because the focus of the study was to
examine burnout in college students who had
fully adapted to the university setting, only
students in their junior (n = 83) or senior
year (n = 66) were included in the study
(M = 20.8 yrs., SD = 1.4). Approximately
half (54%) of the sample was employed, with
weekly hours of work ranging from 2 to 27
(M = 10.4 hrs., SD = 5.8). None of the
participants worked full-time. Data were
collected during the last 4 weeks (n = 106)
of Fall semester and the first 4 weeks of the
subsequent Spring semester (n = 43).
Procedure and Measures
The research instrument, which required
about 30 minutes to complete, was admini-
stered in small groups of 4 to12 participants.
Privacy and anonymity of participants were
carefully protected. In addition to basic
biographical items, the questionnaire in-
cluded the following measures.
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)
(Maslach & Jackson, 1981) was admin-
istered to measure subjects’ level of burnout.
The MBI consists of 22 questions that are
divided into three subscales: Emotional
Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP),
and Personal Accomplishment (PA). EE is
measured by nine items (e.g., “I feel emo-
tionally drained from my work”), DP is
measured by five items (e.g., “I feel I treat
some friends as if they were impersonal
objects”), and PA is measured by eight items
(e.g., “I feel I’m positively influencing other
people’s lives through my work”). Each item
is rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale
ranging from 0 (never) to 6 (every day).
Possible score ranges are 0 to 54 for EE, 0
to 30 for DP, and 0 to 48 for PA. High
burnout is reflected in high scores on EE and
DP and in low scores on PA. The MBI
appears to be sufficiently reliable, with
reported alpha coefficients of .87 for EE, .77
for DP, and .75 for PA (Maslach & Jackson).
To make the survey more appropriate for
college students, item wording was modified
slightly (e.g., from “job” to “school” and
“coworkers” to “friends”).
The General Temperament Survey (GTS)
(Clark & Watson, 1990), a component of the
more comprehensive personality inventory,
Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive
Personality (SNAP) (Clark, 1993), was
chosen for use in the current study because
it is relatively brief and has well-established
reliability and validity (Clark). The GTS is
a 90-item, true-false questionnaire that yields
measures of Negative Temperament (NT),
Positive Temperament (PT), and Disin-
hibition (DIS), dimensions that correspond
closely to neuroticism, extroversion, and
lack of conscientiousness, respectively
(Watson, Clark, & Harkness, 1994). More
specifically, NT (28 items; e.g., “I often feel
nervous and stressed”) measures negative
mood and self-concept; PT (27 items; e.g.,
“People would describe me as a pretty
enthusiastic person”) measures positive
emotionality; and DIS (35 items; e.g., “I’ll
take almost any excuse to goof off instead
of work”) measures lack of behavioral
control. Scoring is based on the number of
responses in the scored direction, with
possible score ranges of 0 to 28 for NT, 0 to
MAY /JUNE 2003 XVOL 44 NO 3 295
Predictors of Student Burnout
27 for PT, and 0 to 35 for DIS. The GTS is
considered to be highly reliable, with
reported alpha coefficients of .91 for NT, .88
for PT, and .82 for DIS for college samples
The Multidimensional Scale of Per-
ceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet,
Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988) was used
to assess self-reported amounts of social
support. The MSPSS is a 12-item question-
naire containing three subscales measuring
perceived social support from Friends (e.g.,
“My friends really try to help me”), Family
(e.g., “I can talk about my problems with my
family”), and a Significant Other (e.g.,
“There is a special person in my life who
cares about my feelings”). Items are scored
on a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from
1 (very strongly disagree) to 7 (very strongly
agree) for each item. Each subscale consists
of four items and has a possible score range
of 4 to 28. High scores reflect high levels of
perceived social support. The MSPSS
appears to have very good reliability: In a
study of college students, Dahlem, Zimet,
and Walker (1991) reported alpha co-
efficients of .90, .94, and .95, respectively,
for the subscales of Friends, Family, and
Significant Other.
Subjective Workload was measured with
four items: “I think I could have handled 2
to 3 more units this semester,” “I wish that I
had enrolled in 2 to 3 fewer units this
semester,” “I think I could have handled 1
to 2 more extracurricular activities,” and “I
wish that I were involved in 1 to 2 fewer
extracurricular activities”. To maintain
consistency with the Likert-scales used in
scoring the MBI and MSPSS, a 7-point
Likert-type scale was also used to measure
level of agreement from 1 (very strongly
disagree) to 7 (very strongly agree) to the
items measuring Subject Workload. After
appropriate reverse scoring, the items were
summed, resulting in a possible score of 4
to 28, with higher scores reflective of greater
Objective Workload was measured by
three items: number of credit hours enrolled,
number of hours spent participating in
extracurricular activities each week, and
number of hours per week spent in paid
employment (with unemployed participants
coded as 0).
Missing data were rare, occurring for less
than 0.1% of the data set, and they were
replaced by the group mean for each item.
Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was used to
estimate the reliability of each composite
variable (see Table 1). Reliability coefficient
alphas were all above .70, except for the
Subjective Workload (.56). Although burn-
out is a global term, the three subscales of
the MBI tap separate components of burnout,
and accordingly, the intercorrelations be-
tween these subscales were only moderate:
for EE and DP, r = .49; for EE and PA,
r = –.36; and for DP and EE, r = –.29.
Therefore, separate multiple regression
procedures were used to predict each burnout
subscale. Specifically, forward stepwise-
regression was used, with alpha levels set
at .05 for inclusion and .10 for exclusion.
Level of Burnout
Descriptive data for the current sample
appear in Table 1. Relative to overall norms
for the MBI (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), the
current sample reported moderate-to-high
levels of burnout on the dimensions of EE
and PA but low-to-moderate scores on DP.
Compared to descriptive data reported for
RAs by others (Hardy & Dodd, 1998;
296 Journal of College Student Development
Jacobs & Dodd
Hetherington et al., 1989), the current sample
had slightly but nonsignificantly lower levels
of burnout on all three subscales.
Prediction of Burnout
Detailed results of the regression analyses
appear in Table 2. For the analysis using EE
as the dependent variable, total R2 was .41,
F(3, 146) = 33.44, p < .001. Higher scores
on EE were associated with higher levels of
negative temperament, higher subjective
workload, and a greater number of work
For DP, total R2 was .26, F(3, 146)
= 16.57, p < .001. Higher scores on DP were
associated with lower levels of social support
from friends, higher levels of negative
temperament, and higher subjective work-
For PA, total R2 was .53, F(4, 146)
= 40.72, p < .001. Greater burnout (lower PA
scores) was associated with lower levels of
social support from friends, lower levels of
positive temperament, higher levels of
negative temperament, and fewer hours spent
in extracurricular activities.
Secondary Analyses
The multiple regression procedures used in
the primary analyses capitalize on the best
predictors, at the expense of weaker pre-
dictors. To investigate the strength of these
weaker predictors, outside of the realm of
the regression analyses, we inspected the
individual Pearson rs (criterion of p = .05,
two-tailed) for all predictors that did not
enter the regression analyses. For example,
all three measures of social support were
negatively correlated with all three measures
of burnout at statistically significant levels,
with correlations ranging from .18 to .54,
despite the fact that only support from
Descriptive Data and Coefficient Alphas for Dependent Variables and Predictors
Number Possible
of items score range MSD
Dependent Variables
Emotion Exhaustion 9 0-54 22.6 8.9 .86
Depersonalization 5 0-30 7.5 4.9 .71
Personal Accomplishment 8 0-48 33.4 6.8 .77
Social Support-Friends 4 4-28 23.2 4.0 .93
Social Support-Family 4 4-28 21.9 4.7 .87
Social Support-Significant Other 4 4-28 23.7 4.8 .96
Subjective Workload 4 4-28 15.0 4.1 .56
Positive Temperament 27 0-27 18.0 5.8 .88
Negative Temperament 28 0-28 13.9 6.9 .90
Disinhibition 35 0-35 12.1 6.3 .85
MAY /JUNE 2003 XVOL 44 NO 3 297
Predictors of Student Burnout
friends entered into the multiple regression
equations at statistically significant levels.
In each case, greater social support was
associated with lower burnout scores. (For
conciseness, negative signs have been
dropped from the rs in this paragraph, and
the direction of the relation is indicated in
text.) Similarly, subjective workload was
negatively correlated with all three measures
(rs from .24 to .43). Extracurricular activity
was negatively correlated with EE (.17) and
positively correlated with PA (.35). Further
exploration showed that the correlation
between extracurricular activity and PA was
especially strong among men (r = .51) and
only moderate among women (r = .27). On
the other hand, academic hours enrolled,
whether a participant worked, or number of
work hours all failed to correlate signi-
ficantly with any of the burnout measures
or with any of the measures of support.
In addition, we explored the possible
effects of sex of participants, year in school
(junior vs. senior), and time of semester
(beginning vs. end) on burnout, using three-
way ANOVAs. For EE and DP, we found no
significant main effects or interactions. For
PA, those participating late in the Fall
semester had lower PA scores (M = 32.7,
SD = 7.0), and thus greater burnout, than
those participating at the beginning of the
Spring semester (M = 35.2, SD = 6.1),
F(1, 141) = 5.40, p = .02, eta = .19). None
of the remaining main effects or interactions
was significant. Follow-up analyses revealed
that those who participated at the end of Fall
semester were less conscientious (i.e., scored
higher on DIS) than were those participating
at the beginning of Spring semester, r = .20,
p = .02, but they did not differ on positive
or negative temperament.
Racial differences in burnout scores
were also explored. We used one-way
Stepwise Regression Analysis (Beta
Values) of Burnout Subscales
Burnout Subscalesa
Personality: GTS
Positive Temperament –.34
Negative Temperament .47 .25 .20
Social Support: MSPSS
Friends –.32 –.36
Significant Other
Subjective Workload .33 .15
Objective Workload
Academic hours enrolled
Work hours per week .13
Extracurricular hours –.19
Total R2 = .41*.26*.53*
Note. Values in table are standardized beta coefficients.
Variables with no beta values did not meet
criterion for inclusion (p < .05) or exclusion
(p < .10). GTS = General Temperament Scale.
MSPSS = Multidimensional Scale of Perceived
Social Support.
aEE = Emotional Exhaustion; DP = Depersonali-
zation; RPA = Reduced Personal Accomplishment.
* p < .001.
ANOVA, because the very small group sizes
for African Americans (n = 9) and Others
(n = 13) did not allow for including race in
the factorial analyses reported above. No
statistically significant differences were
found for EE and DP. For PA, however,
the racial groups differed significantly,
298 Journal of College Student Development
Jacobs & Dodd
F(3, 139) = 6.02, p = .001, eta = .34. Post
hoc analyses (HSD, p = .05) revealed that PA
scores for African Americans (M = 38.1,
SD = 8.2) were higher (thus lower burnout)
than for all other groups, whereas scores for
Asian Americans (M = 29.5, SD = 7.2) were
lower than for all other groups. Scores for
Caucasians (M = 34.3, SD = 5.6) and Others
(M = 34.8, SD = 9.0) were intermediate.
Finally, the relations of cumulative GPA,
a widely used global measure of academic
achievement, to burnout scores and the major
predictors were explored. GPA was signi-
ficantly correlated with EE (r = –.25,
p = .002) but not with DP (–.13) or PA (.10).
GPA was also not correlated with academic
extracurricular activity, whether participants
worked, hours of work, subjective workload,
or social support (all rs < .10).
This study was designed to evaluate the
relative influences of intrapersonal factors,
interpersonal factors, and workload on
psychological burnout. Results suggest that
personality, especially negative tempera-
ment, may predispose college students to
burnout, whereas social support, especially
from friends, may provide an important
buffer against burnout. Extracurricular
activities also appear to be important to a
student’s sense of accomplishment, thus
additionally counteracting burnout. Although
the subjective feeling of being overworked
predicted emotional exhaustion and de-
personalization, objective measures of
workload, including academic load, whether
a student was employed, and number of
hours worked, were not consistently related
to burnout.
Personality, as measured by the GTS
(Clark & Watson, 1990), was the strongest
predictor of burnout. Negative temperament
(roughly, neuroticism) especially was related
to all three aspects of burnout. According to
Clark (1993), negative temperament reflects
feelings of chronic stress and nervousness,
the experience of strong negative emotions,
and worrying, all characteristics that can
impair concentration and disrupt sleep.
Obviously, such a temperament might
contribute directly to emotional exhaustion
and, to a lesser degree, to depersonaliza-
tion and a reduced sense of personal
Positive temperament was positively
correlated with personal accomplishment,
replicating previous findings (Mills &
Huebner, 1998; Zellars et al., 2000). Positive
traits such as optimism and energy may act
as a buffer to the stressors and frustration
that can lead to dissatisfaction with one’s
personal accomplishments. This inter-
pretation is supported by the simple Pearson
correlations that revealed PT to be negatively
related to EE and DP.
On the other hand, it is interesting that
disinhibition (impulsivity, lack of conscien-
tiousness, Clark, 1993) failed to predict any
aspect of burnout. This finding appears to
contradict those of Huebner and Mills
(1994), who found a positive relationship
between conscientiousness and personal
accomplishment, and of Mills and Huebner
(1998), who found a negative relationship
between conscientiousness and emotional
exhaustion. It is important to note that the
studies of Huebner and Mills measured
conscientiousness with the NEO-Five Fac-
tory Inventory (NEO-FFI) (Costa & McRae,
1985). Although Clark (1993) reported a
correlation of -.51 between the GTS DIS
scale and the NEO-FFI Conscientiousness
scale, the use of these different measures
may have caused the contradiction in
MAY /JUNE 2003 XVOL 44 NO 3 299
Predictors of Student Burnout
findings. Alternatively, population differ-
ences in these studies may better explain the
contradictory findings, especially because
the studies of Huebner and Mills were based
on samples of professional school psycho-
logists. In an undergraduate academic
setting, particularly a highly competitive
atmosphere like the one from which the
current sample was drawn, highly con-
scientious students (low scorers on DIS) may
place very demanding expectations upon
themselves and may suffer burnout as a
consequence, thus possibly counteracting the
positive elements of conscientiousness.
Given the importance of personality factors
in burnout, much additional research is
It is clear from these findings that social
support, especially from friends, is closely
related to lower levels of burnout. Speci-
fically, higher social support from friends
was associated with lower levels of de-
personalization and higher levels of personal
accomplishment, a replication of the findings
of Koniarek and Dudek (1996). In fact, all
three forms of support (friends, family, and
significant other) appear to be intercor-
related, both in the current study and as
reported by Zimet et al. (1988). Further
analysis of first-order correlations revealed
that all three measures of social support were
significantly related in a positive manner to
all three measures of burnout: Greater social
support was associated with less emotional
exhaustion, less depersonalization, and a
greater sense of personal accomplishment.
It is interesting to note that subjective
workload (i.e., feeling that one’s academic
and extracurricular load is too heavy) was
more closely related to burnout than was
objective workload (actual load of aca-
demics, extracurricular activities, and
employment). Subjective workload was
significantly related to all three aspects of
burnout, whereas work hours was related
only to emotional exhaustion and only
weakly so. Furthermore, actual academic
load did not predict any of the measures of
burnout. Clearly, students who were not
experiencing burnout felt as though they
were over committed, even though they were
enrolled in similar academic loads and were
participating in extracurricular activities less
frequently than did students who were not
experiencing burnout. This finding under-
scores the psychological nature of burnout
and the subjective experience of work
A positive relation between extra-
curricular activities and a sense of personal
accomplishment was found: The greater the
hours spent in extracurricular activities, the
greater the sense of personal accomplish-
ment. This clearly suggests that extra-
curricular involvement, rather than leading
to emotional exhaustion, promotes feelings
of achievement and self-worth, thus playing
a protective role against one aspect of
burnout. The fact that this association was
very strong for men (and only moderately
so for women) suggests that high involve-
ment in extracurricular activities may be
especially important for college men.
Secondary analysis showed that GPA
was negatively related to EE but not signi-
ficantly related to DP or PA. The cor-
relational design of this study does not
permit any conclusion about causation, but
this finding suggests that exhaustion may
contribute to lower academic performance.
Alternatively, students who are performing
below their own academic expectations,
perhaps despite considerable academic
efforts, may be more likely to experience
exhaustion. In either event, this relationship
between exhaustion and academic per-
300 Journal of College Student Development
Jacobs & Dodd
formance is potentially of substantial
importance to students, faculty, and college
The discovery of racial differences in
one aspect of burnout (reduced personal
accomplishment) is an intriguing one that
warrants further research. African Americans
reported the greatest PA scores, whereas
Asian Americans reported the lowest scores
(and thus greater burnout). Perhaps racial
groups differ in either their expectations for
accomplishment or their interpretation of
academic performance. Because this finding
is based on very small group sizes, it must
be considered very preliminary, but it calls for
more extensive study by future researchers.
Perhaps surprisingly, emotional ex-
haustion and depersonalization were no
greater among the students who participated
at the end of a semester versus those who
participated at the start of the following
semester. This contradicts the common
conception that burnout is greatest at the end
of a semester. Again however, the cor-
relational nature of this study prohibits any
firm conclusions. On the other hand, those
who participated at the beginning of a
semester scored higher on sense of accom-
plishment and reported greater conscien-
tiousness than did those participating at the
semester’s end. Participants were free to
participate at any point during the semester,
and it seems likely that there are important
personality differences between students
who pursue research participation at the very
beginning of a semester versus those who
procrastinate. This interpretation is sup-
ported by the research of Zelenski and
colleagues (Aviv, Zelenski, Rallo, & Larsen,
2002; Zelenski, Rusting, & Larsen, in press),
and it has important methodological rami-
fications for researchers who use university
participant pools.
Future Research
As with all research, the current study has
limitations that present opportunities for
future researchers. The current study was
conducted at a highly competitive, private,
primarily liberal arts college. The relations
of personality, social support, and workload
to burnout may be very different in other
academic settings, including less demanding
undergraduate settings and graduate and
professional schools. Furthermore, the data
were collected from only third- and fourth-
year undergraduate students, so the findings
may not apply to first- and second-year
college students or to high school students.
It seems clear from the findings that
college students, at least the population
sampled, experience substantial levels of
burnout. The current study is one of the first
explorations of burnout among college
students, and there is a great deal more to
learn. The consistent association between
social support and burnout is an interesting
finding that warrants further study. Does
burnout produce feelings of social isolation
and perceptions of inadequate social support,
or does social support directly moderate
burnout? Intervention studies, or at least
correlational studies with longitudinal
designs (e.g., Wade et al., 1986), are needed
to address the important question of whether
increased social support can actually reduce
or prevent burnout.
Further research is also needed to better
understand the relation between personality
and burnout. The GTS is a reliable and easily
administered measure that has potentially
great utility as both a research and a
diagnostic instrument. There are, however,
other more widely used measures of per-
sonality. Future researchers should not only
replicate these findings with the GTS but
also extend them to other measures of
MAY /JUNE 2003 XVOL 44 NO 3 301
Predictors of Student Burnout
We found that students who believe they
are over involved (high subjective workload)
experience greater burnout, but this is hardly
surprising. Workload and burnout were
measured simultaneously, and undoubtedly
most of the participants who experienced
high levels of burnout felt, perhaps after the
fact, that they were over committed. Longi-
tudinal research is important to track burnout
levels, as well as subjective and objective
workload, throughout the semester and even
from semester to semester.
Do students who experience burnout
work in less productive or less efficient ways
than students who do not experience burn-
out? Similarly, do burned out students
recreate in ways that contribute to stress or
detract from their work activities? Students
who experience burnout may have inefficient
methods of work and play that place them
at a disadvantage academically, socially, and
psychologically. Much can be learned by
systematically collecting behavioral mea-
sures of time management, including study
patterns, amount and kinds of recreation, and
employment activities.
Would providing students with detailed
information about burnout help them to
avoid burnout out at later points? Studyiing
the effects of providing information on
burnout and teaching time management
strategies during orientation for first-year
students could prove to be very valuable. In
a similar vein, the importance of social
support could be strongly emphasized to
parents, faculty and peer advisers, and
student support personnel, and the effects of
such an intervention on burnout could be
Implications for College Staff
Because we employed a correlational design
in the current study, caution must be taken
to avoid strictly causal interpretations of the
results. The results are, however, at least
consistent with causal influences of per-
sonality, social support, and subjective
workload on burnout. It is also important to
reemphasize that the current study employed
a nonrandom sample drawn from a single
college campus, and further studies are
needed before broadscale recommendations
can be made for staff intervention. None-
theless, our findings can provide several
ideas for consideration for college coun-
selors, RAs, academic advisors, and support
When counselors or advisors are faced
with a student who appears to be suffering
from burnout, it is important to recognize
that the student may be experiencing feelings
of depersonalization and reduced sense of
accomplishment, in addition to emotional
exhaustion. A commonsense prescription
might be to suggest that the student “lighten
the load” by dropping a course, cutting back
on extracurricular activities, spending less
time socializing with friends, or reducing
hours of employment. The results of this
study suggest that social support is a stronger
predictor of burnout than is workload, so
such advice may actually be very counter-
productive. Reducing extracurricular activi-
ties, or perhaps even hours of employment,
may reduce the student’s level of interaction
with supportive friends and thus exacerbate
burnout. Similarly, dropping a course might
be experienced as failure by some students
and thus contribute to a sense of reduced
personal accomplishment. A more effective
approach might be a thorough analysis of the
student’s weekly activity schedule and a
focus on effective time management strate-
gies. Efforts should be made to promote or
maintain important social relationships
302 Journal of College Student Development
Jacobs & Dodd
rather than to reduce extracurricular activi-
ties. Counselors involved in long-term
interventions with students should address
personality issues that might be directly
related to burnout.
What can friends or family members
do to help someone who experiencing
Many college students may view burnout as
merely an “occupational hazard” that does
not warrant professional intervention or even
social support. It may be possible to train
friends and parents to be alert for signs of
student burnout and to respond effectively.
Orientation sessions and information for
parents, particularly parents of incoming
first-year students, can address burnout and
related methods of coping. It seems rea-
sonable to suggest to parents that they advise
their students to balance reasonable aca-
demic and employment schedules with
meaningful extracurricular activities rather
than assuming a strictly “academics first”
stance. Similarly, students themselves,
especially those who may become involved
in peer support activities, should be educated
about the components of burnout and
possible coping strategies.
The current study demonstrates the impor-
tance of personality as a correlate of burnout
and also the value of social support, espe-
cially from friends. It also appears to be the
subjective experience of overload, rather
than actual objective workload, that contri-
butes to burnout. Extracurricular activities,
rather than draining energy from students,
might actually be associated with less
Considerably more research among
college students is needed to understand how
daily activities and time management skills
may be related to burnout. Greatly needed
are investigations of the effects of including
information about burnout in orientation
programs for students and parents and in
training programs for peer and professional
counselors. By gaining a greater under-
standing of predictors of burnout in college
students and effective means for providing
social support to students experiencing
burnout, student development personnel can
create programs that reduce burnout and
promote greater academic and personal
fulfillment for students.
Correspondence concerning this article should be
addressed to David K. Dodd, Department of
Psychology, Campus Box 1125, Washington
University, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899; DDodd@
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... Al mismo tiempo, el agotamiento vital en los trabajadores está asociado a angustia mental, ansiedad, depresión, frustración, hostilidad o miedo, bajo compromiso, mayor rotación, ausentismo, reducción de la productividad, baja moral y menor consideración humana [6][7][8] . En la últimas dos décadas, diferentes estudios reportan la presencia de BA en estudiantes relacionado con las demandas académicas [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] . ...
... Ante esto, el estudiante o el trabajador percibe que no cuenta con los recursos psicológicos para afrontar esas situaciones, lo cual impide que realice su trabajo de forma adecuada y satisfactoria 17,18 . Por otro lado, el reto de los estudios ha sido usar instrumentos que evalúen el agotamiento académico de manera más [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] con recursos emocionales ante la exposición continua a factores estresantes, se acompaña de tensión emocional y fatiga crónica 8 , sentimientos de ajetreo, cansancio, agotamiento y sobrecargar; b) cinismo o despersonalización referido a la actitud negativa, fría y distante frente a la tarea a desarrollar o frente a las relaciones con sus compañeros, ante las cuales se percibe desinterés o poco valor 2 ; c) baja realización personal referida a una baja autoestima que se refleja en el sentimiento de ineficacia frente a la tarea, una evaluación negativa de sí mismo, sentimiento reducido de competencia y logro o sensación de impotencia ante los problemas. El agotamiento emocional es el componente básico del síndrome del estrés individual, la despersonalización representa el componente interpersonal y la realización personal es el componente de autoevaluación. ...
... El BA revela una estructura multidimensional que incluye al menos tres componentes 3,4 : a) agotamiento emocional extremo referido a la sensación de no contar [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] del estudiante en la educación superior 57 . Incluso, en estudiantes residentes de medicina revela altos niveles de prevalencia (40 % de agotamiento emocional, 35.1 % de despersonalización y 27.4 % de realización personal) 58 . ...
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Objetivo: el burnout (BA) académico puede presentarse en el contexto universitario, se caracteriza por un estado de agotamiento vital que afecta la salud física y mental de los estudiantes, lo que genera una disminución en el rendimiento académico. Este problema aparece con mayor frecuencia en programas universitarios con altas exigencias académicas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue construir y evaluar la estructura factorial de un cuestionario de BA académico en estudiantes que cursaban los programas de medicina, enfermería y psicología. Metodología: los participantes fueron 710 estudiantes de ciencias de la salud (hombres 40.8 % y mujeres 59.2 %), de 16 a 33 años (M = 20.42 años, DT = 3 años). Se evaluó la validez de constructo mediante análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) y análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC); además, se calculó la consistencia interna por medio del estadístico alfa de Cronbach. Resultados: el cuestionario burnout académico (CBA-24) quedó conformado por 24 reactivos y una estructura factorial de cuatro dimensiones (agotamiento emocional, cinismo hacia el estudio, cinismo hacia las personas y realización personal). Con la prueba se evaluó el nivel de malestar emocional ante las demandas del entorno académico. Los índices de ajuste alcanzaron valores altos en el modelo propuesto, por lo tanto, el modelo de cuatro factores alcanzó los criterios para considerar que el ajuste es adecuado en todos los índices y mostró una estructura multidimensional. Dichos índices se agruparon de acuerdo con la taxonomía propuesta. Conclusiones: el cuestionario permitió identificar de manera ecológica el constructo de BA ajustado a las demandas de los contextos universitarios.
... But researchers shifted their attention to external situations when studying the formation of school burnout. Jacobs & Dodd [9] launched a survey among 145 college students and found that ones' subjective feeling of being overworked could forecast emotional exhaustion, while objective measurement of academic load was not always related to school burnout; and other studies have emphasized the role the individual traits play in school burnout. In this specific aspect, one's resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-actualization, personality and so on have all been taken into consideration to explain the reasons underlying school burnout [10][11]. ...
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Burnout is a construct firstly applied to job context but later its also found among students. As for its formation factors, a vast majority of studies have mainly focused on demographic aspects and individual traits, taking family socioeconomic status (FSES) into little consideration. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to comb the existing literature elucidating association between FSES and school burnout to understand the research status quo and encourage further studies. After a thorough study of the available research, this paper finds that FSES in academic achievement has been well discussed but its potential impact on school burnout was noticed only until recent years with related literature relatively rare. But researchers have agreed on that FSES can negatively predict school burnout and some moderating variables (e.g., self-resilience, self-control, boredom) and mediating variables (e.g., parental rearing style, subjective well-being) have been studied separately. To date, however, no consensus has been reached on the exact extent of effect FSES on school burnout, moderation and mediation variables still remains rather poorly understood, and other factors like gender, grade and cultures need further consideration. This paper combs the historical background, research status quo and future research directions of the issue on correlation between FSES and school burnout, which not only enriches studies on school burnout but also will provide some reference for parents, schools or social institutions to adopt more targeted ways for better school burnout prevention and treatment.
... Social support refers to the social resources that individuals perceive as available or that are actually provided to them by nonprofessionals in the context of both formal support groups and informal helping relationships (Gottlieb & Bergen, 2010). Generally speaking, social support is multidimensional and there are several potential sources of support, including family, teachers, and friends (Hopson et al., 2014;Jacobs & Dodd, 2003). Previous studies have found that social support has a positive effect on academic self-efficacy. ...
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Academic stereotype threat of Chinese adolescents in vocational education is underexamined. The present study aimed to gain an understanding of the effects of academic stereotype threat on academic engagement by examining the potential mediating role of academic self-efficacy and moderating role of perceived social support. A total of 1152 Chinese adolescents (448 boys; meanage = 18.26, SD = 1.20) in higher vocational schools completed a survey questionnaire assessing academic stereotype threat, academic engagement (i.e., vigor, dedication and absorption), academic self-efficacy, and social support (i.e., family support, friend support and teacher support). Findings supported the mediating effect of academic self-efficacy, indicating that academic stereotype threat decreased academic engagement by undermining academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, the relationship between academic stereotype threat and academic self-efficacy was moderated by teacher support. Specifically, the negative effects of academic stereotype threat on self-efficacy was weaker for adolescents who perceived high levels of teacher support. This study contributes to the educational/psychological research on academic engagement by providing evidence for the adverse effects, potential mechanism and protective factor of academic stereotype threat in Chinese adolescents of higher vocational education. Implications for further investigations and intervention development are discussed.
... Learning burnout, which is derived from job burnout, is defined as a student's exhaustion of energy due to a long-term study load, loss of interest in learning activities, indifference and emotional alienation towards classmates, and a negative attitude towards learning due to poor performance [13]- [16]. Some researchers regard school studies as a similar working environment [17], [18]. According to Koutsimani, Montgomery, and Georganta [19], students may suffer from learning burnout, showing various symptoms of Tang) 685 burnout, such as feeling exhausted, indifferent to learning, and thus unable to activate the feeling of effectiveness. ...
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span lang="EN-US">This study examines students’ levels of learning burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. Learning burnout levels were also investigated about students’ gender, hometown, family member structure, and field of major. The study employs a random sampling survey method, with 1,098 students from a public higher vocational college in Shandong Province, China. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS 26. The results found that 71.5% of students are at a moderate burnout level, 27.0% are at a low level, and only 1.5% are at a high level, and there was no high level of learning burnout on a single item during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data showed that the levels of learning burnout of male students, students who live in town, non-only child students, and students majoring in science and engineering were higher than the other group of students. There was a statistically significant difference in the level of student learning burnout by gender, but not in the variables of hometown, family structure, or field of major. Although studies show that students’ learning burnout level is not affected by COVID-19, students generally have learning burnout. Therefore, three strategies were also put forward to reduce students' learning burnout from school.</span
Just as burnout is manifested through changes in behavioural and communication patterns, it is important to examine whether certain aspects of communication can affect student burnout development. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship between communication and academic burnout. To achieve this, the study proposes an integrated model examining the effects of three communication dimensions – support from academic staff, support from colleagues, and participation in decision-making – on four different dimensions of academic burnout, as well as students’ overall burnout. The model is tested using structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. High coefficients of determination regarding particular burnout dimensions validate the strength of the proposed model. The results show that support from academic staff and support from fellow students significantly and negatively influence academic burnout, and might be instrumental in its reduction. Unexpectedly, participation in decision-making is shown to be positively related to academic burnout.
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Háttér és célkitűzések A diákok iskolai kiégésének kutatása mára már bekerült a pszichológiai kutatások fókuszába. A középiskolás diákok esetében is megfigyelhető a jelenség, amit a számukra kialakított mérőeszközökkel bizonyítani is lehet. Feltáró jellegű kutatásunkban arra a kérdésre kerestük a választ, hogy az iskola egyes jellemzői összefüggést mutatnak-e a kiégés mértékével. Módszer Kérdőíves kutatásunkban a magyar nyelvre adaptált Diák Kiégés Kérdőívet használtuk (Salmela-Aro, Kiuru, Pietikäinen és Jokela, 2008; Salmela-Aro, Kiuru, Leskinen és Nurmi, 2009; magyar változat: Jagodics, Kóródi és Szabó, 2021). A vizsgálatba középiskolás diákokat vontunk be ( N = 2,205), akik eltérő követelményeket támasztó iskolatípusokban tanulnak az iskola jellegét tekintve (szakgimnázium [ N = 741]; gimnázium [ N = 898]; magasan teljesítő gimnázium [ N = 327]; Waldorf-gimnázium [ N = 81] és egyéb alternatív gimnázium [ N = 151], másrészt megkülönböztethetők hagyományos vagy alternatív pedagógiai program szerint. Eredmények Elemzéseink szerint a diákok kiégéspontszáma a szakgimnáziumban tanulók esetében a legmagasabb, míg a legalacsonyabb kiégéspontszám a Waldorf-program alapján működő iskolák tanulóira jellemző. Emellett a középiskolás lányokra magasabb kiégés jellemző, mint a középiskolás fiúkra, amely különbségek iskolatípustól függően eltérőek. Következtetések A kutatásunk eredménye cáfolta azt a széles körben elterjedt nézetet, hogy a magas követelményeket támasztó, országosan is kiemelkedő intézmények tanulói lennének a leginkább kiégettek. Sokkal inkább úgy tűnik, hogy a kiégettség a követelmények és erőforrások egyenlőtlenségével magyarázható, amely a szakgimnáziumokban lehet a legerőteljesebb.
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In an effort to explain the factors contributing to the development of student burnout, a construct that has received attention in relation to academic outcomes, including burnout, is emotion regulation. Further, attachment theory has been used to explore the variations in the use of particular emotion regulation strategies, and attachment has received support as a contributing factor. The aim of the study is to explore the role of attachment security and emotion regulation strategies associated with student burnout symptoms in a sample of 602 Romanian children and adolescents (55% female) aged 8–16 (M = 10.45) from 18 schools. A secondary objective was to explore the gender differences in burnout symptoms. The results show that attachment security negatively predicts student burnout symptoms. Further, a higher attachment security positively predicts the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, which, in turn, are negatively related to student burnout. Emotion regulation strategies mediate the relationship between attachment and burnout symptoms. No gender differences have been identified. The study has practical implications for both parents and specialists, bringing to attention the importance of secure attachment in children, which could further encourage the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.
Burnout has been investigated among different categories of human service professionals and students. However, it has not been investigated among police cadets simultaneously combining university education and police training. Hence, this study investigated the causes of burnout among the Nigeria Police Academy (POLAC) cadets in Nigeria. Specifically, using Frone et al.’s integrative model of the work–family interface, I investigated the antecedent influence of work overload (academic and police), role conflict (academic and police) and emotional distress (academic and police) on burnout among cadets [Frone MR, Yardley JK and Markel KS (1997) Developing and testing an integrative model of the work–family interface. Journal of Vocational Behavior 50(2): 145–167]. The study is cross-sectional, with a sample size of 300, and the data were analysed using regression path analysis. The result showed that academic and police work overload led directly to burnout. In addition, academic work overload led indirectly to burnout through academic role conflict and emotional distress, whereas police work overload led to burnout through police-emotional distress. Furthermore, academic-to-police role conflict led indirectly to burnout through academic-emotional distress. This study extends extant literature on the antecedents of burnout in police organizations. It also suggests important implications such as revising the curricula to make them more manageable for the cadets and the need to be stringent with the admission process into the academy.
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The present study examined changes in health behaviors as a function of academic stress. One-hundred and thirty-three college undergraduate students completed measures of stress, affect, and health-behaviors during times of low and high academic demands. During the high-stress period, negative affect increased and positive affect decreased significantly, while health behaviors deteriorated. The strongest decrements were observed for exercise. Generally, women scored higher on “routine health behaviors” (i.e., self-care, vehicle safety, drug avoidance), but not on behaviors requiring effort (i.e., exercise, healthy nutrition). Distinct patterns of changes in health behaviors and affect were observed: decreases in exercise and self-care were accompanied by decreases in positive affect, whereas decreases in drug avoidance were associated with increases in negative affect. Decreases in the quality of nutrition were linked to both decreases in positive and increases in negative affect. These results suggest that emotional responses to stress play an important role in health behavior change and should be considered in the design of health-promoting programs.
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The development of a self-report measure of subjectively assessed social support, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), is described. Subjects included 136 female and 139 male university undergraduates. Three subscales, each addressing a different source of support, were identified and found to have strong factorial validity: (a) Family, (b) Friends, and (c) Significant Other. In addition, the research demonstrated that the MSPSS has good internal and test-retest reliability as well as moderate construct validity. As predicted, high levels of perceived social support were associated with low levels of depression and anxiety symptomatology as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Gender differences with respect to the MSPSS are also presented. The value of the MSPSS as a research instrument is discussed, along with implications for future research.
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We hypothesized that students' perceptions of a subject's difficulty were correlated positively with their levels of test anxiety in that subject. Further, we assumed students would report greater test anxiety when they believed mastery of a subject demanded precise answers on tests, rather than a general understanding of the course content. We compared college students' self-reported test anxiety levels in four traditional academic subjects: English, mathematics, physical science, and social science. Participants were predominantly African American, Hispanic, and Asian American. Test anxiety scores and perceptions of subject matter difficulty were related, independent of the particular subject and the test demands. Physical science elicited the highest levels of self-reported evaluative anxiety, after controlling for perceptions of difficulty and test demands. Effects for test demand instructions were not significant. The importance of subject matter in test anxiety and the significance of the role of test anxiety in impeding science achievement are discussed.
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Not all Resident Assistants experience burnout; however, the numerous responsibilities, conflicting roles, and other demands of a 24-hour-per-day job combined with their own schoolwork make RAs particularly vulnerable. Participants (N=57) completed a questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Findings suggest that RAs on first-year floors are at greatest risk. (EMK)
Personality factors along with organizational factors and interpersonal factors have commonly been thought to contribute to the experience of burnout among human services workers, including school psychologists. This study validates the relationship of personality characteristics as measured by the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. School psychologists with well‐integrated personalities (high Factor 3 scores on the CPI) are less prone to burnout than others.
Trait concepts are used extensively in psychopathology research, but much of this research has failed to consider recent advances in the dimensional structure of personality. Many investigators have discounted the importance of this structural research, arguing that (a) little progress has been made in this area, (b) structural models have little direct relevance for psychopathology research, and (c) the principal methodological tool of structural research--factor analysis--is too subjective to yield psychologically meaningful results. We dispute each of these objections. Specifically, we offer an integrative hierarchical model--composed of four higher order traits--that is congruent with each of the major structural subtraditions within personality. We also discuss the implications of this integrative scheme for basic trait research, for the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathology, and for the etiology of disorder.
This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence and antecedents of burnout in a large sample of school psychologists from a Southeastern state. Approximately 40% of the school psychologists reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, 10% reported depersonalization reactions, and 19% reported a reduced sense of personal accomplishment at Time 1. Cross-sectional regression analyses suggested that personality variables (e.g., extraversion, agreeableness) related to burnout reports over and above stressful occupational events and demographic variables. Furthermore, a multidimensional model of burnout was supported in that there were differential correlates of the burnout dimensions. For example, Emotional Exhaustion scores and Depersonalization scores were more strongly associated with stressful occupational experiences than Reduced Personal Accomplishment scores. The longitudinal data demonstrated the transactional nature of the relationship between burnout and stressful occupational experiences suggesting that not only may stressful occupational experiences predispose individuals to experience burnout, but also that high burnout levels may predispose individuals to experience additional occupational stress. Finally, moderate to high levels of stability were demonstrated for burnout reports over the 7-month time interval, indicating that many school psychologists are chronically stressed on the job.
This study examines the relationships among demographic variables, social support levels, global job satisfaction and burnout dimensions in a sample of school psychologists employed as practitioners in school settings. The results indicate that social support is associated with school psychologists' self-perceived burnout and job satisfaction. Specifically, support from supervisors (namely, friends, spouse or co-workers) is the most influential contributor to school psychologists' well-being. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Examined relationship between status of residence hall staff, health habits, length of time in position, type of residence hall, and burnout in college resident advisors and head residents (N=76). Found health habits and type of residence hall supervised related to burnout but status and time in position did not. (Author/ABL)