Conceptualization and Initial Validation of the College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS)

ArticleinJournal of College Student Development 50(2):177-194 · March 2009with 774 Reads
Abstract
The prevalence of conceptually valid mentoring relationships in higher education is currently unknown due to a lack of a valid conceptualization within the literature. This article examines the construct validity of College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS) with an eye toward identifying developmental support functions that should be provided to students. Participants were selected from a stratified random sample of courses offered in the fall of 2006 at a community college in the south-central area of the United States (n = 351). Results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated the constructs were valid and a higher-order factor analysis revealed the existence of a second-order construct, Mentoring. Goodness of fit statistics suggested that the best fitting model did not hold well across ethnic groups however, the hypothesized factor structure was invariant for men and women. Implications for student affairs practice and future research are discussed.

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  • ... Jacobi (1991) considered these two forms of support, along with an additional form of support that she termed role modeling (e.g., having someone to look up to and emulate their behavior). Recent theoretical and empirical work by Crisp and colleagues (Crisp 2009Crisp , 2010 Crisp & Cruz, 2009 Nora & Crisp, 2007) extended Kram's and Jacobi's frameworks to suggest that mentoring undergraduate students involves four forms of support, including psychological and emotional support, degree and career support, academic subject knowledge support , and the existence of a role model. The characteristics of mentoring are summarized in Table 1. ...
    ... The present review also provides more knowledge than previously available describing mentoring programs and relationships, including the mentor matching process (Bell & Treleaven, 2010) and activities that mentors engage in with students (e.g., Lunsford, 2011). Moreover, our review advances understanding of how different groups of students and mentors may perceive mentoring differently (e.g., Crisp, 2009; Crisp & Cruz, 2010; Hu & Ma, 2011; Mekolichick & Gibbs, 2012). ...
    ... Recent work incorporated and expanded on Kram's (1988) career and psychosocial functions of mentoring relationships. Crisp and colleagues (Crisp, 2009; Crisp & Cruz, 2009; Nora & Crisp, 2007 ) offered a framework that focuses on the forms of assistance to which students gain access through mentoring relationships. Although there is some conceptual overlap with Kram's (1988) work, this framework is specific to higher education and the needs and goals of students. ...
  • ... Faculty mentorship is a type of student–faculty interaction that is highly valued. The level of federal funds aimed at encouraging mentoring and mentorship programs in addition to the hundreds of national, state, and institutional level programs exist as evidence of its emergence in recent decades as a priority for higher education (Girves et al. 2005; Wallace et al. 2000; Crisp 2009). Many of these programs see faculty as agents that can help students socialize to and navigate through academic disciplines and the college environment. ...
    ... While there has been research on mentoring relationships using theory, such as social exchange theory (Olian et al. 1993), much recent research on mentorship has been largely atheoretical (Crisp 2009; Crisp and Cruz 2009), showing a lack of such applications to understanding mentoring relationships and what leads to building those relationships between students and faculty in college. In addition, the majority of these studies lack advanced statistical methods that can examine mentorship as an outcome with more scrutiny and external validity (Crisp and Cruz 2009). Given the importance of faculty interaction to undergraduate education, additional research on mentorship and building mentoring relationships is needed. ...
    ... In order to build upon this study's contributions to the field's understanding of student– faculty mentorship, future research should investigate the external validity of our model for different student populations. Student populations may perceive and experience mentorship differently (Crisp 2009), which could translate to differences in socialization leading to mentoring relationships for various groups. Additionally, an exploration of the faculty perspective is needed in order to provide a more complete comprehension of the factors encouraging or preventing their mentoring of students. ...
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    This study seeks to understand the factors that contribute to a type of student–faculty interaction known to have particular benefits for students, faculty mentorship. Using three-time-point data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program at the University of California, Los Angeles, this study employed structural equation modeling to investigate the relationship between contact and communication with faculty in the first year of college and faculty mentorship in the senior year. Results suggest that early interaction with faculty serves as a socialization process in college that leads students to have more meaningful interactions with faculty later in college, in the form of mentorship. The study extends the field’s understanding of faculty mentorship and offers important implications for institutional practices.
  • ... Research has shown the significant benefits of mentoring in the organizations, so it is logi- cal to accept that it also benets students in business school. Researches indicate that mentoring is important not only for busi- ness people but equally for students (Crisp, 2009;Lockwood, 2006;Gilbert, 1985;Dreher &Cox., 1996;Nora & Crisp, 2007). Mentoring has been deseribed as ''a for- malized process in which a more experi- enced individual play a supportive role of supervisor, motivator for learning with a less experienced and knowledgeable individual, to facilitate personal and professional progress" (Roberts, 2000). ...
    ... The scale is confined to four factors: Psy- chological and Emotional Support (eight items), Degree and Career Sup- port (six items), Academic Subject Knowledge (five items), and Existence of a Role Model (six items). A Likert 5 point scale was used to calculate the scores (Crisp, 2009). There are evi- dences of strong validity of the scale (Crisp, 2009). ...
    ... A Likert 5 point scale was used to calculate the scores (Crisp, 2009). There are evi- dences of strong validity of the scale (Crisp, 2009). SPSS (22.0) statistical package was used for data analysis. ...
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  • ... Research has shown the significant benefits of mentoring in the organizations, so it is logi- cal to accept that it also benets students in business school. Researches indicate that mentoring is important not only for busi- ness people but equally for students (Crisp, 2009;Lockwood, 2006;Gilbert, 1985;Dreher &Cox., 1996;Nora & Crisp, 2007). Mentoring has been deseribed as ''a for- malized process in which a more experi- enced individual play a supportive role of supervisor, motivator for learning with a less experienced and knowledgeable individual, to facilitate personal and professional progress" (Roberts, 2000). ...
    ... The scale is confined to four factors: Psy- chological and Emotional Support (eight items), Degree and Career Sup- port (six items), Academic Subject Knowledge (five items), and Existence of a Role Model (six items). A Likert 5 point scale was used to calculate the scores (Crisp, 2009). There are evi- dences of strong validity of the scale (Crisp, 2009). ...
    ... A Likert 5 point scale was used to calculate the scores (Crisp, 2009). There are evi- dences of strong validity of the scale (Crisp, 2009). SPSS (22.0) statistical package was used for data analysis. ...
    Research
    This paper explores the linkage between R&D spillovers and productivity for a sample of Indian manufacturing firms for the period 2001- 2012. The R&D spillovers is defined as the function of R&D (R&D, royalty and technical know-how) and information and communication technology (ICT). We consider two measures of productivity, namely total factor productivity (TFP) and labor productivity for analysis. Our results show that ICT, R&D and technical know-how impact TFP. For labor productivity, our results demonstrate that firms that are engaged in ICT and invest in technical know how, are more productive than others. Thus, Indian manufacturing firms need to invest in information and communication technology, R&D and technical know-how to enhance their productivity. There are strong linkages among ICT, R&D, technical know-how and productivity
  • ... Research has shown the significant benefits of mentoring in the organizations, so it is logical to accept that it also benets students in business school. Researches indicate that mentoring is important not only for business people but equally for students (Crisp, 2009; Lockwood, 2006; Gilbert, 1985; Dreher &Cox., 1996; Nora & Crisp, 2007). Mentoring has been deseribed as ''a formalized process in which a more experienced individual play a supportive role of supervisor, motivator for learning with a less experienced and knowledgeable individual, to facilitate personal and professional progress " (Roberts, 2000). ...
    ... The scale is confined to four factors: Psychological and Emotional Support (eight items), Degree and Career Support (six items), Academic Subject Knowledge (five items), and Existence of a Role Model (six items). A Likert 5 point scale was used to calculate the scores (Crisp, 2009 ). There are evidences of strong validity of the scale (Crisp, 2009). ...
    ... A Likert 5 point scale was used to calculate the scores (Crisp, 2009 ). There are evidences of strong validity of the scale (Crisp, 2009). SPSS (22.0) statistical package was used for data analysis. ...
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    This paper assesses the role of trade unions in economic reforms in India. The study looks at labor market reforms as the area of negotiation and conflict to determine the role of trade unions in reforms. The paper argues that the importance of trade union as an interest group impeding reform is overstated. In fact all available evidence points to the failure of trade unions to protect the interests of organized sector leading to emaciated labor. What is conceived as union strength is actually partisan political dynamics operating through the unions. It is not the independent strength of trade union but the location in wider politics that determines its relevance in reform process.
  • ... For instance, in the higher education literature, the absence of a consistent or comprehensive definition or operational definition of mentoring has repeatedly been acknowledged as a limitation of research attempting to relate mentoring to outcomes (e.g., Dickey, 1996; Johnson, 1989; Miller, 2002; Rodriguez, 1995). In addition, the large majority of mentoring research to date has focused on students attending four-year institutions rather than on students attending community colleges (Crisp, 2009). As such, although the literature on student persistence is extensive (e.g., Arbona & Nora, 2007; Braxton, 2000; Cabrera, Nora, & Castaneda, 1993; Cox & Orehovec, 2007; Locks, Hurtado, Bowman, & Oseguera, 2008; Ostrove & Long, 2007; Rhee, 2008), researchers continue to call for additional persistence research/ theory specific to community college students (Bailey & Alfonso, 2005; Pascarella, 1999; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1998; Wild & Ebbers, 2002). ...
    ... Students may experience these forms of support in or out of a formal mentoring program, from one or more persons in the student's life. Nora and Crisp's (2007) mentoring theory has since been validated for representative samples of undergraduate students attending both a community college and a four-year institution using the College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS) (Crisp, 2009; Crisp & Cruz, forthcoming). ...
    ... I chose items and scales based on prior research documenting their validity and reliability (Bean, 1980; Bean & Metzner, 1985; Crisp, 2009; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1980; Tinto, 1975 Tinto, , 1993). Survey responses were measured using a Likert scale, ranging from " strongly agree " (1) to " strongly disagree " (5). ...
    Article
    This study examines the influence of a conceptually valid mentoring experience on community college students' persistence decisions. Participants were selected from a random sample of core courses offered in the fall of 2006 at a community college in the south-central area of the United States (n = 320). Results of the structural equation modeling analysis indicate that mentoring significantly predicted the degree to which students became socially and academically integrated. Mentoring was also found to indirectly influence students' intent to persist, as mediated by their commitment to earning a college degree. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
  • ... Another quantitative approach by Scandura and her associates (using actual received mentoring) could separate role modeling as a third distinct factor ( Castro, Scandura, & Williams, 2004;Scandura & Ragins, 1993;Scandura, 1992;Williams, 1999). In mentoring for college success, even four functions were identified ( Nora & Crisp, 2007) and confirmed for their construct validity of interpretation ( Crisp, 2009): (a) setting goals and choosing a career path, (b) supporting a mentee psychologically and emotionally, (c) being a role model, and (d) advancing academic subject knowledge. Subsequently, it was argued that these four functions also apply to the field of creativity ( Kim & Zabelina, 2011). ...
    ... A comparison with other quantitative studies shows that our results are in line with mentoring functions in college or organizational settings. Although a function concerned with advancing a mentee's domain relevant skills and knowledge plays no role in models of mentoring in business context, our finding of such a function is consistent with findings in college contexts labeled as "academic subject knowledge support" ( Crisp, 2009;Nora & Crisp, 2007) 3. The same applies for a function concerned with psychological and emotional support ( Crisp, 2009;Nora & Crisp, 2007), which is also known from models of mentoring in business context ( Kram, 1983;Scandura & Ragins, 1993). Similarly to other quantitative studies ( Crisp, 2009;Scandura & Ragins, 1993), we found role-modeling as an own distinct factor separated from psychosocial support. ...
    ... A comparison with other quantitative studies shows that our results are in line with mentoring functions in college or organizational settings. Although a function concerned with advancing a mentee's domain relevant skills and knowledge plays no role in models of mentoring in business context, our finding of such a function is consistent with findings in college contexts labeled as "academic subject knowledge support" ( Crisp, 2009;Nora & Crisp, 2007) 3. The same applies for a function concerned with psychological and emotional support ( Crisp, 2009;Nora & Crisp, 2007), which is also known from models of mentoring in business context ( Kram, 1983;Scandura & Ragins, 1993). Similarly to other quantitative studies ( Crisp, 2009;Scandura & Ragins, 1993), we found role-modeling as an own distinct factor separated from psychosocial support. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    There are different functions a mentor can perform for a mentee. The literature on mentoring creativity reveals many proposed functions for mentees’ creativity, like advancing relevant skills, role modeling, and career-related and psychosocial support. However, only qualitative studies have actually investigated how different functions each contribute specifically to mentees’ creativity. Accordingly, research has broadly discussed “mentoring works,” but no quantitative study has looked further into mentoring functions for the field of creativity. We investigated the association between these functions and creativity in an online study with 161 participants, including artists, writers, and scientists, using existing items from 2 mentoring scales. Additionally, we measured ability to be autonomously creative with a Self-Developed Scale. We first performed a factor analysis on mentoring items. Several distinguishable functions emerged: advancing domain-relevant skills, role modeling, interpersonal tensions, and career-related and psychosocial support. Creative autonomy was related to psychosocial support. Second, we investigated whether different mentoring functions are associated with everyday creativity and creative achievement, that is, checked for concurrent validity of interpretation. Surprisingly, functions proposed in the mentoring literature could not predict creative outcomes, but interpersonal tensions did for creative achievement. We hypothesize the results could be explained by a demanding achievement orientation of mentors or by arguing about ideas in non-hierarchical relationships.
  • ... Research has shown the significant benefits of mentoring in the organizations, so it is logical to accept that it also benets students in business school. Researches indicate that mentoring is important not only for business people but equally for students (Crisp, 2009; Lockwood, 2006; Gilbert, 1985; Dreher &Cox., 1996; Nora & Crisp, 2007). Mentoring has been deseribed as ''a formalized process in which a more experienced individual play a supportive role of supervisor, motivator for learning with a less experienced and knowledgeable individual, to facilitate personal and professional progress " (Roberts, 2000). ...
    ... The scale is confined to four factors: Psychological and Emotional Support (eight items), Degree and Career Support (six items), Academic Subject Knowledge (five items), and Existence of a Role Model (six items). A Likert 5 point scale was used to calculate the scores (Crisp, 2009 ). There are evidences of strong validity of the scale (Crisp, 2009). ...
    ... A Likert 5 point scale was used to calculate the scores (Crisp, 2009 ). There are evidences of strong validity of the scale (Crisp, 2009). SPSS (22.0) statistical package was used for data analysis. ...
  • ... ling, and friendship), and career functions (sponsorship, exposure/visibility, coaching, protection, and challenging assignments) (Kram, 1983; Schockett and Haring-Hidore, 1985). Career-related functions foster protégés' professional development; psychosocial functions increase self-efficacy, self-worth and professional identity (Eby et al., 2010). Crisp (2009) identified four domains of mentoring: (1) psychological/ emotional support; (2) support for goal setting and career choice; (3) academic support; and (4) role modeling. Two US studies described results of focus groups with novice (N = 23) and expert nurse educators (N = 11) in a formal mentoring program (White et al., 2010; Wilson et al ...
    ... " Early mentoring studies as well as recent reviews of the literature identified career/vocational functions of mentoring, which included educating, sharing ideas, knowledge and skills (Ehrich et al., 2004; Lechuga, 2011). Support for academic subject knowledge and academic success was one of four domains of mentoring (Crisp, 2009). Independence and collaboration were important to study participants . ...
    ... Role modeling, a theme in several workshops, is in keeping with the importance of mentor as role model identified in other studies. Role modeling was described as a psychosocial function of the mentoring relationship (Kram, 1983), and one of four domains of mentoring (Crisp, 2009). Self-disclosure by the mentor was identified as an element of role modeling (Crisp and Cruz, 2009). ...
    Article
    Despite the recognized importance of mentoring, little is known about specific mentoring behaviors that result in positive outcomes. To identify key components of an effective mentoring relationship identified by protégés-mentor dyads in an academic setting. In this qualitative study, purposive sampling resulted in geographic diversity and representation of a range of academic disciplines. Participants were from 12 universities in three regions of the U.S. (South, n=5; Northeast, n=4; Midwest, n=2) and Puerto Rico (n=1). Academic disciplines included natural sciences (51%), nursing/health sciences (31%), engineering (8%), and technology (1%). Twelve workshops using the Technology of Participation© method were held with 117 mentor-protégé dyads. Consensus was reached regarding the key components of an effective mentoring relationship. Conventional content analysis, in which coding categories were informed by the literature and derived directly from the data, was employed. Eight themes described key components of an effective mentoring relationship: (1) open communication and accessibility; (2) goals and challenges; (3) passion and inspiration; (4) caring personal relationship; (5) mutual respect and trust; (6) exchange of knowledge; (7) independence and collaboration; and (8) role modeling. Described within each theme are specific mentor-protégé behaviors and interactions, identified needs of both protégé and mentor in the relationship, and desirable personal qualities of mentor and protégé. Findings can inform a dialog between existing nurse mentor-protégé dyads as well as student nurses and faculty members considering a mentoring relationship. Nurse educators can evaluate and modify their mentoring behaviors as needed, thereby strengthening the mentor-protégé relationship to ensure positive outcomes of the learning process.
  • ... To assess college self­efficacy, students completed the College Self-Efficacy Inventory (Solberg, O'Brian, Villareal, Kennel, & Davis, 1993). Perceptions of mentoring support were assessed through the College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS; Crisp, 2009), and questions were added to learn about the students' specific mentors. Intent to persist was measured with Davidson, Beck and Milligan's (2009) College Persistence Questionnaire (CPQ). ...
    ... To assess college self­efficacy, students completed the College Self-Efficacy Inventory (Solberg, O' Brian, Villareal, Kennel, & Davis, 1993). Perceptions of mentoring support were assessed through the College Student Mentoring Scale (CSMS; Crisp, 2009), and questions were added to learn about the students' specific mentors. Intent to persist was measured with Davidson, Beck and Milligan's (2009) College Persistence Questionnaire (CPQ). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    We surveyed 237 first-time college students to examine the extent to which social-cognitive factors—self-efficacy, perceptions of mentorship, high school GPA, ACT scores, first-semester college GPA, and demographic characteristics—influence freshmen’s intent to persist. Standard multiple regression and MANOVA were conducted to determine the influence of the selected characteristics on intended persistence. The findings show that college self-efficacy and perceptions of mentorship were the strongest predictors for intentions to persist past the first college semester, whereas ACT, GPA and socioeconomic status did not predict intent to persist. Implications for freshmen retention at 4-year institutions and directions for future research are discussed.
  • ... Mentor–mentee relationship-quality mentee report. The college student mentoring scale (CSMS; Crisp, 2009) was used to assess first-year students' perceptions of how their mentor assisted them. We made several modifications to the CSMS to ensure its relevancy to our program: we excluded the degree and career support subscale items; we added nine new items related to advising (e.g. ...
    ... Mentees responded on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Because Crisp (2009) found that the CSMS subscales were highly correlated and a higher order factor analysis of the CSMS showed that the different types of support were recognized as a second-order construct of " mentoring, " a total CSMS score was obtained by averaging all 27 items (α = .98). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    In this mixed methods study, we employed thematic analysis (TA) to examine peer mentors’ perceptions of benefits, challenges, and roles they experienced as mentors, as well as benefits and challenges experienced by first-year college students. We also utilized quantitative student ratings to classify mentors as highly, moderately, or minimally supportive in order to determine whether any subthemes from the TA appeared more or less frequently across the three groups. Highly supportive mentors reported greater camaraderie among their seminar students and fewer unmotivated students, but also fewer opportunities to provide support to students. Moreover, mentors’ and students’ perceptions in the minimally supportive group were discrepant; mentors in this group consistently reported providing more support than was perceived by mentees.
  • ... It is noteworthy that nearly all of the mentoring studies to date have been conducted at 4-year institutions. Community colleges, for-profits, and technical colleges have been almost completely excluded from study (Crisp 2009). Although researchers have attempted to investigate the effects of mentoring on different student populations attending 4-year institutions, it is also not clear whether the results of studies utilizing minority, lowincome , or ''at risk'' students are generalizable to other 4-year students. ...
    ... Despite the absence of a comprehensive theory, four major domains or latent variables comprising the mentoring concept were identified by Nora and Crisp (2007) and recently validated using a community college population (Crisp 2009) as well as for undergraduate students attending a Hispanic Serving Institution (Crisp 2008). The four latent construct include: (1) psychological and emotional support, (2) support for setting goals and choosing a career path, (3) academic subject knowledge support aimed at advancing a student's knowledge relevant to their chosen field, and (4) specification of a role model. ...
    Article
    In response to the mounting national support provided to mentoring programs and initiatives in higher education, the present article updates a review article written by Jacobi (Rev Educ Res 61(4):505–532, 1991). The article revisits the mentoring literature in an attempt to re-frame and update the definition and characteristics of mentoring provided by Jacobi. It also synthesizes and critically analyzes empirical literature specific to mentoring college students published between 1990 and 2007. Finally, the article presents broad theoretical perspectives of mentoring from the business, psychology and education literature in preface to a proposed theoretical framework specific to mentoring college students. The article concludes with specific recommendations to advance the mentoring literature.
  • ... The CSMS items (Crisp, 2009 ) were derived from factors developed from the abovementioned theoretical framework (Nora & Crisp, 2007). The first latent construct, Psychological and Emotional Support, was measured by eight items related to encouraging the student to discuss problems, talking openly about personal issues, providing emotional support, and talking about social issues. ...
    ... An orthogonal (uncorrelated) four-factor solution was examined in the second model. Model 2 was also hypothesized to fit the data poorly as prior research has shown mentoring constructs to be highly correlated (Crisp, 2009). Finally, we tested the validity of the hypothesized theoretical framework (Nora & Crisp, 2007 ), suggesting that mentoring is perceived by students attending an HSI to comprise four previously identified interrelated constructs. ...
    Article
    The present study validated the underlying domains that comprise the mentoring experiences of students attending a Hispanic Serving Institution. Mentoring was hypothesized to comprise four interrelated components as measured by the College Student Mentoring Scale. T test results indicated different groups of students received similar mentoring experiences, whereas confirmatory factor analyses revealed the mentoring model was valid. The factor structure was found to be significantly different between White and Hispanic students.
  • ... While mentoring has had a long history in workplace settings to help newcomers acclimate and progress (Aryee & Chay, 1994; Darwin, 2000; Dreher & Ash, 1990; Hunt & Michael, 1983; Kram, 1988; Roche, 1979), it has more recently been an increasingly recurrent topic in educational circles (Crisp & Cruz, 2009). As research in both workplace and academic settings has shown, mentoring can transpire both informally and formally (Blake-Beard, 2001; Chao, Waltz, & Gardner, 1992; Cox, 2005). ...
    ... This last research seemed most promising for evaluating the mentoring work of the current initiative because of its reliance on a review of the literature (which included Jacobi and 3 Roberts) to isolate constructs, its operationalizing of the constructs for empirical research, and its confirmation of them through that research. These constructs later formed the basis for the College Student Mentoring Scale and were validated through empirical research (Crisp, 2009), making them particularly compelling for the current study. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This article examines a mentoring initiative that embedded advanced students in first-year composition courses to mentor students to excel to the best of their abilities. Mentors attended all classes along with students and conducted many out-of-class individual conferences, documenting each of them using program-implemented work logs. Four hundred four first-year students provided end-of-term anonymous feedback on standardized forms, which were transcribed, digitized, and tabulated for analysis. Analysis showed that the mentoring was effective in providing the four constructs key to mentoring as identified by Nora and Crisp (2008): psychological/emotional support; support for setting goals and choosing a career path; academic subject knowledge support aimed at advancing a student's knowledge relevant to his or her chosen field; specification of a role model. Analysis also revealed a key construct not mentioned by Nora and Crisp: the mentee's predisposition. Recommendations for implementing embedded mentoring for first-year students in other contexts follow the Discussion.
  • ... This implies that the conceptualisation in the business and organisation field has reached consensus and the situations of mentorship application are similar, i.e. staff development. In education, however, there are no universally recognised theoretical frameworks for mentoring (Crisp, 2009; Jacobi, 1991), although some are mentioned and used. For instance, Anderson and Shannon's (1988) construct of five functions of mentoring: teaching, sponsoring, encouraging, counselling, and befriending has often been cited and taken as a theoretical underpinning of educational mentoring scales (Rose, 2003), but this construct was not confirmed by Rose (2003). ...
    ... Cohen's six-function theoretical framework (Cohen, 1995) is often cited, but it was not fit for mentoring medical students (Rogers et al., 2005), nor mentoring general college students' (Lightfoot, 2000 ). A new four-factor framework (psychological and emotional support, degree and career support, academic subject knowledge support, and the existence of a role model) (Crisp, 2009) and a three-dimensional framework of PhD mentoring (integrity, guidance, and relationship) have emerged (Rose, 2003), but they need more testing. This suggests that, in education, mentorship is conceptualised differently as it is used in varying situations, such as mentoring of teaching staff, mentoring of college students, and mentoring of PhD students and that mentorship. ...
    Article
    Objectives: To review mentorship measurement tools in various fields to inform nursing educators on selection, application, and developing of mentoring instruments. Design: A literature review informed by PRISMA 2009 guidelines. Data sources: Six databases: CINHAL, Medline, PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, Business premier resource. Review methods: Search terms and strategies used: mentor* N3 (behav* or skill? or role? or activit? or function* or relation*) and (scale or tool or instrument or questionnaire or inventory). The time limiter was set from January 1985 to June 2015. Extracted data were content of instruments, samples, psychometrics, theoretical framework, and utility. An integrative review method was used. Results: Twenty-eight papers linked to 22 scales were located, seven from business and industry, 11 from education, 3 from health science, and 1 focused on research mentoring. Mentorship measurement was pioneered by business with a universally accepted theoretical framework, i.e. career function and psychosocial function, and the trend of scale development is developing: from focusing on the positive side of mentorship shifting to negative mentoring experiences and challenges. Nursing educators mainly used instruments from business to assess mentorship among nursing teachers. In education and nursing, measurement has taken to a more specialised focus: researchers in different contexts have developed scales to measure different specific aspects of mentorship. Most tools show psychometric evidence of content homogeneity and construct validity but lack more comprehensive and advanced tests. Conclusion: Mentorship is widely used and conceptualised differently in different fields and is less mature in nursing than in business. Measurement of mentorship is heading to a more specialised and comprehensive process. Business and education provided measurement tools to nursing educators to assess mentorship among staff, but a robust instrument to measure nursing students' mentorship is needed.
  • ... One aspect of compatibility is whether the mentee perceives the mentor as being approachable. Approachability, while a murky construct, has been identified as a desirable mentor characteristic for peer mentors in higher education (Crisp, 2009;Crisp & Cruz, 2009;Nora & Crisp , 2007), as well as in a variety of other settings (Cahill,1996;Clark, Harden, Johnson, 2000;Gray & Smith, 2000;Lima, 2004;Marshall & Gordon, 2005;Ramaswami & Dreher, 2010;Pitney& Ehlers, 2004;Rheineck & Roland, 2008;Rothera, Howkins, & Hendry, 1991). Predictably, research also identifies helpfulness as another characteristic of competent mentors (Allen, 2003;Penner, Fritzsche, Craiger, & Freifeld, 1995). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    One factor in a former mentee’s decision to become a mentor is thought to be satisfaction with the mentorship that the mentee experienced when being mentored, but the issue has been addressed in only a few studies. We studied the relationship between interest in becoming a mentor and indirect indicators of satisfaction, namely the quality of the mentee’s perceived experiences, among 509 peer mentored firstyear college students who completed an evaluation at the end of the year. The results affirm that relationship, but the effect size is very small.
  • ... Apart from teaching clarity, other in-class student-faculty interactions also contribute to undergraduate education. Crisp (2009) discussed the relationship between students and faculty, moving beyond the formal instruction that takes place during class. He distinguished four dimensions of this mentoring relationship: (1) psychological and emotional support, (2) degree and career support, (3) academic subject knowledge support, and (4) the existence of a role mode ...
  • ... Through a literature review of mentoring models, they identified four dimensions seemingly fundamental to the effective mentoring of undergraduates. Their tests of this conceptual model with a community college program (Crisp, 2009) and with undergraduates at a Hispanic serving institution (Crisp, 2008) validated the following latent variables as statistically reliable: educational/career goal setting and appraisal; emotional and psychological support; academic subject knowledge support; and existence of a role model. Their work, along with that of Cramer and Prentice-Dunn (2007), emphasizes the holistic foundations of effective undergraduate mentoring programs. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Little research has focused carefully on the means by which peer mentors foster development in undergraduate protégés. Two faculty members developed a holistic, peer-mentoring project in which 26 upperclassmen mentored 74 underclassmen at a midsize, 4-year institution. Mentor journal notes, open-ended protégé responses, and participant observations were analyzed using a grounded theory approach, resulting in the emergence of 7 themes of mentor service activity. Findings expand our understanding of the mechanics through which peer mentors successfully serve and foster the development of early undergraduates in making the transition to college. Results can be used to facilitate the transition of academically underprepared undergraduates, who have the lowest retention rates.
  • ... Based upon their extensive review of the literature on undergraduate mentoring programs, they developed and proposed a comprehensive conceptual framework of four domains that they believed formed the multidimensional foundation of any effective mentoring experience for undergraduates. Nora and Crisp (2007) validated their mentoring framework with two college populations (Crisp, 2008Crisp, , 2009). The conceptual framework includes the following domains: (a) psychological/emotional support, (b) goal setting and career pathing, (c) academic subject knowledge support, and (d) specification of a role model. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Two faculty members developed and implemented a successful, holistic, goal-oriented peer-mentoring project for two years at a midsize, urban university to enhance student success and retention. In year one, 12 juniors and seniors mentored 34 freshmen and sophomores; in year two, 14 upperclassmen mentored 40 underclassmen. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze goal-progress tracking data, postintervention survey data self-reported by protégés, and mentor journals. The following six themes emerged from this data analysis: academic skills and knowledge, career decision-making, connectedness to others, maturity, physical well-being, and aspiration. Findings advance our summary understanding of the context in which students may grow and develop because of holistic mentoring, understanding that may have value in informing the intelligent design of future mentoring experiences. Results also support program efficacy, from an overall standpoint as well as regarding improvements from the year one to year two versions of the program.
  • ... There are studies that support the notion that students desire, and will do better with, a mentor of the same gender and ethnicity, which some found can be more important for STEM students; however, some have discovered that gender does not play a significant role in successful mentorship (Blake-Beard, Bayne, Crosby, & Muller, 2011; Ragins & McFarlin, 1990; Sosik & Godshalk, 2000). The Mentoring Model developed by Nora and Crisp (2007) is the conceptual framework guiding this study, which was also validated with a community college sample (Crisp, 2009 & Crisp, 2007). The survey questions used in this study were designed to include elements of the four latent constructs to aid in determining what latent profile students are categorized in with the goal of providing targeted support. ...
  • ... Despite the need for such a measure, no widely established assessment exists. The College Student Mentoring Scale (Crisp, 2009) has been used in community college samples, but its factor structure was not as robust among students at a doctoral- granting institution (Crisp & Cruz, 2009). In a previous study (Gullan et al., 2016), we used developmental theory (see Baxter Magolda, 2009;Kegan, 1994) to develop a number of items that assess college students' experience being mentored, and we empirically derived the Mentor Relationship Assessment (MRA), an internally reliable 24 ...
  • ... If a student was not turning in assignments or attending class, the teaching assistant reached out to the student. We asked students to complete a subset of questions from the College Student Mentoring Scale ( Crisp, 2009) in order to assess the extent to which we successfully established a mentoring relationship between the students and the teaching assistants. We measured the extent to which the teaching assistant served as a role model, provided emotional and psychological support, and provided support for academic goals using a 5-point Likert-type scale. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Many students begin their college experience enrolled in large introductory classes. These classes are likely to enroll students who are at risk of leaving college without a degree. As such, these classes have the potential to reach at-risk students including first-year, first-generation, undeclared, and underrepresented minority (URM) students. Unfortunately, large lecture classes can make it difficult for students to develop meaningful relationships with faculty members or peers, even though it is known that the presence of strong faculty-student relationships predicts student engagement (Jaasma & Koper, 1999). One route to engaging students is the intentional use of evidence-based pedagogical practices. There have been substantial efforts to improve large lecture classes through the strategic use of discussion sections, active learning, and varied forms of assessment. Additionally, efforts to increase students’ engagement and persistence have taken place outside of the classroom. We believe that some evidence-based practices developed outside the classroom are ripe for use in large lectures. In the current paper we describe an integration of academic content with practices that support student engagement and success in a large general education course, Child Development. We begin with a brief description of the class, as it was before modification and as it is now. We then summarize some of the literature that describes evidenced-based methods of supporting at-risk students and explain how we have used this literature to inform our alignment of pedagogical practices with pedagogical goals. We share means of authentic assessment used in this course that target academic mastery and student well-being during and after the course’s completion. Throughout this discussion we report on early indications that our modifications have met our intended goals. We conclude by considering principles that might guide redesign of other large classes.
  • ... Studies of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and similar initiatives show that participating students have greater odds than non-participating students of persisting and succeeding in introductory science and math courses, earning higher GPAs, graduating with a STEM major, and pursuing STEM-related education or career paths after graduation, after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and high school achievement (Barlow and Villarejo, 2004;Slovaceket al., 2012;Villarejo and Barlow, 2007). When considered holistically, these programs offer a full complement of mentoring functions, including the provision of psychosocial, role model, academic, and career-related support (Crisp, 2009;Nora and Crisp, 2007). Our review of scholarship on undergraduate mentoring identified an increasing number of mentoring programs and empirical work focused toward groups that have been traditionally underrepresented and underserved in higher education systems. ...
    Chapter
    Full-text available
  • ... Acevedo-Gil and Zerquera' s work in this volume suggests that key individuals including advisors, faculty, and peers play a central role in shaping students' experiences with practices and programs. These findings suggest that various forms of mentoring support (Crisp, 2009 ) should be given consideration and examination as a promising practice/program. Finally, drawing from CHAT and other sociological and ecological theories, I recommend attention be provided to developing a deeper theoretical and empirical understanding how the college environment/context and institutional conditions are serving to promote or inhibit students' experiences and subsequent programmatic outcomes. ...
    Book
    The volume presents a compendium of the latest research and resources for practitioners regarding programs and practices in community colleges that many refer to as promising or high-impact practices (HIPs). These include learning communities, orientation, first-year seminars, supplemental instruction, among many others—interventions that have been described and implemented to various degrees for many years. The issue brings together perspectives from researchers and practitioners including those representing centers and federally-funded projects seeking to build knowledge around student success in community colleges (namely, Achieving the Dream, the Community College Research Center, the Center for Community College Student Engagement, the National Resource Center for the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition, and the National Council for Instructional Administrators). The volume will be of interest to community college administrators, staff and faculty as well as academic scholars engaged in community college scholarship.
  • ... Acevedo-Gil and Zerquera' s work in this volume suggests that key individuals including advisors, faculty, and peers play a central role in shaping students' experiences with practices and programs. These findings suggest that various forms of mentoring support (Crisp, 2009) should be given consideration and examination as a promising practice/program. Finally, drawing from CHAT and other sociological and ecological theories, I recommend attention be provided to developing a deeper theoretical and empirical understanding how the college environment/context and institutional conditions are serving to promote or inhibit students' experiences and subsequent programmatic outcomes. ...
  • ... There was no evidence that there were any differences between the three participation groups with respect to students' perceived ease of transitioning, nor were there any relationships between any of the transitioning questions and attendance. Mentoring programs that provide transitioning support are addressing the emotional and psychological (Crisp, 2009; Jacobi, 1991) or psychosocial (Kram & Isabella, 1985; Swenson, Nordstrom, & Hiester, 2008) needs of participants. Only four questions from the available survey data addressed issues related to transitioning. ...
    Article
    A peer-mentoring program was developed for students in an introductory biology course at a university in Ontario, Canada. Students could attend up to five peer-mentoring sessions during their first semester. Quantitative-survey, participation, and academic data spanning from 2003 through 2007 were reviewed for the purpose of evaluating the program. An objectives-oriented approach was used to determine if the program was meeting its goals to improve students’ introductory biology grades, facilitate transitioning experiences, and encourage students to pursue studies in biology. Data analysis revealed that students who participated in the program felt that it was a valuable experience. Students attending three or more sessions performed significantly better in their introductory biology courses, measured by final grades achieved, than those attending fewer sessions. There were no indications that the peer-mentoring program had any impact on students’ perceptions of transitioning to university or on their program selection preferences. Recommendations are made to improve the peer-mentoring program to better align its components and objectives.Un programme de mentorat par les pairs destiné aux étudiants qui suivent un cours d'introduction à la biologie a été implanter dans un université situé dans la province de l’Ontario. Les étudiants avaient accès à cinq séances de mentorat par les pairs au cours du premier semestre. Afin d’évaluer le programme, les chercheurs ont effectué des sondages quantitatifs, examiné la participation et les notes des étudiants entre 2003 et 2007. Ils ont utilisé une méthode axée sur les objectifs afin de déterminer si le programme atteignait ses objectifs qui consistaient à améliorer les notes des étudiants au cours d’introduction à la biologie, à faciliter leur transition et à les encourager à poursuivre des études en biologie. L'analyse des données révèle que les étudiants qui ont participé au programme de mentorat, l’ont trouvé utile. Les notes des étudiants qui ont participé à trois ou quatre séances étaient considérablement plus élevées que celles de ceux qui ont assisté à moins de séances. Rien n’indique que le programme de mentorat par les pairs influe sur la perception des étudiants en ce qui a trait à la transition vers l’université ni sur leurs préférences en matière de choix de programmes. Les chercheurs recommandent d’améliorer le programme de mentorat afin de mieux harmoniser ses composantes et ses objectifs.
  • ... (Continued) & Younger, 2014; CCCSE, 2012; Cho & Karp, 2013; Crisp, 2009; Crisp & Taggart, 2013; Hatch & Bohlig, 2016; Jaggars, Hodara, Cho, & Xu, 2014; Karp, Raufman, Efthimiou, & Ritze, 2015; Kuh, 2008; Melguizo, Kienzl, & Kosiewicz, 2013; Mitchell, Alozie, & Wathington, 2015; Taggart & Crisp, 2011; Weiss et al., 2014. ...
    Chapter
    In this chapter, we seek to lay groundwork for the remainder of the volume with what should be a straightforward task but in the end was among the more difficult aspects of compiling this volume: identifying and describing high-impact and promising practices. Rather than an exhaustive accounting of the ways practices have been grouped and defined (see Hatch, Chapter 2, for an abbreviated history), we frame our descriptions around what we see as key features that serve to both distinguish and connect practices and offer a map to illustrate these key features and relationships. In describing practices , we bring attention to what we see to be issues and considerations of complementary and divergent definitions for practice, research, and policy.
  • Article
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how postsecondary mentoring programs address mentee dispositions prior to the mentee entering the reciprocal relationship, particularly which mentee dispositions are valued across mentoring program types, including peer, community-to-student, faculty-to-student and faculty-to-faculty programs. Design/methodology/approach This study employed quantitative content analysis to examine 280 institutional US postsecondary mentoring websites across four different institution types (public, four-year; private, four-year, non-profit; private, four-year, for-profit; public, two-year) and four different mentoring program types (peer or student-to-student, community-to-student, faculty-to-student and faculty-to-faculty programs). Grounded coding strategies were employed to generate these four mentoring program types, supported by extant research (Crisp et al., 2017). Findings Of 280 mentoring programs, 18.6 percent articulated mentee dispositions prior to entering the reciprocal relationship. When mentoring programs did address mentees, most programs articulated mentor duties aligned with mentee expectations (47.5 percent of programs) and program outcomes for mentees (65.7 percent of programs) rather than what the mentee can and should bring into a reciprocal relationship. Research limitations/implications This study is delimited by its sample size and its focus on institutional website content. Future studies should explore how mentoring programs recruit and retain mentees, as well as how website communications address the predispositions and fit of mentees within different types of mentoring programs. Practical implications This study provided evidence that many postsecondary mentoring programs in the USA may not be articulating programmatic expectations of mentees prior to the mentoring relationship. By failing to address mentee predispositions, mentoring programs may not be accurately assessing their mentor’s compatibility with their mentees, potentially leading to unproductive mentoring relationships. Originality/value This study affirms extant research (Black and Taylor, 2017) while connecting mentor- and coaching-focused literature to the discussion of a mentee dispositions scale or measurement akin to Crisp’s (2009) College Student Mentoring Scale and Searby’s (2014) mentoring mindset framework. This study also forwards an exploratory model of mentoring program inputs and outputs, envisioning both mentor and mentee characteristics as fundamental inputs for a mentoring program rather than traditional models that view mentors as inputs and mentee achievements as outputs (Crisp, 2009; Searby, 2014).
  • Article
    This chapter reviews multiple complementary and divergent descriptions of practices that have been identified as holding particular promise for high impact on college student success and offers a possible map of practices to illustrate key features and relationships.
  • Article
    Using survey data on the third cohort of scholarship recipients in the Washington State Achievers (WSA) program, this study first examined how the assignment of college mentor and student engagement in mentoring vary based on student and institutional characteristics and then examined the relationship between mentor assignment and different mentoring aspects of the WSA program and student persistence in college. The results from this project indicated that Asian American students were more likely to have an assigned college mentor and that Hispanic students were more likely than White students to turn to their college mentors for support and encouragement and had a higher level of perceived importance of their overall experiences with mentors. Among all WSA recipients, having an assigned college mentor was positively related to the probability of persisting in college; among those who had an assigned college mentor, the probability of persisting was positively associated with the extent to which the recipients turn to mentors for support and encouragement and with their perceived importance of experiences with mentors. Key wordsmentoring-encouragement-persistence
  • Article
    The increasing population of students engaging in online and digital spaces poses unique leadership development challenges in mentoring, coaching, and advising. This chapter discusses the importance of using digital spaces for leadership development and students’ sense of belonging.
  • Research
    Full-text available
    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple case study was to illuminate the prevalence and configurations of peer mentoring programs at Central California Community Colleges with emphasis on how the programs impacted student retention. The study's sample was drawn from ten campuses and five centers that operate within five California Community College districts serving approximately 90,000 students annually. Using purposeful sampling, the researcher interviewed five administrators from four campuses and three districts toward obtaining in-depth information about their peer mentoring programs. Eight of the 15 campuses in the subject pool offered a peer mentoring program. All peer mentoring programs were instituted since 2013, and most of the peer mentoring programs were instituted between 2014 and 2016. Diverse peer mentoring programs across sites and districts were instituted between 2013 and 2016. It was revealed that quantitative data to track how peer mentoring impacted retention had not been gathered. This recent proliferation of community college peer mentoring programs refuted the historical underutilization noted in the scholarly literature. Recommendations for future research and practice included investigating whether the Central California Community College peer mentoring program proliferation that was discovered holds true in other areas of the state or country, examining why more campuses in the subject pool did not establish peer mentoring programs, and using quantitative methods to evaluate the efficacy of community college peer mentoring programs. iv Acknowledgements
  • Conference Paper
    The purpose of this study aims to investigate the relationship between the gender differences and mentoring effectiveness. The study is a case study on basis; it employed a qualitative research approach. By investigating the perspectives of students of a selected private institute of technology, the results of the study hope to provide some valuable suggestions or implications for the future development of Taiwan's higher vocational education. These in turn will enable the domestic higher vocational education to become more competitive.
  • Article
    The final chapter of the issue provides a synthesis of the first eight chapters, offers conclusions and recommendations, and considers future directions regarding practices and programs with promise for high impact at community colleges around the country.
  • Article
    This study tested the extent to which student interaction with faculty, student peer teaching situations, student organization involvement, and discussion with diverse others contributed to self-reported learning for students involved in an ethnic-specific or multicultural student organization. The Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CCSEQ) was used to collect data from 239 students who were involved in an ethnic-specific or multicultural student organization at 1 of 12 different community colleges. Self-reported learning was reported in the following domains: general education, intellectual skills, science and technology, personal development, and career preparation. For each of the five learning outcomes, frequent interaction with faculty was the strongest predictor in the model. Engagement with peers contributed to most outcomes, but not as strongly as student-faculty interaction. Thus, the study extends the contribution of faculty interaction to the arena outside the classroom and suggests further research about the ways student-faculty interaction benefits students at the community college level.
  • Article
    In this study, campus involvement, faculty mentorship, motivational beliefs (self-efficacy and utility value), and sense of belonging were examined as potential predictors of African-American college student academic persistence. Participants (n = 139) in the study were African-American college students from a large-urban university. Separate analyses were conducted to predict two related aspects of student persistence. A multiple linear regression was used to predict self-reported student persistence and a logistic regression was used to predict actual enrollment in the following semester. Results indicated that utility value was the only significant predictor of self-reported persistence. Surprisingly, results of the logistic regression indicated that students who reported having higher levels of self-efficacy in the fall were less likely to enroll in the subsequent spring semester. Findings in this study add to the body of research on college student persistence.
  • Article
    This manuscript investigated the contributions of individual, interpersonal, and institutional factors on Latina/o college students’ life satisfaction. Participants included 130 Latina/o students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution. Results indicated that search for meaning in life, mentoring, and family support were significant predictors of life satisfaction. Researchers provide implications for counselors and psychologists.
  • Article
    Background /Context: Past research has focused on benefits that students reap from mentoring, but less attention has been focused on the faculty experience. Studies on faculty and mentorship tend to highlight the costs that can negatively influence faculty productivity rather than addressing any benefits they may accrue. Black faculty may be at particularly high risk for these challenges, considering their high rates of service and mentorship. By examining the nature of mentoring, this study clarifies how certain types of developmental relationships may distract, but also potentially contribute to the scholarly success of, Black professors. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The purpose of this study is to explore how Black faculty experience and perceive specific types of interactions within their mentoring relationships, especially in relation to their scholarly productivity. Setting: Data were collected at two large predominantly White research universities of similar size, type, and mission: Oceanside University and Column University (pseudonyms). Population/Participants/Subjects: A total of 17 Oceanside professors (10 males, 7 females) and 11 Column professors (6 males, 5 females) agreed to participate. Five participants were assistant, II were associate, and 12 were full professors. The largest proportion of faculty taught in the social sciences (n = 12), followed by professional programs (n = 5). Research Design: This research u a qualitative multi-case study that uses pattern matching to analyze transcripts of 60- to 9- minute interviews with faculty participants. Findings/Results: Interactions with students were perceived as having both costs and benefits, which had varying influence on productivity based on the type of interaction between the faculty member and the student. (Collaborative activities (productive exchanges) have the potential to increase faculty productivity; however, interactions that are focused primarily on student development (generalized exchanges) can be rewarding, yet appear more likely to distract from research and limit scholarly productivity. Conclusions /Recommendations: Although Black professors participating m this study perceived themselves as more likely to counsel students (generalized exchanges), they did not note that they were more likely to collaborate with students, particularly on research. Thus, rather than suggesting that Black faculty haw slower rates of advancement and higher rates of attrition because they spend too much time working with students, this study suggests that perhaps their diminished outcomes stem from both frequency and form of interaction. Findings suggest that policy makers and institutional leaders, in addition to supporting Black professors as they work with students, could consider ways to foster the ability of Black professors to simultaneously counsel and collaborate with students as they develop strategies to encourage faculty promotion and retention.
  • Article
    Cross-cultural mentoring relationships between younger mentors and older mentees are increasing in frequency across all levels of post-secondary education. Generational cultural differences can result in conflict and misunderstanding and therefore should be considered in non-traditional inter-generational mentoring relationships. Through auto-ethnographic inquiry, we, a younger faculty member and older graduate student, explored our mentoring relationship. We identified communication, respect, and ambiguous roles as issues that significantly impacted our mentorship. The manifestation of power was also highlighted in the study.
  • Article
    Although researchers support the notion that college- and university-sponsored mentoring programs effectively academically transition and retain postsecondary students from a variety of sociocultural backgrounds, researchers have not examined how mentoring programs address the ‘mentorability’ or the ‘ability to be mentored’ of their mentees. Employing a quantitative content analysis, we examined postsecondary mentoring program websites (n= 187) at public, four-year institutions in Texas (n = 44). Findings suggest only 19% of all mentoring programs address ‘mentorability’ by defining mentee characteristics and expectations, compared to 37% of all mentoring programs which define mentor characteristics and expectations. Furthermore, only 4% of mentoring program websites included mentee applications, and mentoring programs were four times more likely to address their mentors (1,023 occurrences) than ‘mentees/protégés’ (237 occurrences), speaking to the lack of focus on mentee ‘mentorability.’ Implications for practitioners and future research is addressed.
  • Article
    Mentoring is used in a wide range of situations in education: to assist learning; to help weaker students or those with specific learning needs or difficulties; to develop community or business links; to aid the inclusion of pupils otherwise at risk of exclusion; to develop ethnic links; to enable students to benefit from the support of their peers, to name but a few. The development and proliferation of mentoring and mentoring schemes in education over the last few years has been dramatic, and presents teachers, school managers and leaders, as well as mentors themselves with a challenge. This book presents all mentors plus anyone working with young people with an invaluable guide to approaches to mentoring today. It looks at mentoring as a concept, at what mentoring is, how it is done well and how it can be made more effective. Written by a leading expert on mentoring, this practical and relevant handbook is backed up throughout by inspiring and relevant case studies and examples from schools and schemes internationally.
  • Article
    A student development theory based on student involvement is presented and described, and the implications for practice and research are discussed.
  • Article
    The literatures on the social influence of referent others suggest four questions that need to be answered: (1) Who are the influential persons? (2) What types of influence are used? (3) What is the nature of the influence process? and (4) Are the effects of social influence substantial and independent of other forces? Data from a longitudinal study of the persistence in college of first-year undergraduates at a large, midwestern state university were analyzed to determine answers to these questions. With ability levels, grades, academic majors, and many other characteristics of students controlled, effects of social influences on students' persistence remained significant. Parents and peers were found to have stronger influences than were the faculty on the persistence of students. Normative influences were found to have stronger effects than were modeling influences, and these two types of influence had both direct effects on persistence and indirect, internalized effects through students' behavioral intentions.
  • Article
    The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
  • Article
    To promote the academic success of and to retain students of color, the College of Education at Kutztown University, Kutztown, Pennsylvania, has designed and implemented the Adventor Program, an intervention initiative fusing academic advising and mentoring into a proactive model. The program's rationale and the pilot year's findings are presented.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Many students do not receive the adequate academic and social support during their enrollment in a higher education institution that could positively impact their abilities to succeed in college (Astin, 1984; Hurtado & Carter, 1997; Nora, 1987; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991). These support systems can be viewed as providing a holistic mentoring experience to students. Because of the many possible benefits to be derived from mentoring, the study of effective mentoring of undergraduates is paramount. Unfortunately, the utility of existing mentoring studies is limited due to definitional, methodological, and theoretical flaws (Jacobi, 1991). The purpose of the present study was to identify the multi-dimensions associated with mentoring through a proposed conceptual framework. Four major domains were identified in the literature: 1) psychological or emotional support, 2) goal setting and career paths, 3) academic subject knowledge support, and 4) the existence of a role model. Secondary data were analyzed from a sample of 200 students at a two-year institution in the south-central area of the United States in the 1997 academic year. Three statistically reliable latent variables (educational/ career goal-setting and appraisal, emotional and psychological support, academic subject knowledge support aimed at advancing a student's knowledge relevant to their chosen field) were identified as comprising the mentoring experiences of the survey participants. Findings suggest that mentoring programs aimed at providing experiences designed to assist students in adjusting to college life and becoming fully engaged in classroom and out-of-class activities should focus on providing support for the latent variables identified.
  • Article
    We present an evaluation of a freshman block registration and mentoring program at a major state university. In an effort to improve retention, the University initiated a freshman block registration and mentoring program in the fall of 1994. The program was developed to strengthen social support, which we hypothesize leads to higher rates of persistence. We present the effects of the program on retention and academic performance for successive cohorts from 1994 through 1998. Academic performance and retention rates are used as outcome measures and are related to student and university characteristics. We describe the nature of the program and the impact that it has on persistence (survival times), grades, and graduation. Our analysis uses event history models (follow back life tables and Discrete-Time Logit Models).
  • Article
    Despite a growing body of research about mentoring, definitional, theoretical, and methodological deficiencies reduce the usefulness of existing research. This article provides a critical review of the literature on mentoring, with an emphasis on the links between mentoring and undergraduate academic success. The first section describes a variety of ways in which mentoring has been defined within higher education, management, and psychology. Issues related to developing a standard operational definition of mentoring within higher education are discussed. The second section provides a critical review of empirical research about mentoring and undergraduate education. The third section describes four different theoretical perspectives that could be used in future research about mentoring. Finally, future directions for research, including methodological issues and substantive concerns, are addressed.
  • Article
    This paper details the outcomes of an exploration to describe what the mentoring concept is and how it may best be communicated. The rationale is twofold: firstly, on a personal level, despite being a mentor and researching mentoring for several years, I still found describing and sharing explanations of mentoring with others difficult to achieve with any degree of consensus. Without such a consensus, how may we ever know that we are talking about the same thing? Secondly, my own confidence in what mentoring may be was affected by discovering that the claimed origins of the very term were erroneous. As a consequence, a phenomenological reduction—whereby the inquirer 'brackets' any suppositions and previously thought knowledge prior to exploration—was deployed in order to review a sample of mentoring research and debate covering a time period 1978-1999 across several disciplines. Mentoring appears to have the essential attributes of: a process; a supportive relationship; a helping process; a teaching-learning process; a reflective process; a career development process; a formalised process; and a role constructed by or for a mentor. The contingent attributes of the mentoring phenomenon appear as: coaching; sponsoring; role modelling; assessing; and an informal process. In addition, the consequences of the concept were explored, and a lexical definition of mentoring offered. This paper concludes that if we are ever to address the question; 'if we do not agree on what mentoring is, how do we know if we are talking about the same thing?' then attention to and exploration and discussion of our perceptions of the concept may be a suitable starting point.
  • This paper sets out to look at the processes of mentoring from the perspectives of adult mentors who were interviewed as part of a wider study of young people's perceptions and understandings of informal mentoring processes. It seeks to clarify the processes of mentoring within the context of the ‘risk society’ by posing the question, how do young people and mentors perceive these processes? What do mentors get out of the mentoring relationship? Findings from a qualitative study of informal mentoring relationships are drawn on to suggest that the mentors perceive the experience of being identified as a mentor and the processes of mentoring in highly positive terms. It is argued that this provides a form of ‘cultural capital for mentors’ in helping them to make sense of the challenges and dilemmas they face as adults. It is concluded that this finding has important implications for the design of mentoring interventions with young people. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Article
    In this article, I report on high-achieving African American students' perceptions of the importance of a mentor, their definition of a good mentor, and ways in which mentoring aided them in reaching their academic potential.
  • Article
    The purpose of the present study was to review the stories of 13 academically successful Latino undergraduate students and explore the role that mentoring and sponsorship played in their lives. A qualitative analysis was conducted to examine the participants’ stories using two main descriptors of mentoring and sponsorship. Analyses indicated that participants engaged in more informal mentoring experiences in which family members, teachers and counselors served as mentors. Sponsorship was reported in the stories of some students. Most sponsors did not serve in a mentoring capacity. Sponsorship within the community provided financial support and networking opportunities for the students. The stories revealed that college mentoring and sponsorship positively impacted the students’ lives following college matriculation. Finally, suggestions for improving mentoring practices are presented.
  • Article
    This research examines students' interpretations of their experiences with mentoring in federal TRIO programs. Drawing on interviews with 20 student participants in Student Support Services, Educational Opportunity Center, and Veterans Upward Bound programs, analysis of the data suggests that formal mentoring relationships have the potential to impact students' decisions to attend, satisfaction with, and motivation to persist in postsecondary education. A critical analysis considers the roles mentoring can play in helping underrepresented students negotiate higher education environments.
  • Article
    This study examined the success and failure of mentoring programs based on interviews with representatives of 228 U.S. colleges. The types of mentoring programs identified are faculty to faculty, faculty to student, student to student, staff and administrators, alumni, and middle school. The study compiled the characteristics of program types (formal, semi-formal or informal), listed factors contributing to success, identified common reasons for failure, and assembled a list of considerations for those universities and community colleges contemplating the institution of such programs. The purposes of the programs are also considered. Recommendations for these programs, based on survey results, include funding considerations, developing contact and assessment guidelines, providing training for mentors, ensuring confidentiality, considering gender in matching participants, encouraging follow through by both parties, and including a risk free trial period. An appendix gives more detail on survey parameters. (JPB)
  • Article
    This paper summarizes a research study on women in three programs designed to recruit, retain, and graduate persons of color at the University of Minnesota. The literature on mentoring is reviewed in terms of social integration, academic integration, a supportive institutional climate, and quality mentoring. The study used qualitative case study methodology in interviews with students, faculty mentors, and administrators in the three mentoring programs, two of which (biological sciences and business administration) had limited minority participation and one (education) with relatively greater minority student and faculty representation. American Indian students were the focus of the program within the graduate school of business administration; all minorities and females within an intensive summer undergraduate workshop in biological sciences; and African Americans within the graduate program in education. Interviews examined how students, faculty, and administrators perceived the mentoring process, the climate at the University for persons of color, and how mentoring enriched students' experiences. Specific recommendations are offered to the regents; to the University president; to the vice presidents/administrators, deans, and departments; to the graduate school; to the faculty; and to graduate students. (Contains 29 references.) (MAH)
  • Article
    This volume presents indicators of important developments and trends in American education in 2003. Recurrent themes underscored by the indicators include participation and persistence in education, student performance and other outcomes, the environment for learning, and societal support for education. In addition, this volume contains a special analysis of children's reading achievement and classroom experiences in kindergarten and first grade, with a focus on the school, classroom, and home factors associated with the likelihood of children becoming good readers. Each section in the volume begins with a summary that presents the key point in the indicators to follow. All indicators contain a discussion, a single graph or table on the main indicator page, and one or more supplemental tables. All use the most recent national data available from the National Center for Education Statistics or other sources serving the purpose of the indicators. The volume's many topics are divided into six sections: (1) "Participation in Education"; (2) "Learner Outcomes"; (3) "Student Effort and Educational Progress"; (4) "Context of Elementary and Secondary Education"; (5) "Context of Postsecondary Education"; and (6) "Societal Support for Learning." Appended are supplemental tables, supplemental notes, standard error tables, and a glossary. (WFA)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Discusses how current goodness-of-fit indices fail to assess parsimony and hence disconfirmability of a model and are insensitive to misspecifications of causal relations (a) among latent variables when measurement model with many indicators is correct and (b) when causal relations corresponding to free parameters expected to be nonzero turn out to be zero or near zero. A discussion of philosophy of parsimony elucidates relations of parsimony to parameter estimation, disconfirmability, and goodness of fit. AGFI in {lisrel} is rejected. A method of adjusting goodness-of-fit indices by a parsimony ratio is described. Also discusses less biased estimates of goodness of fit and a relative normed-fit index for testing fit of structural model exclusive of the measurement model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Factor analysis, path analysis, structural equation modeling, and related multivariate statistical methods are based on maximum likelihood or generalized least squares estimation developed for covariance structure models (CSMs). Large-sample theory provides a chi-square goodness-of-fit test for comparing a model (M) against a general alternative M based on correlated variables. It is suggested that this comparison is insufficient for M evaluation. A general null M based on modified independence among variables is proposed as an additional reference point for the statistical and scientific evaluation of CSMs. Use of the null M in the context of a procedure that sequentially evaluates the statistical necessity of various sets of parameters places statistical methods in covariance structure analysis into a more complete framework. The concepts of ideal Ms and pseudo chi-square tests are introduced, and their roles in hypothesis testing are developed. The importance of supplementing statistical evaluation with incremental fit indices associated with the comparison of hierarchical Ms is also emphasized. Normed and nonnormed fit indices are developed and illustrated. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Demonstrates the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in testing 1st- and higher-order factor models and their invariance across independent groups, using a LISREL (linear structural relations) framework. Data from a study by the 1st author et al (see record 1985-09311-001) gathered from administration of the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ) to 658 Australian children in Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used to examine the factor structure. The original study tested theoretical predications about the structure of self-concept advanced by R. J. Shavelson et al (see record 1978-30429-001) and Shavelson and R. Bolus (see record 1982-22201-001). In the present demonstration, CFA indicated that the basic factor model hypothesized to underlie the SDQ provided a good fit to the data across 4 age groups. Model 5, which proposes that there are 2 academic factors at the 2nd-order level that combine with the nonacademic factor to form a General Self factor at the 3rd-order level, was found to provide the best fit. Means and standard deviations for the 28 subscales of the SDQ are appended. (63 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    "Mentoring at Work" is about relationships in organizations that enhance individuals' development in the early, middle, and later career years. What began as a study of mentor relationships between junior and senior managers in one corporate setting evolved into a program of research designed to clarify the nature of a variety of relationships between junior and senior colleagues, or between peers, who provide mentoring functions. The primary purpose is to present an intricate and realistic view of mentoring, to delineate its potential benefits and limitations, and to illustrate the various forms of developmental relationships that can exist in work settings. I have brought an open systems perspective to this project. This means that I assume that relationships are significantly affected by the context in which they evolve and by the expectations, needs, and skills that individuals bring to them. Thus, I set out to understand how individuals' career histories and current situations, as well as the surrounding organizational circumstances, have jointly shaped the essential characteristics and evolution of their relationships with mentors, proteges, and peers. Throughout this book I address three distinct audiences. First, for individuals at every career stage, I discuss a perspective on mentoring that I hope will discourage the "search for the right mentor" and encourage systematic self-diagnosis of relationship needs as well as strategies for building relationships that provide relevant developmental functions. Second, for practicing managers, I outline the major forces that must be taken into account when creating a context that stimulates an effective mentoring process. Finally, for human resource specialists and organizational researchers, I consolidate the available research to date and outline strategies for intervention and further research that will help improve the quality of worklife and organizational effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    This study examined the influence of protégé characteristics, gender composition of the mentoring relationship, the quality of the relationship, and the amount of time the protégé spent with the mentor on career and psychosocial benefits gained by the protégé. Protégés were assigned to mentors as part of a development program designed to facilitate personal and career development of educators. An instrument designed to assess the extent to which mentors provide career and psychosocial outcomes to protégés was developed. Protégé gender, job involvement, and career planning activity was related to attainment of psychosocial outcomes. Implications and future directions for research regarding mentoring are discussed.
  • Is mentoring today a vehicle for assimilation or pluralism? Institutions and individuals must explore their cultural assumptions and develop specific strategies for mentoring in a multicultural society.
  • Book
    Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models.
  • Article
    This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Mentoring can be an effective strategy in improving retention of college students and faculty from fields where historical underrepresentation has occurred. This article reviews the benefits of mentoring in higher education, and identifies components of effective mentoring strategies that promote educational and career advancement. It illustrates how effective programs can be institutionalized and scaled through consortial and national collaborations. Traditional and alternative mentoring models are described through four successful programs designed to increase the academic and professional success of undergraduates, graduate students, and junior faculty. The article concludes with a set of general recommendations and caveats gleaned from the literature and programs reviewed.
  • Article
    A university faculty/student mentor program was evaluated for its effects on academic performance and retention. A matched pairs design was used in which 339 undergraduates assigned to mentors were paired with nonmentored students based on gender, ethnicity, GPA, and entering enrollment status. The results showed a higher GPA for mentored students (2.45 vs. 2.29), more units completed per semester (9.33 vs. 8.49), and lower dropout rate (14.5% vs. 26.3%). Amount of mentor-protege contact was positively correlated with GPA. Academic achievement and retention were unrelated to gender and ethnicity of the mentor, the protg, or the gender and ethnic match between the two.
  • Article
    In response to the mounting national support provided to mentoring programs and initiatives in higher education, the present article updates a review article written by Jacobi (Rev Educ Res 61(4):505–532, 1991). The article revisits the mentoring literature in an attempt to re-frame and update the definition and characteristics of mentoring provided by Jacobi. It also synthesizes and critically analyzes empirical literature specific to mentoring college students published between 1990 and 2007. Finally, the article presents broad theoretical perspectives of mentoring from the business, psychology and education literature in preface to a proposed theoretical framework specific to mentoring college students. The article concludes with specific recommendations to advance the mentoring literature.
  • Article
    Thesis (Ed. D.)--Temple University, 1993. Abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 206-218).
  • Article
    Factor analysis, path analysis, structural equation modeling, and related multivariate statistical methods are based on maximum likelihood or generalized least squares estimation developed for covariance structure models. Large-sample theory provides a chi-square goodness-of-fit test for comparing a model against a general alternative model based on correlated variables. This model comparison is insufficient for model evaluation: In large samples virtually any model tends to be rejected as inadequate, and in small samples various competing models, if evaluated, might be equally acceptable. A general null model based on modified independence among variables is proposed to provide an additional reference point for the statistical and scientific evaluation of covariance structure models. Use of the null model in the context of a procedure that sequentially evaluates the statistical necessity of various sets of parameters places statistical methods in covariance structure analysis into a more complete framework. The concepts of ideal models and pseudo chi-square tests are introduced, and their roles in hypothesis testing are developed. The importance of supplementing statistical evaluation with incremental fit indices associated with the comparison of hierarchical models is also emphasized. Normed and nonnormed fit indices are developed and illustrated.
  • Article
    Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) are powerful extensions of path analysis, which was described in a previous article in this series. CFA differs from the more traditional exploratory factor analysis in that the relations among the variables are specified a priori, which permits more powerful tests of construct validity for scales. It can also be used to compare different versions of a scale (for example, English and French) and to determine whether the scale performs equivalently in different groups (for example, men and women). SEM expands on path analysis by allowing paths to be drawn between latent variables (which, in other techniques, are called factors or hypothetical constructs), that is, variables that are not seen directly but, rather, through their effect on observable variables, such as questionnaires and behavioural measures. Each latent variable and its associated measured variables form small CFAs, with the added advantage that the correlations among the variables can be corrected for the unreliability of the measures.
  • Mentoring programs The freshman year experience: Helping students survive and succeed in college
    • C S Johnson
    Johnson, C. S. (1989). Mentoring programs. In M. L. Upcraft & J. Gardner (Eds.), The freshman year experience: Helping students survive and succeed in college, (pp.118-128). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Mentoring in higher education: A descriptive case study
    • E Ross-Thomas
    • C E Bryant
    Ross-Thomas, E., & Bryant, C. E. (1994). Mentoring in higher education: A descriptive case study. Education, 115(1), 70-76.
  • Clearing a path for success: Deconstructing borders through undergraduate mentoring. The Review of Higher Education
    • D Wallace
    • R Abel
    • B R Ropers-Huilman
    Wallace, D., Abel, R., & Ropers-Huilman, B. R. (2000). Clearing a path for success: Deconstructing borders through undergraduate mentoring. The Review of Higher Education, 24(1), 87-102.
  • Empowering the faculty: Mentoring redirected and renewed
    • G Luna
    • D L Cullen
    Luna, G., & Cullen, D. L. (1995). Empowering the faculty: Mentoring redirected and renewed. ASHE­ERIC Higher Education Reports, 3, 1-87.
  • The principles of adult mentoring scale. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education
    • N H Cohen
    Cohen, N. H. (1995). The principles of adult mentoring scale. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 66, 15-32.
  • Proposed model of mentoring
    • M R Schockett
    • E Yoshimura
    • K Beyard-Taylor
    • J J Haring
    Schockett, M. R., Yoshimura, E., Beyard-Taylor, K., & Haring, J. J. (1983, April). Proposed model of mentoring. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.