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Wound healing activity of Sesamum indicum L seed and oil in rats


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The seeds of S. indicum L (Pedaliaceae) are used traditionally in the folklore for the treatment of various kinds of wounds. The present study was undertaken to verify the effect of S. indicum seeds and its oil on experimentally induced excision wound, incision wound, burn wound and dead space wound models in rats. Aloe vera was used as standard wound healing agent. A formulation of seeds and oil was prepared in carbopol at 2.5% and 5% concentrations and applied to the wounds. In the excision and burn wound models, the so treated animals showed significant reduction in period of epithelization and wound contraction (50%). In the incision wound model a significant increase in the breaking strength was observed. Seeds and oil treatment (250 mg and 500 mg/kg; po) in dead space wound model, produced a significant increase in the breaking strength, dry weight and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue. The results suggest that S. indicum seeds and oil applied topically or administered orally possesses wound healing activity.
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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 46 November 2008, pp. 777-782
Wound healing activity of Sesamum indicum L seed and oil in rats
Kotade Kiran & Mohammed Asad*
Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, 5, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India
Received 20 February 2008; revised 8 September 2008
The seeds of S. indicum L (Pedaliaceae) are used traditionally in the folklore for the treatment of various kinds of
wounds. The present study was undertaken to verify the effect of S. indicum seeds and its oil on experimentally induced
excision wound, incision wound, burn wound and dead space wound models in rats. Aloe vera was used as standard wound
healing agent. A formulation of seeds and oil was prepared in carbopol at 2.5% and 5% concentrations and applied to the
wounds. In the excision and burn wound models, the so treated animals showed significant reduction in period of
epithelization and wound contraction (50%). In the incision wound model a significant increase in the breaking strength was
observed. Seeds and oil treatment (250 mg and 500 mg/kg; po) in dead space wound model, produced a significant increase
in the breaking strength, dry weight and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue. The results suggest that S.
indicum seeds and oil applied topically or administered orally possesses wound healing activity.
Keywords: Burn wound, Dead space wound, Excision wound, Incision wound, Sesamum indicum L.
Wounds are inescapable events of life, which arise
due to physical injury, chemical injury or microbial
infections. Healing of wounds usually takes place in a
direction away from its normal course and under-
healing, over-healing or no healing of wounds is
common. Management of under healing of wounds is
a complicated and expensive program and research on
drugs that increase wound healing is a developing
area in modern biomedical sciences. Several drugs
obtained from plant sources are known to increase the
healing of different types of wounds. Though some of
these drugs have been screened scientifically for
evaluation of their wound healing activity in different
pharmacological models and patients, the potential of
many of the traditionally used herbal agents remains
unexplored. In few cases, active chemical constituents
were identified1.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L) is one of the oldest
cultivated plants in the world that is mainly grown for
its oil rich edible seeds. The seeds are widely used as
spice globally. Sesame seed may be the oldest
condiment known to man and probably was the first
crop grown for its edible oil2. The seeds possess
potent antioxidant effect due to the presence of
sesamol3-6. Traditionally, sesame seeds are used in the
treatment of wounds, especially burn wounds. In
Ahmednagar and Buldhana districts of Maharashtra
state (India), a paste of seeds is applied over the
wounds and it is believed that the paste possesses
soothing effect and can cure burn wounds and cracks.
There is no scientific report on the effect of sesame
seeds on the wounds. The present study has been
undertaken to ascertain the effect of sesame seeds and
sesame oil (the main constituent of the seeds) on
experimentally induced wounds in rats.
Materials and Methods
Experimental animals—Male albino Wistar rats
weighing between 250-275 g were used. The animals
were caged individually after wounding for treatment
till completion of wound healing. In each group of
different models six animals were used. The
experimental protocol was approved by Institutional
Animal Ethics Committee and animals were
maintained under standard conditions in an animal
house approved by Committee for the Purpose of
Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals
ChemicalsKetamine injection was procured from
Prem Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd. (Indore, India) and
xylazine was from Indian Immunological Ltd.
(Guntur, India). Hydroxyproline and paradimethyl-
amino benzaldehyde were procured from SD Fine
Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (Mumbai, India), sodium
hydroxide (NaOH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and
*Correspondent author
Telephone: +91-080-25535751
Fax: +91-80-51309161
copper sulphate (CuSO4) were purchased from Nice
Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (Mumbai, India), hydrochloric
acid (HCl) was obtained from Ranbaxy Fine
Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (Mumbai, India). Carbopol 940
was from Loba Chemie (Mumbai, India). Sesame
seeds packet (100 g; date of packing: April 2007; date
of expiry: March 2010) and double refined sesame oil
(500 ml; date of packing: June 2007; date of expiry:
June 2009) were purchased from local market (The
Food World, Bangalore). The seeds were observed
carefully for presence of contaminants and the
manufacturing date printed on the oil was not more
than six months from the date of start of study.
Voucher specimens of seeds and oil are kept in the
Selection of dose, gel base and treatment period—
No acute toxicity study was carried out as both the
seeds and oil are used as food and are considered to
be very safe. The doses for topical administration was
used based on the information provided by the
traditional healers and the oral dose was selected
assuming that seeds are very safe at a dose of 5 g/kg,
po as per limit tests of OECD guidelines7, 1/10th and
1/20th of the safe dose was used for oral
The sesame seeds contain around 60-70% oil8.
Hence, a water soluble base like carbopol containing
methyl paraben (0.01%) and propyl paraben (0.1%)
was selected as base for both seeds and oil for local
application as gel9.
Sesame seed (SSLD 2.5%), sesame oil (SOLD
2.5%) and sesame seed (SSHD 5%), sesame oil
(SOHD 5%) were selected as low and high dose
respectively in carbopol base. Since, modern medicine
uses mainly antibacterial agents for treatment of
wound, a herbal drug, Aloe vera (10%) in carbopol
was used as standard for topical application in
excision, incision and burn wound models10. The
methanolic extract of aloe contains all the chemical
constituents responsible for wound healing activity.
For oral administration, suspension of crushed sesame
seed (250 and 500 mg/kg) and emulsion of sesame oil
(250 and 500 mg/kg) was prepared using acacia (5%)
as suspending/
emulsifying agent. Aloe vera extract (300 mg/kg,
po)11 in the form of suspension (acacia 5%) was used
as standard drug. The treatment period was 10 days
for incision and dead space wound models and in
excision and burn wound models, the treatment was
continued till the day of scab falling.
Excision wound12,13—The animals were
anesthetized using ketamine (100 mg/kg, im) and
xylazine (16 mg/kg, im). An impression was made on
the dorsal thoracic region 1 cm away from vertebral
column and 5 cm away from ear on the anaesthetized
rat. The particular skin area was shaved one day prior
to the experiment. The skin of impressed area was
excised to the full thickness to obtain a wound area of
about 500 mm2. Haemostasis was achieved by
blotting the wound with cotton swab soaked in normal
saline. The animals were then grouped and different
formulations were applied to cover the entire
wounded area as follows: Group I: Carbopol (1%) gel
(control), Group II: Aloe vera extract (10%) gel
formulation, Group III: SOLD (2.5%), Group IV:
SOHD (5%.), Group V: SSLD (2.5%), Group VI:
SSHD (5%). Wound area was measured by tracing the
wound on a millimeter scale graph paper on
predetermined days i.e., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18,
20 and 22 days post-wounding. The wound
contraction-50% (days) was determined by plotting
the wound area vs days on a graph paper. Falling of
scab leaving no raw wound behind was taken as end
point of complete epithelization and the days required
for this was taken as period of epithelization.
Incision wound14-16—Para vertebral straight
incision of 6 cm length was made through the entire
thickness of the skin, on either side of the vertebral
column with the help of a sharp scalpel. After
complete haemostasis, the wounds were closed by
means of interrupted sutures placed at approximately
1 cm apart. Animals were treated daily with drugs, as
mentioned above under excision wound model from
0th day to 9th post-wounding day. The wound breaking
strength was estimated on 10th day by continuous,
constant water flow technique.
Burn wound17—Partial thickness burn wounds
were inflicted on overnight-starved animals under
ketamine (100 mg/kg, im) and xylazine (16 mg/kg,
im) anesthesia by pouring hot molten wax (2 g) at
80°C. The wax was poured on the shaven back of the
animal through a cylinder of 300 mm2 circular
opening. The wax was allowed to remain on the skin
till it gets solidified. Immediately after the injury and
on subsequent days, the drugs or base was applied
topically as mentioned above.
Dead space wound model18—This type of wound
was created by implanting subcutaneously a 2.5×0.5
cm polypropylene tube in the lumber region in
anesthetized rats. Animals received one of the
following treatments from 0th day to 9th post
wounding day. Group I: 5% acacia solution (control),
Group II: Aloe vera extract (300 mg/kg, po), Group
III: SOLD (250 mg/kg, po), Group IV: SOHD (500
mg/kg, po), Group V: SSLD (250 mg/kg, po), Group
VI: SSHD (500 mg/kg, po). On the 10th post
wounding day, the animals were sacrificed and the
granulation tissue harvested on the implanted tube
was carefully dissected out along with the tube. The
tubular granulation tissue was cut lengthwise to obtain
a sheet of granulation tissue. The breaking strength
was measured as described under incision wound
model. The pieces of granulation tissue were
collected, dried at 60o C for 24 hr to get a constant
weight and weighed. The tissue was then used for the
determination of hydroxyproline content19.
Statistical analysis—Results are expressed as mean
± SE. The differences between experimental groups
were compared using one-way Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni’s test. The results
were considered statistically significant at P<0.05.
Effect on excision and incision wound—All the
prepared formulations; SOLD (2.5%), SOHD (5%),
SSLD (2.5%) and SSHD (5%) produced a significant
decrease in period of epithelization when compared to
control (P<0.001). Treatment with Aloe vera extract
also produced significant reduction in the period of
epithelization (P<0.001). All the treatments also
showed significant decrease in wound contraction
(50%) as compared to control (P<0.001).
Comparative analysis revealed that the high dose of
both oil and seeds (5%) were significantly less
effective in reducing the epithelization period
compared to the low dose (2.5%). The low dose of the
oil was significantly more effective compared to the
low dose of the seeds. The low dose of seeds was also
more effective than high dose in reducing wound
contraction-50% (Table 1).
The breaking strength of 10 days old incision
wound was increased by all treatments. The high dose
of the seeds was more effective than high dose of the
oil in increasing the breaking strength of the incision
wound (Table 1).
Effect on burn wound—Like the excision wound
model, application of SOLD (2.5%), SOHD (5%),
SSLD (2.5%), SSHD (5%) and Aloe vera extract
(10%) gel topically shortened the period of
epithelization significantly (P<0.001) and also
produced a significant decrease (P<0.001) in wound
contraction-50% (days) when compared to control.
Comparative analysis of different groups indicate that
high dose of seeds and oil were less effective in
reducing the epithelization period compared to the
low dose of the seeds and oil. The high dose of the
seeds was less effective in reducing wound
contraction compared to low dose of seeds. Similarly,
like the excision wound, the low dose of the seed is
less effective compared to the low dose of the oil
(Table 2).
Effect on dead space wound—The breaking
strength of 10 days old granulation tissue was
significantly promoted by all the treatments; SOLD
(250 mg/kg, po), SOHD (500 mg/kg, po), SSLD (250
mg/kg, po), SSHD (500 mg/kg, po) and Aloe vera
extract (300 mg/kg, po). The dry tissue weight and
hydroxyproline content were significantly increased
(P<0.001) by all the treatments when compared to
Table 1—Effect of S. indicum seeds and oil on period of epithelization and wound contraction in excision wound and breaking strength
in incision wound model
[Values are mean ± SE from 6 rats in each group]
Treatment Excision wound Incision wound
Epithelization period Wound contraction -50% Breaking strength
(days) (days) (g)
(1% carbopol gel) 22.16 ± 0.3073 11.70 ± 0.3578 289.16 ± 3.005
Aloe vera extract (10%) 15.83 ± 0.3073a 9.26 ± 0.2692a 399.16 ± 3.005a
SOLD (2.5%) 14.50 ± 0.2236a,d 8.33 ± 0.2917a 443.33 ± 3.073a,e
SOHD (5%) 16.66 ± 0.2108a,b 9.46 ± 0.4072a 380.00 ± 2.887a,b,e
SSLD (2.5%) 15.66 ± 0.2108a,c 8.91 ± 0.2414a 437.50 ± 3.354a,e
SSHD (5%) 17.50 ± 0.2236a,b,e 9.20 ± 0.3670a 417.50 ± 2.141a,b,c,e
control. There was no significant difference in any of
the parameters between various treatment groups
(Table 3).
The present study was undertaken to evaluate
whether S. indicum seeds and oil promote wound
healing in experimentally induced wounds in rats. The
results of the present study substantiate the use of S.
indicum seeds and oil in folklore medicine for the
treatment of wounds. The gel containing seeds or oil
applied topically or administration of seeds or oil
orally promoted the breaking strength, wound
contraction and period of epithelization in different
models of experimental wounds.
Collagenation, wound contraction and
epithelization are crucial phases of wound healing.
The phases of inflammation, macrophasia, fibroplasia
and collagenation are intimately interlinked. Thus an
intervention into any one of these phases by drugs
could eventually either promote or depress one, other
or all phases of healing. Growth hormone is known to
Table 3Effect of S. indicum seeds and oil on breaking strength, dry tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in dead space
wound model
[Values are mean ± SE from 6 rats in each group]
Treatment Breaking
strength Dry tissue
weight Concentration
(g) (g) hydroxyprolin
(µg/g of tissue)
Vehicle (1
ml/kg) 284.
16 ±
2533.33 ±
Aloe vera
extract 535.
83 ±
6266.66 ±
mg/kg, po)
SOLD 530.
83 ±
5466.66 ±
mg/kg, po)
SOHD 540.
00 ±
6266.66 ±
mg/kg, po)
SSLD 497.
50 ±
5600.00 ±
mg/kg, po)
SSHD 522.
50 ±
6133.33 ±
mg/kg, po)
aP<0.001 vs. control
Table 2—Effect of S. indicum seeds and oil on period of
epithelization and wound contraction in burn wound model
[Values are mean ± SE from 6 rats in each group]
Treatment Epithelization
period Wound contraction
(days) (days)
(1% carbopol gel) 21.83 ± 0.3073 8.56 ± 0.3621
Aloe vera extract
(10%) 16.00 ± 0.2582a 5.76 ± 0.2076a
SOLD (2.5%) 13.33 ± 0.2108a,e 4.76 ± 0.1406a
SOHD (5%) 16.50 ± 0.2236a,c 5.66 ± 0.1430a
SSLD (2.5%) 16.66 ± 0.3073a,d 5.10 ± 0.1238a
SSHD (5%) 17.00 ± 0.2582a,c 6.30 ± 0.3183a,b
Other details are same as in Table 1
promote the healing process by enhancing epithelial
cell proliferation and cell collagen formation.
Collagen is the family of protein, which provide
structural support and it is the main component of
tissue such as fibrous tissue and cartilage. The
collagen synthesis is stimulated by various growth
factors20. Growth hormone is also known to promote
the proliferation of fibroblasts21 and fibroblast
proliferation form the granulation tissue. In the dead
space wound model, S. indicum treatment increased
granuloma tissue weight and breaking strength. The
exact mechanism(s) by sesame increased the
granuloma tissue weight and breaking strength of
granulation tissue can not be explained with the
present data.
Lipid peroxidation is an important process of
several types of injuries like burn, inflicted wound
and skin ulcers. A drug that inhibits lipid peroxidation
is believed to increase the viability of collagen fibrils,
increasing the strength of collagen fibers by an
increase in circulation, thereby preventing the cell
damage and promoting the DNA synthesis22.
Antioxidants such as vitamin C, metronidazole and
vitamin E are reported to increase the wound
healing23. Sesame seeds and its constituents possess
very potent antioxidant activity36. Sesamol (3,4-
methylenedioxyphenol), a coumarin derivative
present in sesame seeds is known to efficiently
scavenge hydroxyl, one-electron oxidizing, organo-
haloperoxyl, lipid peroxyl, and tryptophanyl radicals
in vitro and in vivo, it was found to inhibit lipid
peroxidation, hydroxyl radical-induced deoxyribose
degradation and DNA cleavage6. The other
constituent of sesame, sesaminol, sesamolinol and
sesamolin (lignans) reduce lipid oxidation in liver and
kidney24. Since, both coumarins and lignans reach
systemic circulation after oral administration25-27, it
can be suggested that the wound healing activity of
sesame seeds and oils after both local and systemic
administration may at least be in part due to its potent
antioxidant activity.
The oil of sesame was more effective in healing of
excision and burn wounds than incision wound. From
the results, it can be speculated that constituents such
as sesamol, sesaminol, sesamolinol and sesamolin
present in both seeds and oil may be responsible for
the wound healing activity. However, further studies
are needed to determine the reason for less
effectiveness of oil in healing of incision wound.
To conclude, seeds and oil of Sesamum indicum
possess good wound healing activity when applied
locally or administered orally. The low dose of both
seeds and oil are more effective when applied locally
and the high dose of seeds and oil showed greater
effect in dead space wound when administered orally.
The authors thank to Prof. Suresh Nagpal,
Chairman, Krupanidhi Educational Trust (Bangalore,
India), Prof Sunil Dhamanigi, Secretary, Krupanidhi
Educational Trust and Dr Amit Kumar Das, Professor
and Principal, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy for
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... Sesame oil contains sesaminol, sesamolinol, sesamolin and sesamol which all have an antioxidant effect. This content reduces lipid oxidation and has a wound healing effect 51 . In a study, sesame ointment accelerated wound healing and stimulated fibroblast proliferation. ...
Full-text available
There are various studies showing that oral supplements are shortening or facilitating effects on this process. Therefore, this study investigates the use of edible oils as supplements in the wound healing process. Of the 7 groups (control, Hypericum perforatum extracts in olive oil, olive, sesame, fish, black seed, sunflower), each has 8 Wistar Albino rats. In the experimental groups, 1.25 mL/kg oral oil was used for 10 days. Macroscopic images of the wound area were taken. Wound healing was evaluated by histological analysis. Collagen III, IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-ß1 density analyzes were performed on the tissue samples. According to macroscopic analysis, wound narrowing is higher in all groups on the 2nd and 4th days than the control group. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of all experimental groups except sunflower oil group revealed better results than control group.
... Toxins 2022, 14, 117 ...
Full-text available
Sesame Sesamum indicum L. is a major oil-based seed crop that has been widely cultivated and consumed in Pakistan. Unfortunately, sesame is highly prone to Aspergillus fungal growth in the field, and under inappropriate storage conditions can become contaminated with aflatoxins, the most potent carcinogen found in nature. Here, we have isolated a high number of Aspergillus isolates from sesame seeds in fresh and stored conditions obtained from rainfed and irrigated zones of Punjab, Pakistan, and characterized them for aflatoxigenic potentials. Using morphological identification techniques, 260 isolates were grouped as potential Aspergillus section Flavi, with 126 and 134 originating from the rainfed and irrigated zones, respectively. Out of 260 in total, 188 isolates were confirmed to produce aflatoxins. There were no significant differences in potential aflatoxigenic isolates with respect to the rainfed and irrigated zones. However, the number of potential aflatoxigenic isolates was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in stored samples than that of those from fresh sesame seeds in the rainfed and irrigated zone. Whole genome sequencing and comparative analyses of 12 select isolates have revealed that one of the A. flavus isolates, which produced very low aflatoxins (AFP10), has an elevated missense variant rate, numerous high impact mutations, and a 600 base pair deletion in the norB gene. In summary, our study provides insights into aflatoxigenic potential and the associated genetic diversity of indigenous Aspergillus section Flavi isolates and potential management strategies for reducing aflatoxin contamination levels in a major crop consumed in Punjab, Pakistan.
... However delayed re-epithelization, delayed separation of scar wound healing, development of post burn contractures are some of the most important clinical adverse effect of silver topical agents which limits their long term use especially on broad wound. Therefore the concurrent use of S. nigrum cream may be suggested during the early stages of burn treatment (Kiran et al., 2008). Healing of burn wound involves infiltration of inflammatory cells, granulation tissue formation, restoring the thickness of epithelium, appendages formation (sebaceous and sweat glands), synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, formation of collagen and remodeling (Shuid et al., 2005). ...
... ± 292.12 & 6133.33 ± 168.65 μg/g of tissue), dry tissue weight (164.00 ± 4.676 & 157.33 ± 5.232 g), and breaking strength (497.50 ± 8.732 & 522.50 ± 6.922 g) of the granulation tissue were increased. There was no significant difference found in all the treatment groups (Kiran and Asad, 2008). A combination of Sesame (60%), Juglans regia L (8%), Cannabis sativa L. (12%), and Pistacia atlantica Desf (20%) oils were prepared and studied for their potential in burn wound healing. ...
Ethnopharmacological relevance Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae) is an annual plant, which has been domesticated for well over 5000 years. It is widely cultivated for its seeds and is one of the oldest known oilseed crops. Traditionally, its seeds, seed oil, and different organs of the plant have been used to treat various diseases or conditions like ulcers, asthma, wound healing, amenorrhea, hemorrhoids, inflammations, etc. Aim of the review The main aim of this review is to provide an outline and to assess the reported ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies of Sesamum indicum L. Materials and methods An extensive literature survey was done on various search engines like PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Science direct, etc. Other literature sources like Wikipedia, Ethnobotanical books, Chapters were also studied to get maximum information possible on the Sesamum indicum L. Results Over 160 different phytochemical compounds have been characterized and isolated from seeds, seed oil, and various plant organs, including lignans, polyphenols, phytosterols, phenols, anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenes, cerebroside, fatty acids, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids, and sugars using suitable analytical techniques (e.g., LC-MS, GC-MS, HPTLC, HPLC). All the reported pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anticancer, antipyretic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory are due to the virtue of these phytochemical compounds. Conclusion This review mainly highlights the botanical aspect of Sesamum indicum and its phytochemical constituents, ethnomedicinal uses, different pharmacological activities followed by ongoing clinical trials and future prospects. Sesamum indicum has great importance in traditional Indian medicine, which is further supported by modern pharmacological studies, especially in hepatoprotection, inflammation, and cancer. Several researchers have suggested that Sesamum indicum extracts and isolated compounds could have a wide therapeutic potency range. More research is needed to uncover key features of Sesamum indicum in medical practice, such as structure-activity relationships, toxicity, and therapeutic potential. In order to fully explore the plant's potential, safety assessments and implementation of an integrated cultivation method are also areas that need to investigate.
... All necessary amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals are also present in sesame seeds (1). These seeds have a broad range of active substances, including phenolics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytates, peptides, and phytosterols (12) that have various therapeutic properties including anti-inflammatory (25), antioxidative (36), cholesterol reducing (6), antihypertensive (33), wound healing (27), anticancer (50), and neuroprotective (26). ...
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This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of mycobiota and aflatoxin (AF) B1 contamination in sesame seeds from rainfed and irrigated zones of the Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, 100 sesame seed samples were collected directly from the fields of major sesame-producing areas in rainfed and irrigated zones. The agar plate method was used for isolation of mycobiota, and thin-layer chromatography was used to determine AFB1 concentrations. Seed samples were then stored for 12 months. After 12 months, the seeds were again analyzed for mycobiota and AFB1 for comparison. All samples were positive for fungal growth under fresh and stored conditions. Twenty-one fungal species of 10 genera were isolated. Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent contaminant found in fresh and stored sesame seeds from rainfed and irrigated zones, followed by Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, and Fusarium oxysporum. The least prevalent fungi were Aspergillus ochraceus and Cladosporium oxysporum. Analysis revealed that 92% of fresh and 99% of stored seed samples were contaminated with AFB1. In the rainfed zone, 88% of fresh and 100% of stored seed samples were contaminated with AFB1, with mean concentrations of 15.74 and 33.8 ppb, respectively. In the irrigated zone, 96% of fresh and 98% of stored seed samples were contaminated with AFB1, with mean concentrations of 20.5 and 27.56 ppb, respectively. AFB1 concentrations >20 ppb were found in 20% of fresh and 100% of stored seeds samples from the rainfed zone and in 28% of fresh and 60% of stored samples from the irrigated zone and thus were not fit for human consumption as per the maximum limit (20 ppb) assigned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This report is the first on the mycobiota and AFB1 contamination in sesame seeds from rainfed and irrigated zones of the Punjab, Pakistan. These baseline data are an initial step in the effort to deal with this significant food safety issue. HIGHLIGHTS
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This review paper highlights about wound healing, a vital physiological process of tissue repair or remodelling, which still remains a challenge in the Indian healthcare system. Different wound dressings containing antibiotics and antibacterial agents, nanoparticle based wound dressings prevent bacterial infection and bio film formation in the wound bed. However, the use of antibiotics, allopathic drugs and antibacterial nanoparticles in wound healing has some limitations since most of these antibacterial agents have side effects such as cytotoxicity. Furthermore, there is no efficient evidence-based therapy available for specific chronic wounds. Another problem is wound healing and wound management is very expensive health care, which poor people cannot afford to bear expenditure. There are a variety of herbal plants that have wound healing properties. Plant-based constituents have been extensively used for the treatment and management of different types of wounds. Folklore cultures employ a significant number of plants to treat cuts, wounds, and burns. Therefore, the use of Complementary and Alternative herbal Medicines (CAMs) is a promising approach to improvising clinical and medical challenges faced by non-healing chronic wounds. In addition to this, the use of natural plant derived substances are considered safe compared to synthetic molecules and can be much cheaper than conventional therapies.
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Calendula officinalis is one of those plants which have medicinal importance due to its leaf and flowers have pharmacological activity, the important pharmacological parameters have been less investigated properly and can be scientifically proved by reverse pharmacology. It was found of interest to evaluate these properties of the extract of the leaf of C. officinalis. The present study is to screen wound healing activity of gels prepared from methanolic extracts of C. officinalis Linn. using excision wound models in albino mice. Formulations of the extracts were prepared in the gels of Carbopol individually and also in combination in equal ratio. In excision wound models, the so treated animals showed significant reduction in a period of epithelization and wound healing activity. The enhanced wound healing activity of hydroalcoholic extracts may be due to free radical scavenging action and the phytoconstituents present in it which either due to their individual or additive effect fastens the process of wound healing. It was found that Calendula extract enhanced the wound healing activity as seen by increased synthesis of connective tissue, especially collagen. There was a significant increase in the granuloma tissue. The wound contraction and increased tensile strength were found to be statistically significant.
Wound is defined as any injury to the body such as damage to the epidermis of the skin and disturbance to its normal anatomy and function. Since ancient times, the importance of wound healing has been recognized, and many efforts have been made to develop novel wound dressings made of the best material for rapid and effective wound healing. Medicinal plants play a great role in the wound healing process. In recent decades, many studies have focused on the development of novel wound dressings that incorporate medicinal plant extracts or their purified active compounds, which are potential alternatives to conventional wound dressings. Several studies have also investigated the mechanism of action of various herbal medicines in wound healing process. This paper attempts to highlight and review the mechanistic perspective of wound healing mediated by plant-based natural products. The findings showed that herbal medicines act through multiple mechanisms and are involved in various stages of wound healing. Some herbal medicines increase the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) which play important role in stimulation of re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, formation of granulation tissue, and collagen fiber deposition. Some other wound dressing containing herbal medicines act as inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression thereby inducing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in various phases of the wound healing process. Besides the growing public interest in traditional and alternative medicine, the use of herbal medicine and natural products for wound healing has many advantages over conventional medicines, including greater effectiveness due to diverse mechanisms of action, antibacterial activity, and safety in long-term wound dressing usage.
The process of wound healing imposes a great challenge in the Medicare and pharmaceutical systems globally due to variety in the types of wound, its severity, degree of various microbial infections, interplay of the cellular and molecular complexes and different time taken in order to heal completely. Some of the physiological conditions with chronic diseases like diabetes, peripheral vascular disorders, or even aging result in the delayed wound healing. Owing to such complex conditions of wound management, there is urgent need to come up with efficient strategies. Human beings since ages have been using the traditional plant-based medication as the first line preference for managing adverse physiological conditions. The present chapter aims to analyze about the enormous potential of various plants for wound management using present ethnobotanical knowledge prevailing amongst us. Apart from this, different wound healing models, and pharmacological validation, and scientific proofs are also reviewed for wound healing activity. Therefore, the content of this chapter bridges the ethnobotanical knowledge to the researchers and pharmaceutical systems to further validate and develop efficient wound treatment systems using herbal products.
Wound healing is a complex process that consists of several phases that range from hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation (tissue remodeling). Failure in the wound healing process leads to the progression of nonhealing chronic wounds. The wound healing process is affected by many factors including age and sex hormones, nutrition, oxygenation, stress, diabetes, obesity, infection, medications, alcoholism, and smoking and it leads to the development of chronic wounds. Most of the chronic wounds are ulcers associated with diabetes mellitus, ischemia, and venous stasis disease. Also, resistance to bacterial infection, protein adsorption, and increased levels of exudates are delaying the wound healing process. Hence, the researchers are searching for new molecules for the management of nonhealing chronic wounds. The new drug candidates can be discovered from either natural resources or chemical synthesis. In this chapter, the importance of natural sources for the discovery of drug candidates for the management of wounds is discussed.
The effects of betel nut (Areca catechu) extract and its two constituents, namely arecholine and polyphenols, were studied in male Wistar rats on three wound models viz. excision, incision and dead space wounds. The three drugs were given either topically or orally for incision and excision wounds whereas only orally for dead space wounds. Rate of wound contraction, period of epithelisation, wound breaking strength, granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue were determined. The crude betel nut extract as well as polyphenols promoted wound healing, but arecholine did not influence it.
Objective: To assess the influence of oral and topical (gel) metronidazole on partial thickness thermal burn wound healing. Methods: Partial thickness burn wounds were produced on dorsum of rats by pouring hot molten wax at 80°C. Oral and two topical gel (MGEL-1 and MGEL-2) preparations of metronidazole or their corresponding vehicles were administered to different groups of wound bearing animals. The effects of the treatments were compared by periodically observing wound contraction and epithelization and histological features as indicative of the progress of healing. Results: Healing of burn wounds was significantly promoted by oral metronidazole (p<0.01) and the gel base of MGEL-2. In contrast, the MGEL-1 significantly (p<0.05) depressed the epithelization process while its base was without effect, indicating that topical metronidazole retards healing. The effect of MGEL-2 appeared to be an algebraic sum of pro- and anti-healing effects of the base and drug respectively more in favour of the base (p<0.05). Conclusion: Metronidazole orally promotes but topically depresses healing of burn wounds. The latter effect can be reversed if the base has pro-healing property.
Vitamin A and vitamin E reverse the skin-wound healing retardation action of aspirin in rats. Vitamin A alone promotes healing and it also increases acid mucopolysaccharide synthesis in the granulation tissue. The possible mechanisms of action of vitamin A and aspirin on wound healing are discussed.
The free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of antioxidants from sesame cake extract was studied using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH¥) on a kinetic model. Pure lignans and lignan glycosides isolated from methanolic extract by preparative HPLC were used in the study. To understand the kinetic behavior better and to determine the RSC of sesame antioxidants, the secondorder rate constant (k2) was calculated for the quenching reaction with [DPPH¥] radical. The k2 values of the sesame antioxidants were compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene and R-tocopherol. The k2 values for sesamol, sesamol dimer, sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol triglucoside, and sesaminol diglucoside were 4.00 � 10-5, 0.50 � 10-5, 0.36 � 10-5, 0.13 � 10-5, 0.33 � 10-5, and 0.08 � 10-5 íM-1 s-1, respectively.
Growth hormone (GH) previously was available in limited supply and only for the treatment of GH-deficient children. The recent production of GH by recombinant DNA technology has provided a potential surfeit of this hormone and raises the possibility of its use in other conditions. In addition, the isolation, characterization, and synthesis of GH-releasing hormone (GRH) provides an opportunity to use this peptide in conditions in which increased circulating levels of GH are desired. Both GH and GRH have potential therapeutic uses in conditions other than growth retardation.
Dose matched comparison between copper complex of tolmetin(Tol-Cu) and tolmetin(Tol) was carried out in male albino rats bearing either sutured incision, dead space or excision wounds. Results showed that Tol significantly decreased tesile strength of incision and dead space wound. This effect was totally reversed by copper present in Tol-Cu. Tol-Cu shared the significant suppressant effect of Tol on granulation formation and its collagen content. Tol suppressed wound contraction and epithelization and copper complex of Tol antagonised the suppressant effect of Tol on wound contraction and epithelization.
Oxygen free radicals are produced and play an important role in ischemic injury. We therefore wished to investigate the role of free radicals on ischemic skin wound healing. For this purpose, H-shaped flaps, where the test ischemic wound is the horizontal line in the H, were created on the dorsum of the rat. To inhibit the probable hazards of free radicals, allopurinol and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were given to the animals. Most of the studied wound-healing parameters were impaired in the ischemic group. In the allopurinol-treated group, breaking strength was increased by 52% by day 7 and by 109% by day 14 (p < 0.0002 and p < 0.001), and in the SOD-treated group the increase was 69% both by days 7 and 14 of healing when compared with the ischemic control group (p < 0.003 and p < 0.002). Hydroxyproline content was increased 75% with allopurinol and 113% with SOD in the wound by day 7 (p < 0.03 and p < 0.001 respectively). SOD treatment caused a significant decrease in wound edema by day 7 of healing (p < 0.05). Histopathological evaluation revealed that in the SOD- and allopurinol-treated groups, the amount of collagen and its organization were more prominent when compared with the ischemic controls. These results show that oxygen free radicals play an important role in the failure of ischemic wound healing, and antioxidants partly improve the healing in ischemic skin wounds.
Although the sesame lignans, sesaminol and sesamolinol, have been shown to possess antioxidative activity, less is known about the metabolism and antioxidative properties of sesamolin, a major constituent of sesame oil. To determine the ability of sesamolin to act as an antioxidant in vivo, we fed rats a diet containing 1% sesamolin for 2 wk and studied its metabolism and its effects on oxidative stress. About 75% of the ingested sesamolin was excreted unmetabolized in feces, but it was not detected in urine. Sesamolin and its metabolites, sesamol and sesamolinol, were excreted primarily as sulfates and glucuronides. The amount of sesamolin and its metabolites was lower in the plasma than in the liver or kidneys. When we compared rats fed a diet containing 1% sesamolin for 14 d with those fed a control diet, we found that liver weight was significantly greater in the former group. Lipid peroxidation activity, measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was significantly lower in the kidneys and liver of the sesamolin-fed rats than in the controls. In addition, the amount of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excreted in the urine was significantly lower in the sesamolin-fed rats. These results suggest that sesamolin and its metabolites may contribute to the antioxidative properties of sesame seeds and oil and support our hypothesis that sesame lignans reduce susceptibility to oxidative stress.
The ethanolic extracts of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica were evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats. Wound healing activity was studied using excision and incision wound models in rats following topical application. Animals were divided into four groups with six in each group. Ten percent w/v extract of each plant was prepared in saline for topical application. H. indicum possesses better wound healing activity than P. zeylanicum and A. indica. Tensile strength results indicate better activity of H. indicum on remodeling phase of wound healing.