Evolutionary origin and phylogenetic analysis of the novel oocyte-specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E in Tetrapoda

The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA.
Development Genes and Evolution (Impact Factor: 2.44). 02/2009; 219(2):111-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00427-008-0268-2
Source: PubMed


The transcriptionally active, growing oocyte accumulates mRNAs essential for early stages of development, the oocyte-to-embryo transition, in a stable, dormant form. Translational repression of mRNAs in eggs of various species is conferred by interactions, either direct or via intermediate proteins, of repressive factors bound to the 3'-untranslated regions with the proteins of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) family bound to the 5'-cap of the transcripts. Recently, a novel oocyte-specific eIF4E encoded by the Eif41b gene in mammals has been identified by our group. To further investigate this gene, the available cDNA libraries, as well as genome assemblies of nonmammalian vertebrates, were surveyed. This analysis revealed that the Eif4e1b gene arose in Tetrapoda as a result of the ancestral Eif4e locus duplication. Unlike other known proteins of three subfamilies comprising eIF4E family (eIF4E1, eIF4E2, and eIF4E3), cDNA library evidence suggests that Eif41b locus has an oocyte-restricted expression across all classes of Tetrapoda. To further understand the role of eIF4E1B during oocyte maturation, injections of antisense morpholino nucleotides in the X. tropicalis fully-grown stage VI oocytes were performed. The resulted ablation of eIF4E1B protein led to significant acceleration of oocyte maturation after progesterone induction; morpholino-injected oocytes formed the metaphase plate 30 min faster than the control groups. These results suggest that eIF4E1B protein acts as a repressor in translational regulation of maternal mRNAs activated during, and required for, oocyte maturation.

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Available from: Alexei V Evsikov
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    • "While the detailed function of eIF4E1b in CPEB RNP remains to be established, it is interesting to note that this protein variant, which binds m7GTP-Sepharose inefficiently [27], is evolutionarily conserved, arising in Tetrapoda as a result of the ancestral eIF4E locus duplication. Moreover, EST evidence suggests its oocyte-restricted expression is also conserved [31]. We proposed a repressed closed loop model whereby CPEB bound to regulated mRNA via their 3’ UTR CPE elements interact directly or indirectly with 4E-T which binds eIF4E1b, precluding eIF4G recognition of the cap structure, and thereby inhibiting translation [27,32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to the canonical eIF4E cap-binding protein, eukaryotes have evolved sequence-related variants with distinct features, some of which have been shown to negatively regulate translation of particular mRNAs, but which remain poorly characterised. Mammalian eIF4E proteins have been divided into three classes, with class I representing the canonical cap-binding protein eIF4E1. eIF4E1 binds eIF4G to initiate translation, and other eIF4E-binding proteins such as 4E-BPs and 4E-T prevent this interaction by binding eIF4E1 with the same consensus sequence YX 4Lϕ. We investigate here the interaction of human eIF4E2 (4EHP), a class II eIF4E protein, which binds the cap weakly, with eIF4E-transporter protein, 4E-T. We first show that ratios of eIF4E1:4E-T range from 50:1 to 15:1 in HeLa and HEK293 cells respectively, while those of eIF4E2:4E-T vary from 6:1 to 3:1. We next provide evidence that eIF4E2 binds 4E-T in the yeast two hybrid assay, as well as in pull-down assays and by recruitment to P-bodies in mammalian cells. We also show that while both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 bind 4E-T via the canonical YX 4Lϕ sequence, nearby downstream sequences also influence eIF4E:4E-T interactions. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to demonstrate that eIF4E2, normally homogeneously localised in the cytoplasm, does not redistribute to stress granules in arsenite-treated cells, nor to P-bodies in Actinomycin D-treated cells, in contrast to eIF4E1. Moreover, eIF4E2 shuttles through nuclei in a Crm1-dependent manner, but in an 4E-T-independent manner, also unlike eIF4E1. Altogether we conclude that while both cap-binding proteins interact with 4E-T, and can be recruited by 4E-T to P-bodies, eIF4E2 functions are likely to be distinct from those of eIF4E1, both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, further extending our understanding of mammalian class I and II cap-binding proteins.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Although a number of studies have identified different factors that may affect egg viability, as well as indicators that could help in determining if an egg batch is of good or bad shape (reviewed in [4]), the complete picture is far from fully understood. During oogeneis transcribed maternal RNAs are stored in dormant complexes for translation just before or after fertilization [5]. The activation of translation is regulated and starts with polyadenlyation of the stored mRNA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Zygotic transcription in fish embryos initiates around the time of gastrulation, and all prior development is initiated and controlled by maternally derived messenger RNAs. Atlantic cod egg and embryo viability is variable, and it is hypothesized that the early development depends upon the feature of these maternal RNAs. Both the length and the presence of specific motifs in the 3'UTR of maternal RNAs are believed to regulate expression and stability of the maternal transcripts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the overall composition and 3'UTR structure of the most common maternal RNAs found in cod eggs and pre-zygotic embryos. 22229 Sanger-sequences were obtained from 3'-end sequenced cDNA libraries prepared from oocyte, 1-2 cell, blastula and gastrula stages. Quantitative PCR revealed that EST copy number below 9 did not reflect the gene expression profile. Consequently genes represented by less than 9 ESTs were excluded from downstream analyses, in addition to sequences with low-quality gene hits. This provided 12764 EST sequences, encoding 257 unique genes, for further analysis. Mitochondrial transcripts accounted for 45.9-50.6% of the transcripts isolated from the maternal stages, but only 12.2% of those present at the onset of zygotic transcription. 3'UTR length was predicted in nuclear sequences with poly-A tail, which identified 191 3'UTRs. Their characteristics indicated a more complex regulation of transcripts that are abundant prior to the onset of zygotic transcription. Maternal and stable transcripts had longer 3'UTR (mean 187.1 and 208.8 bp) and more 3'UTR isoforms (45.7 and 34.6%) compared to zygotic transcripts, where 15.4% had 3'UTR isoforms and the mean 3'UTR length was 76 bp. Also, diversity and the amount of putative polyadenylation motifs were higher in both maternal and stable transcripts. We report on the most pronounced processes in the maternally transferred cod transcriptome. Maternal stages are characterized by a rich abundance of mitochondrial transcripts. Maternal and stable transcripts display longer 3'UTRs with more variation of both polyadenylation motifs and 3'UTR isoforms. These data suggest that cod eggs possess a complex array of maternal RNAs which likely act to tightly regulate early developmental processes in the newly fertilized egg.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Genomics
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    • ". Since the Arabidopsis [76] and Caenorhabditis [74] orthologs promote translation of some mRNAs, it seems most likely 4E-HP diverged from a widespread ancestral eIF4E to form a translational repressor in metazoa [3]. A similar example is eIF4E-1B, which emerged only in vertebrates as a translational repressor of a subset of oocyte mRNAs [57] [59] [79], and Leishmania eIF4E-1, which under heat shock conditions binds to a Leishmania-specific 4E- BP and becomes translationally inactive [71]. In other cases, eIF4E cognates have evolved towards a new molecular function not related to translation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diversity is one of the most remarkable features of living organisms. Current assessments of eukaryote biodiversity reaches 1.5 million species, but the true figure could be several times that number. Diversity is ingrained in all stages and echelons of life, namely, the occupancy of ecological niches, behavioral patterns, body plans and organismal complexity, as well as metabolic needs and genetics. In this review, we will discuss that diversity also exists in a key biochemical process, translation, across eukaryotes. Translation is a fundamental process for all forms of life, and the basic components and mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes have been largely established upon the study of traditional, so-called model organisms. By using modern genome-wide, high-throughput technologies, recent studies of many nonmodel eukaryotes have unveiled a surprising diversity in the configuration of the translation apparatus across eukaryotes, showing that this apparatus is far from being evolutionarily static. For some of the components of this machinery, functional differences between different species have also been found. The recent research reviewed in this article highlights the molecular and functional diversification the translational machinery has undergone during eukaryotic evolution. A better understanding of all aspects of organismal diversity is key to a more profound knowledge of life.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Comparative and Functional Genomics
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