Article

My Body, My Closet: Invisible Disability and the Limits of Coming-Out Discourse

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Abstract

Howis the “coming out” process similar or different for peoplewho identify as queer or disabled? Although there are inherent problems with analogizing social identities, Ellen Samuels suggests that employing analogies critically might yield greater results than avoiding these analogies. When a disability is not immediately signaled by a person’s appearance, the disabled person experiences a kind of “coming out”: both in revealing (and “proving”) disability identity to familymembers and in experiencing the revelation of disability itself. The perception persists that nonvisibly disabled people prefer to “pass” by minimizing the role of disabled identity. Samuels pointed out that passing conflates two separate dynamics: deliberately hiding a disability and passing by default because of nonvisibility. When a disabled person reveals a disability rather than attempting to pass, he or she is oftenmetwith a suspicion of fraud. The analogy of coming out as queer and coming out as disabled breaks down when comparing the meanings and consequences of these declarations. Nevertheless, Samuels discusses how two identities-lesbian-femme and nonvisibly disabled-both cause a “category crisis” when visible appearance doesn’t correlate to self-identification. Moreover, peoplewithnonvisible disabilities canbemarginalizedwithin disability communitiesandthecommunity at large when disabilities are unrecognized. Similarly, femme lesbians must negotiate queer identity when choices about personal appearance don’t signal queer identity to a wider community. Samuels argues for analogizing identities (and queering disability studies) in order to find subversion at the meeting points between bodies and communities, between voices and resistant audiences of power.

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... Baker (2019) describes accommodations within the inherently ableist post-secondary environments as "symbolic" (Baker, 2019, p. 113), or a way for institutions to be seen as championing diversity and inclusion, but not guaranteeing access in practice. Receiving accommodations frequently involves the time-and energy-consuming requirement of providing medical documentation or "proof" from an external authority and "coming out" to staff, faculty, and other students (Samuels, 2003). For students with "invisible" disabilities such as chronic pain, the decision to "come out" as disabled can be a complex process involving claiming the label "disabled" and the stigma associated with this label, and dealing with the reactions of others (Samuels, 2003). ...
... Receiving accommodations frequently involves the time-and energy-consuming requirement of providing medical documentation or "proof" from an external authority and "coming out" to staff, faculty, and other students (Samuels, 2003). For students with "invisible" disabilities such as chronic pain, the decision to "come out" as disabled can be a complex process involving claiming the label "disabled" and the stigma associated with this label, and dealing with the reactions of others (Samuels, 2003). Disclosure of an "invisible" disability is often met with skepticism or denial, hostility or mockery, suspicion, and silent disapproval (Samuels, 2003). ...
... For students with "invisible" disabilities such as chronic pain, the decision to "come out" as disabled can be a complex process involving claiming the label "disabled" and the stigma associated with this label, and dealing with the reactions of others (Samuels, 2003). Disclosure of an "invisible" disability is often met with skepticism or denial, hostility or mockery, suspicion, and silent disapproval (Samuels, 2003). For these reasons students with an "invisible" disability may prefer not to disclose or seek accommodations to avoid stigma and discrimination (Samuels, 2003). ...
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Relatively little is known about how physical and social environments influence access to and inclusion in educational and leisure activities for students with a mobility-related physical disability attending a post-secondary institution. Understanding how environments shape access is important because educational and leisure activities affect one’s emotional, social, mental, and physical health. The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of access and inclusion for students with a mobility-related physical disability, and specifically, the barriers and facilitators within the physical and social environments which shape access and inclusion. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine students attending a post-secondary institution in Nova Scotia, Canada who self-identified as living with a mobility-related physical disability. From an analysis of the interviews, five themes emerged: 1) navigating disclosure; 2) invisibility (and passing) and visibility; 3) accommodations and supports; 4) the prevailing conceptualization of mobility-related disabilities; and 5) places and spaces for the “normal” body. Although there have been actions taken by the post-secondary institution to transform environments and improve access and inclusion, additional efforts are urgently needed, and it is suggested that Universal Design is one possible strategy.
... 11,12 A large number of chronic illnesses, such as RMDs, are concealable conditions: in these cases, DD can effectively be described as a coming-out process. 13 The choice to disclose a chronic illness is complex and might elicit dialectic dilemmas. 14 Indeed, DD is influenced by several factors, such as: type and severity of illness, stigma, access to support, fear of rejection, loss of social support and of employment. ...
... The survey was specifically developed for this study, exploring some of the main factors that literature associates with DD, such as perceived social support, 25,26 perception of stigma, 11,13,27,28 perceived visibility of the disease. 11,13 Some other constructs, such as patient engagement, 29 Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). ...
... The survey was specifically developed for this study, exploring some of the main factors that literature associates with DD, such as perceived social support, 25,26 perception of stigma, 11,13,27,28 perceived visibility of the disease. 11,13 Some other constructs, such as patient engagement, 29 Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). 32 Responses are provided on a Likert scale ranging from 0 (= "not at all") to 3 (= "nearly every day"). ...
Article
Objective Little is known about disease-related disclosure (DD) in patients with rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). We aim to investigate DD behaviors and to explore which socio-demographic, clinical and psychological factors play a role in this self-disclosure process among patients with RMDs. Methods A cross-sectional Italian nationwide study captured DD in RMDs in different contexts (workplace, family, friends, partner, social networks). An ad hoc survey was developed and disseminated by the Patients' Association ALOMAR ODV (Lombard Association for Rheumatic Diseases) between June and July 2020. Patient demographics, clinical data, and questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, anticipated stigma, patient health engagement, perceived social support, and perceived general health status were collected. Results There were 376 rheumatic patients who completed the survey. There were 73.9% of the participants who talk to others about their RMD “sometimes”; 18.7% disclose their RMD “always/very often”, while 7.4% “never” talk about their RMD. A significant association was detected between DD and both perceived visibility (P = .04) and psychological support (P = .01). Moreover, participants who never/sometimes disclose their RMD reported significantly lower scores in the “Total” Social Support (P < .01) and in the “Friends” subscale (P < .001) compared to others. Psychological support and the “Friends” subscale were the only significant predictors of DD (both P = .002). Conclusions The majority of RMD patients disclosed their disease “sometimes”. The DD behavior is not associated with any specific demographic or clinical variables. Further research on the subject might help to foster better DD decision-making processes for rheumatic patients in different contexts of daily life.
... The pen also models the type 1 enactment of disclosure, of "coming out" as an insulin-dependent diabetic, a condition disclosed through the use of diabetes technologies. As Ellen Samuels (2003) argues, "Narratives of people with 'hidden impairments,' like those of people with other nonvisible social identities, are suffused with themes of coming out, passing, and the imperatives of identity" (237). Samuels unpacks the analogies commonly drawn between coming out as disabled and coming out as an LGBTQ individual, two identities she herself shares as a lesbian disabled person, in order to assess how they are used in the process of revealing non-visible disability. ...
... Samuels unpacks the analogies commonly drawn between coming out as disabled and coming out as an LGBTQ individual, two identities she herself shares as a lesbian disabled person, in order to assess how they are used in the process of revealing non-visible disability. For Samuels (2003), coming out as disabled is "primarily portrayed as the process of revealing or explaining one's disability to others rather than as an act of self-acceptance facilitated by a disability community" (239). While there are a range of practices and meanings people give to the disclosure of non-visible impairments and chronic conditions, the practice of disclosure usually "connotes the daily challenge of negotiating assumptions about bodily appearance and function" by others (Samuels 2003, 239). ...
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In this article, we examine how insulin pens and pumps – two major devices for delivering insulin, the anabolic hormone used to treat Type 1 diabetes – are designed to conceal and fashion insulin delivery around their appearance as key communication technologies. Insulin pens and insulin pumps transform the aesthetics of insulin delivery away from the medicalized appearance of syringes toward that of beautiful technological artifacts. They both hide and draw attention to their status as technological artifacts and their medical use through a set of desirable, though sometimes incongruous, device aesthetics. Deliberately marketed around their resemblance to pens or pagers, insulin delivery devices are examples of skeuomorphs that “materialize the metaphor” of writing instruments and telecommunication tools into their design. We analyze how diabetes education and marketing materials present insulin delivery devices through skeuomorphic performances of use that uphold norms of concealment in diabetes self-management in conditions of social and medical surveillance. Drawing on patents, educational and marketing materials, and our own experiences with these devices, we argue that the skeuomorphic design of these devices morally regulates the embodied performance of diabetes. Full article is available open-access at the DOI below.
... It is possible that the concept may translate differently across gender expressions. Many who identify as androgynous or butch may find their gender expression to naturally out them with or without their permission (Matheson et al., in press), whereas those who are feminine-of-centre are forced to endure what may be experienced as having to repeatedly come out verbally (Hoskin, in press;Kattari & Beltran, 2019;Samuels, 2003). The differences in modes of disclosure for femme versus butch and androgynous sexual minority women are not captured in the outness scale. ...
Article
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The current study explored sexual minority women's gender aesthetic and style by using van Anders' (2015) sexual configurations theory (SCT), which allows for nuance in the measurement of gender/sex research. Previous research on sexual minority women has suggested a markedly masculine “Lesbian Aesthetic” (Huxley et al., 2014) and has connected aesthetic expression to internalized homophobia and levels of outness such that sexual minority women categorized as more feminine report higher rates of internalized homophobia and identity concealment. However, the bulk of past research used dichotomous measures of assessing gender and predated an ostensible shift in LGBTQ+ identities. To update this body of research, the current study explored gender aesthetics by asking sexual minority women to map their gender expression using SCT diagrams and complete measures of outness and internalized homophobia. We found no significant group differences in internalized homophobia or outness for femme, butch, and androgynous participants. Content analyses of gender diagrams suggest that the gender aesthetics of sexual minority women are neither monolithic nor masculine but may be beginning to lean towards the feminine and most certainly encompass a complex and diverse range of expressions.
... I speculate on deliberately shedding the ways in which I contribute to my own passing (cf. Samuels, 2013). ...
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In a world where technologies often serve to amplify the persistent rendering of disability as an undesired deficit, what we need are empowering utopias concerning bodies, disabilities and assistive technologies. Specifically, I use Barad's article ‘Transmaterialities: Trans*/Matter/Realities and Queer Political Imaginings’ to illustrate how we might speculate on technologies that understand disabled bodies as affording potentials. The Transreal Tracing Device reimagines our bodies as surfaces of possibility, encouraging explorations into how disabled bodies do and could look like. The speculative device offers an opportunity for positive renegotiations of disabled bodies as malleable and desirable – as ontologically indeterminate and transcendent. In traversing theoretical approaches and using them to design queer-feminist utopias centring disabled people, the concept challenges dominant notions of disabilities and assistive technologies alike. I close by discussing implications for ability-based, participatory but even more so self-determined design, and how to shift the focus of disabled technologies towards potential, from support to appreciation, from isolation to kinship and, ultimately, from shame to pride.
... To summarize, SWD in the present study, especially those with invisible disabilities, such as learning, sensory, and psychiatric disabilities, and chronic health conditions, were particularly hesitant about revealing their disability to peers, lecturers, and DSC staff; they feared facing stigma and discrimination (Grimes et al. 2017;Samuels 2013;Sniatecki, Perry, and Snell 2015). Some participants felt antagonism by their peers when they asked for accommodations during class and speculated that the reason was a lack of awareness of the needs and rights of students with disabilities. ...
Article
Over the years, the evolution of student development theories has paved the way to include diverse students, including students with disabilities (SWD). Still, student development theories are yet to employ a view of disability as a social category and an identity. To fill this gap, the current study applies the three waves of student development theories and critical disability theory to analyze and understand how SWD perceive and experience disability support centers (DSCs), and the contribution they attribute to DSCs for their development and success in higher education and afterward. Twenty-one SWD were interviewed. The findings demonstrate the tension between policies of embracing and denying disability as a ‘difference’ and an identity in higher education. The findings also link SWD's challenges in the campus to lack of access, stigma, and the impact of power dynamics. Furthermore, the findings highlight the role of DSCs in supporting the processes of disability identification among SWD as individuals and as a group. The study emphasizes the need to strive for holistic and inclusive change in higher education policy and practice. The study may contribute to deepening understanding of the significant role of academic DSCs for the entire stakeholders in higher education and policymakers worldwide.
... Such developments point to the complexity of diabetes' relationship to disability and the way it is modulated by data practices. Many diabetics do not identify as disabled(Forlano, 2017, p. 4; Kafer, 2013, p. 14), and certainly identification is complicated both by the potential for diabetics to "pass"(Samuels, 2003) as non-disabled much of the time, and by the complex relationship between disability and chronic illness(Wendell, 2001). The current data-mediated management of Type 1 diabetes simultaneously fosters avenues for its increased invisibility and doubles-down on the position that the body can and should be made as "normal" as possible through technological intervention. ...
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This paper presents the project Hemo-resonance #1, the first in a series of art works that aim to open alternative pathways for thinking about and practicing diabetes. I begin by discussing the centrality of data collection via self-tracking for the management of Type 1 diabetes, and the ways this data collection orients understandings of diabetes and the diabetic body. Diabetic self-management is typically aimed at finding patterns in one’s data, establishing cause and effect relationships, and understanding trends in the body’s operation so that the diabetic can modulate behaviour to optimize health outcomes. Arguing that approaching data in different ways can provide insights into diabetic experience and relationships that extend beyond the goal-oriented approach of always doing better, I offer “data resonance” as a way of following other trajectories of data and bodies. Data resonance provides sensory-rich materialisations of data in ways that seek to detach themselves from the typical focus on the legibility or interpretability of the data. This suspension of habitual orientations to data makes space for thinking of bodies, data, and the relationships between the two in new ways, and offering meditations on the value of co-corporeality, human-non-human relationships, and bodily difference.
... This calls up the concept of passing, wherein a member of a marginalized group might pass for "normal." Although non-apparently disabled people remain aware of their difference from their non-disabled peers and may relate more to the experiences of individuals within the disability community, they often benefit socially and economically from their ability to assimilate (Samuels 2003). I posit that because we exist socially in a space between disability and normalcy, we live as an embodiment of cross-viewing wherein we understand artwork through the lens of disability but hold no outward signifiers to inspire cross-viewing within our non-disabled co-spectators. ...
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Graduate student scholar/artists Sydney Erlikh, Maggie Bridger, and Sandie Yi reflect on their experiences of having attended VIBE: Challenging Ableism and Audism Through the Arts. The three were struck by the diversity and range of unique experiences reflected in the work of the presenting artists. Each author takes the lead on one of three themes they collectively identified: what constitutes disability art, how community shapes artistic and scholarly practice, and how boundaries of the field are evolving. The article explores the ways in which disabled artists are defining creative processes and aesthetic approaches outside of the mainstream art world and its ableist productivity demands. They also take note of how artists with non- apparent disabilities are actively moving the field in new directions. Finally, they examine the ethical dimensions of artistic “ownership” in the collaboration between artists with and without disabilities, particularly around those with intellectual disabilities and their allies. The authors ultimately offer a description of a new wave of disability art that is pushing the field to think through questions of process, collaboration, ethics, visibility, creative scholarship, and relationship to disability studies. This new work, they argue, is creating space for a more sustainable, community-based practice.
... Considering the polarisation of attitudes towards LGBT persons in Poland, it results in queer disabled women being obliged to carefully navigate between their non-heterosexual identities and required family support. The choice of disclosing one's sexual orientation is conditioned by dependence on family and dispersed and non-responsive support institutions, and also the risk of being excluded from care due to homophobia (Samuels, 2003). Addressing disability support to families instead of individuals results in constant navigation of homosexuality to receive needed care while avoiding ostracism. ...
Article
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Introduction The intersection of non-heterosexuality, gender, and disability became a prolific field of research among both queer, crip, and disability studies scholars, though focusing mainly on Western regions. In the paper discusses how women narrate their experiences in relation to ableist and heteronormative regimes in the context of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The case study of Poland, a country characterized by institutionalization, lack of individualized disability support, and state homophobia contributes to a growing body of research on non-western sexuality and disability studies. Methods We conducted interviews with 11 non-heterosexual disabled women living in Poland. Results By tackling care regimes, our analysis explores women’s experiences in the context of discursive confusions resulting from being at the intersection of often-contradictory local narrations on gender, disability, and sexuality. We identified three intertwined processes to understand how care regimes work in Poland: (1) the separateness between queer and disabled policies and discourses, (2) the coopting/obscuring of homosexual relations between women by category of care, and (3) familiarisation of care and its consequences for non-heterosexuality. Policy Implication We suggest that social support systems must better address the needs of non-heterosexual women with disabilities which are profoundly impacted by structural, political, and cultural constraints and possibilities.
... Furthermore, a preference to keep a disability non-explicit, especially in the case of invisible physical or sensory disabilities, does not necessarily indicate a lack of self-acceptance. Rather, it can express an autonomous choice to protect privacy or avoid social stigma (Samuels, 2003). A post-modern outlook on the construction of deaf identities emphasises the ever-changing salience of various aspects of identity, depending on the specific social and cultural context in which the individual is interacting (McIlroy & Storbeck, 2011). ...
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Objective: Most deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) youth grow up in hearing familial and educational environments, posing unique risks for their socio-emotional well-being. The study’s objective was to explore protective processes contributing to resilience among DHH individuals in different life periods. Design: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 DHH young adults on their life-long coping with having a hearing loss (HL). Main outcome measures: Thematic analysis identified, according to participants’ retrospective perceptions, processes that supported their positive adjustment from childhood up to early adulthood. Results: Themes were organised at three ecological levels: individual, including five subthemes (e.g. certain attitudes to HL); family, including various types of parental support; and community, including four subthemes (e.g. extra-curricular activities). Family and community level resources enabled and nurtured personal attitudes and coping abilities. The perceptions of which personal attitudes and contextual resources were helpful changed from childhood to young adulthood. Conclusions: Findings show how resilience is heterogeneously promoted in the unique context of DHH individuals living in hearing environments. They also show interactions between the individual, family and wider society and the dynamics of coping resources across time. Findings indicate the important of considering DHH individuals’ coping choices in their specific life context.
... Transcending the coming out focus-though not the intersectionality-of sexual and gender identities entirely, researchers wrote about or reported participants' wording of coming out as fat 39 (e.g., Gurrieri & Cherrier, 2013;Murray, 2005;Saguy & Ward, 2011), HIV positive (Broqua, 2009;He & Rofel, 2010;Martinez et al., 2014;Paxton, 2002;Sayles et al., 2007) which, among LGBTQ+ people is sometimes referred to as the 'second closet' (Berg & Ross, 2014;Di Feliciantonio, 2020), ill (e.g., Myers, 2004;Paterson, 2008;Schneider & Conrad, 1980), mentally ill (e.g., Bos et al., 2009;Corrigan et al., 2010;Corrigan et al., 2016;Corrigan & Matthews, 2003;Golay et al., 2021), disabled (e.g., Davidson & Henderson, 2010;Samuels, 2013;Smith & Jones, 2020;Solis, 2006), atheist (e.g., Cloud, 2017;Smith, 2011;Zimmerman et al., 2015), Jewish (e.g., Stratton, 2000), poor or working-class within academia (e.g., Callahan, 2008;Tokarczyk & Sowinska, 1997), being an undocumented immigrant (e.g., Cisneros & Bracho, 2019;Enriquez & Saguy, 2016), vegetarian (e.g., Korinek, 2012), non-drinker at work (e.g., Romo, 2018), an alcoholic (e.g., Romo et al., 2016), and being a drug-using academic (e.g., Ross et al., 2020), violent man (e.g., Gottzén, 2017), or poststructuralist (e.g., Teman & Lahman, 2019). While often acknowledging the limitations of the application of coming out in these new areas, authors argue for its conceptual benefit. ...
Article
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Coming out is a fast‐growing global research area with numerous interdisciplinary publications dedicated to its exploration. To contribute to a more organised and concise way of understanding this rapidly expanding field, I introduce a three‐lens typology. Based on the systematic categorisation of over 700 publications, coming out research can be viewed via the following three lenses: (1) the different social institutions in which individuals come out, (2) to whom individuals come out, and (3) the content of individuals' coming out. The identified lenses focus on ‘coming out in’, ‘coming out to’ and ‘coming out as’, which adds to current conceptual understandings of ‘coming out into’ and ‘coming out of’. Further, lens 3 demonstrates another usage shift of the coming out terminology. The concept of coming out originally was used outside of sexuality contexts and currently is being used more broadly again. However, in contrast to its original meaning, the new areas of application (e.g., fatness, atheism, illness) are still linked to conceptualisations and experiences of non‐normativity. This publication assists students, scholars, and practitioners with navigating the extensive amount of coming out literature. It further illustrates the potential and challenges of coming out research and points towards the future—the if, how and what—of this field.
... Through cultural frames for normalcy, individuals are oriented towards normalcy, or passing and enacting camouflage. Yet Ryan finds it difficult to keep his frames straight; they pile up as he resists coming out of his deliberately camouflaged disability (Samuels, 2013 Living life in frames is incoherent and unsustainable. Despite Ryan's attempt to surrender his personal frames around disability, other frames certainly exist. ...
... Rather we must situate each of these experiences in context, at the internal, interpersonal, institutional, and ideological levels. Even the idea of "coming out" of the closet as an analogy can inhibit experiences - Samuels (2003) notes many of the limitations of the idea of a closet, particularly when used across intersections of gender, disability, sexual orientation, and more. As Sedgwick (2007) suggested, binaries are not useful, nor is the idea of being in or out of the closet, a sentiment echoed by the second author in their piece that explores a galactical model of identity, rather than one focused on boxes and binaries (Kattari, 2019). ...
Article
In this article, we (two fat, white, queer, nonbinary, chronically ill critical social work scholars) explore the parallel processes of coming out as fat and coming out as other identities (queer, femme, neurodivergent, nonbinary, chronically ill, disabled). We begin by reviewing literature from queer theories, crip theory, and fat studies, addressing concepts of “coming out” and identity. Next, taking an identity-centered autoethnographic and autoarchaeological approach, we explore how the processes in coming out as fat—growing critical consciousness, positive social identity reclamation, community belonging—mirrored other coming out processes, fostering resilience in our lives. We perform this reflection on sense(s) of self within a queer critical intersectional approach, as we individually and collectively examine how our fat identities are situated within our gender, racial, class, ability, health, and sexual orientation contexts. We interrogate how these identities of fatness and beyond, both privileged and oppressed, interplay in our personal, professional, and health-related experiences, and interactions with others. Finally, building off of the theoretical work proposed by Hunger, Major, and Blodorn (2015), we integrate concepts of critical consciousness, positive social identity, and community connectedness into the social identity threat model (as applied to weight stigma), hypothesizing how these potential positive outcomes of “coming out” may moderate the relationship between the psychological stress associated with marginalized identity and the adverse physical and mental health outcomes commonly associated with oppression and minority stress.
... Einschlägige Handbücher der Disability Studies beschäftigen sich unterschiedlich intensiv mit dem Konzept der Intersektionalitätin den ersten Einführungswerken (Shakespeare 1998;Snyder et al. 2002;Waldschmidt und Schneider 2007) In der intrakategorialen Rezeption von Intersektionalität, also dem Fokus auf zu wenig beachtete, komplexe (Diskriminierungs-)Erfahrungen bestimmter Gruppen, wird die potenzielle Homogenisierung der Gruppe der Menschen mit Behinderungen innerhalb der Disability Studies kritisiert. Die Autor_innen beschäftigen sich beispielsweise mit den Behinderungserfahrungen von durch Rassismus, Klassismus und Ableismus mehrfach diskriminierten Menschen (Erevelles und Minear 2017) oder von Menschen mit nicht sichtbaren Beeinträchtigungen (Samuels 2017). In der interkategorialen Lesart von Intersektionalität bewegen sich die Analysen eher auf der Makroebene und nutzen a priori angenommene Kategorien um Ungleichheitsverhältnisse auf sozialstruktureller Ebene aufzuzeigen: so etwa die ungleiche Prä-valenz bestimmter Diagnosen psychischer Krankheit je nach Race oder Religionszugehörigkeit (Price 2017) oder die Überrepräsentation von People of Color, armen und behinderten Menschen in geschlossener Unterbringung (Ben-Moshe 2017). ...
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Trotz entstehungsgeschichtlicher und programmatischer Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen Intersektionalitätsforschung und Disability Studies zeichnen sich diese nicht durch eine gleichberechtigte Forschungsallianz aus. Der Beitrag problematisiert dies anhand eines Überblicks zur Etablierung der Disability Studies, gefolgt von einer Darstellung der gegenseitigen – asymmetrischen – Rezeption beider Forschungsrichtungen. Abschließend wird auf das Potenzial von Forschung an der Schnittstelle von Intersektionalitätsforschung und Disability Studies verwiesen, das sich vor allem hinsichtlich strukturorientierter Analysen entfalten könnte.
... As noted above, Adrian explicitly stated that his concerns did not extend to "hard accommodations." This assertion is demonstrative of greater social awareness and acceptance of physical disabilities, which is well established by prior research (e.g., Beilke & Yssel, 1999;Humphrey, 2000;Jensen et al., 2004;Samuels, 2013). Consistent with this research, RDs appeared to be more willing to question the impacts of accommodations specifically related to disabilities that were less easily visible. ...
Article
The residential experiences of students with disabilities in higher education play a pivotal role in their overall campus education. However, little is known about the ways in which the staff who manage and support these residential environments understand and work with issues and concepts of disability. Utilizing constructivist grounded theory, this study examines the ways in which resident directors think about and work with disability within their positions of residential management. The study also explores the ways in which resident directors think about and understand disability as a component of diversity, the steps that resident directors take in working with students with disabilities, and the support they provide their student staff in fostering residential communities inclusive of students with disabilities. The findings suggest that resident directors’ work related to disabilities and disability identity is marked by tensions between individual understandings of disability and institutional systems and job expectations. Suggestions are provided for ways to better support resident directors as they navigate conflict between personal beliefs and positional responsibilities.
... There are a variety of reasons why DIDF-veteran students are hesitant to self-identify as students with disabilities, even when they face severe barriers, according to the . For example, DIDF-veteran students may simply want to blend in with other students (Shackelford, 2009) (Samuels, 2003) to disability disclosure strategies, passing, concealment (Cureton, 2018), genericism and selective disclosure (Miller et al., 2019;Wood, 2017). Kerschbaum et al., (2017) indicated "disability disclosure is not a singular event, not a once-and-for-all action but, rather an ongoing process of continuously, in a variety of settings and contexts, performing and negotiating disability awareness and perceptibility" (p. 1). ...
Article
Even though military service in Israel is mandatory and common among the state population, Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) veterans with disabilities are rarely represented in the literature regarding their experience in Israeli higher education (HE). This study aimed to fill this gap by investigating the experiences of disabled IDF (DIDF) veteran students, their experiences as students, identities, challenges, and utilization of support resources on their campuses. The relevant fields of Disability Studies, Veteran Studies, and the use of disability support services on campus are discussed in this study, focusing on the implementation of accessibility regulations and practices in the Israeli HE system concerning the target population of DIDF veterans. This dissertation study aimed to understand the perceptions, needs for disability services, and experiences of DIDF-veteran students within the general student population in Israeli HE. This study applied a qualitative method with a small quantitative component. Participants were recruited to respond to an online survey and then were offered to participate in in-depth interviews. The qualitative sample included 13 participants who had a range of disabilities and attended different HE institutions including colleges and universities. They had varied military service backgrounds and educational experiences during undergraduate and graduate studies. All participants were officially recognized as DIDF veterans by the MoD, having a single or multiple disabilities. This population mainly receives rehabilitation and support services from the Israeli Ministry of Defense (MoD), but not necessarily in HE. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an inductive approach. The findings revealed that many of the participants had learning disabilities (LDs) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other impairments or medical conditions on top of their military disability that impacted their ability to function as students. The study findings were displayed first by the four (sub) research questions and then were organized into three major themes: Disability as a Complex Category, Negotiating Disability, Choice of Support. In conclusion, my study calls for a greater awareness of this unique population and its needs in HE, which has the potential to serve as a rehabilitation site for many of them.
... One core aspect of this phenomenon consists in hiding important aspects of one's identity (known as "master statuses" -see Goffman, 1963Goffman, /2009), such as one's ethnicity, gender, disability, etc. Full-fledged cases of passing also tend to be described as cognitively and emotionally costly. While some instances of passing may include elements of deception, others may be seen as acts of self-preservation, especially in the context of unfair demands about revealing intimate aspects of one's identity (Samuels, 2003). ...
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Camouflaging may be characterized as a set of actions and strategies more or less consciously adopted by some autistic people to navigate the neurotypical social world. Despite the increased interest that this phenomenon has garnered, its nature remains elusive and in need of conceptual clarification. In this paper, we aim to put forward an inclusive view of camouflaging that does justice to its complexity while also reflecting the heterogeneity of autism as a condition. First, we offer an overview of the main characterizations of camouflaging. This overview shows that current characterizations fail to paint a cohesive picture, and that different accounts emphasize different aspects of the phenomenon. Second, we explore the analogy between camouflaging and passing, which we take to be illuminating to describe some forms of camouflaging, while probably obscuring the study of others. Third, we extend the discussion about camouflaging to currently understudied groups across the autistic spectrum -i.e., children, and adults with linguistic and/or intellectual disabilities. We argue that camouflaging in such groups may differ from what the current literature describes as typical instances of camouflaging. We conclude by revisiting the nature of camouflaging in light of such understudied groups, and we offer some suggestions on how to move research forward.
... It is critical that SLPs understand and make clear to clients that the purpose of behavioral speech modification should not be to conceal stuttering or to appear more neurotypical to others but instead to improve the speaker's experience with communication. It is well documented that "passing," or attempting to conceal an aspect of the self to appear as a member of the majority, can be toxic to psychological health across numerous clinical and nonclinical populations (Gerlach et al., 2021;Goffman, 1963;Griffith & Hebl, 2002;Kalichman & Nachimson, 1999;Samuels, 2003;Siebers, 2004). SLPs can prioritize the speaker's experience with communication by exploring how clients experience the moment of stuttering as well as its variability and multidimensional impact (Tichenor & Yaruss, 2018. ...
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Purpose The purposes of this tutorial are (a) to critically review the ways in which stuttering therapy and research are both constrained by and resistant to ableism and (b) to offer practical suggestions for further interrupting stuttering-related ableism in the discipline of speech-language pathology. Method At the beginning of the tutorial, the concept of ableism is introduced and the effects of ableism on people who stutter are discussed. Following an overview of the discipline's current strengths in resisting ableism associated with stuttering, five practical suggestions for further interrupting ableism are provided. To illustrate how these suggestions might be enacted, real and hypothetical clinical and research scenarios are presented throughout. Although this tutorial draws heavily on the experiences of adults who stutter, many of the concepts are also relevant to kids and teens who stutter. Conclusion Speech-language pathologists can be change agents in interrupting ableism associated with stuttering and powerful allies to people who stutter.
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This paper analyses and critically discusses experiences and narratives of sexuality disclosure and concealment of LGBTQ people from a Muslim background living in Brussels. It does so by presenting data collected over a year of ethnographic research in the city. The “closet/coming out” metaphor is central in western discourses around LGBTQ identities and sexualities, and its wide circulation resulted in its conflations with a number of different meanings. Rather than simply being a descriptive metaphor, it comes to represent a linear, tautological, and normative path of LGBTQ liberation, leading the LGBTQ subject from an “in” of darkness and secrecy, to an “out” of transparency and authenticity. Queer of color scholars have noted how the metaphor, and the prescriptive path it traces, often fails to capture and understand the experiences of racialised LGBTQ people. Elaborating on queer of color critiques to the normativity charted by coming out discourses, this paper argues for the unpacking and deconstruction of the binary and linear trajectory from “in” to “out” of the closet to understand the experiences of LGBTQ people from a Muslim background. In particular, it argues for a focus on silence as a productive site, on non‐disclosure of sexuality as a functional strategy, and on the ways in which knowledge about sexualities can often circulate in tacit ways. As a result, the rigidity of the closet is disrupted, and its borders emerge as porous and flexible in the experiences of LGBTQ people from a Muslim background.
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Book Description Using sources from a wide variety of print and digital media, this book discusses the need for ample and healthy portrayals of disability and neurodiversity in the media, as the primary way that most people learn about conditions. It contains 13 newly written chapters drawing on representations of disability in popular culture from film, television, and print media in both the Global North and the Global South, including the United States, Canada, India, and Kenya. Although disability is often framed using a limited range of stereotypical tropes such as victims, supercrips, or suffering patients, this book shows how disability and neurodiversity are making their way into more mainstream media productions and publications with movies, television shows, and books featuring prominent and even lead characters with disabilities or neurodiversity. Disability Representation in Film, TV, and Print Media will be of interest to all scholars and students of disability studies, cultural studies, film studies, gender studies, and sociology more broadly. Preview of first 50+ pages made available here.
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Trotz entstehungsgeschichtlicher und programmatischer Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen Intersektionalitätsforschung und Disability Studies zeichnen sich diese nicht durch eine gleichberechtigte Forschungsallianz aus. Der Beitrag problematisiert dies anhand eines Überblicks zur Etablierung der Disability Studies, gefolgt von einer Darstellung der gegenseitigen-asymmetrischen-Rezeption beider Forschungsrichtungen. Abschließend wird auf das Potenzial von Forschung an der Schnittstelle von Intersektionalitätsforschung und Disability Studies verwiesen, das sich vor allem hinsichtlich strukturorientierter Analysen entfalten könnte.
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Designed to amplify and archive narratives frequently erased in official accounts of faculty life, this article centers a Latina feminist testimonio approach in its personal examination of mentally disabled faculty members and crip time, or the unique temporalities experienced by disabled individuals and the temporal strategies that they purposefully deploy. The analysis specifically focuses on mentally disabled faculty who are multiply marginalized, or those who often go “thrice unseen” within neoliberal US academia. It is framed throughout by a series of personal observations regarding the singular characteristics of crip time as it is lived by the author, herself a mentally disabled faculty member. Building on the scholarship of disability, queer, and ethnic studies scholars, it explores fraught concepts such as the pressure to pass for neurotypical, societal expectations regarding marriage and reproduction, academic collegiality, and the politics of workplace disclosure. The article closes with a consideration of crip time as pandemic time, as it ponders the distinct parallels between temporal existence during a pandemic and a life always lived through crip time, as well as the potential for reimaging time in a post-COVID world.
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On Saturday, January 21, 2017, the day after the inauguration of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States, there was an impressive Women’s March in Washington, D.C., the nation’s capital. The guiding vision and definition of principles of the Women’s March equated Women’s Rights with Human Rights and called for the liberation of “Black women, Native Women, poor women, immigrant women, disabled women, Muslim women, Lesbian, queer and, trans women,” whose perspectives had too often been ignored or excluded from the predominately white mainstream women’s movement in the past. The demonstration represented a massive intergenerational protest of women, transgendered, and men from 50 states who, having donned their hand-made knitted and crocheted pink pussy hats, gathered to brandish their posters such as “Asian Pacific Islander Queers from San Francisco,” “Science is REAL,” “Take your BROKEN HEART and make ART.” The authors examine protest signs, symbols, and artifacts from the Women’s March for intersectionality of issues posed by the march organizers and participants. Critical discourse analysis is utilized to explore the messages, movements, values, and identities through the combination of images, text, historical moment (setting and time), and participants in the demonstration.
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This paper examines the identity work of women undergoing high‐cost religious disaffiliation by examining the exit experiences of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter‐day Saint (LDS, Mormon). Previous research into religious change has not fully engaged with the extensive identity work that exiters do as they leave these groups. I propose a stage model of religious exit identity development to expand upon the process of identity transformation during and after high‐cost religious exit. Additionally, I examine how the gender regimes of high‐cost‐religions result in different pathways out and experiences during disaffiliation for women and men. Though constructed to describe high‐cost religious exits, this model may also be helpful in understanding other “high‐cost” exits. A video abstract is available at https://youtu.be/hup3KFXvODs.
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El género documental es un cine subjetivo y reivindicativo que ha sido utilizado para prácticas activistas desde su creación, ampliando miradas, rompiendo tabúes y mostrando realidades diferentes, ricas y plurales. Los documentales Yes we fuck!, Jo també vull sexe! y Crip Camp tienen en común la visibilización del potencial político de los cuerpos en rebelión. En este artículo se realizará un estado de la cuestión acerca de la relación entre sexualidad y diversidad funcional para más adelante realizar un análisis audiovisual, con un enfoque cualitativo e interdisciplinar de los documentales seleccionados, poniendo especial énfasis en la transgresiones sociales que significan mostrar abiertamente las sexualidades y los cuerpos diversos, y cómo esta práctica audiovisual aumenta el grado de empoderamiento personal y colectivo y termina convirtiéndose en un arma de reivindicación política.
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This article explores the disability related identity experiences of young people with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Using a narrative inquiry methodology, 25 young people between 18 and 29 years participated in in-depth interviews. Their narratives highlighted growing perceptions of difference and how the negative actions and attitudes of a few people in their past continued to shadow their current lives. Influenced by perceived negative attitudes of others to disability and their own internalisation of these, the young people conceptualise a binary of normalcy and difference, finding themselves liminally positioned, somewhere in between, and mostly seeking to avoid a disability association. In new social situations, the young people reported engaging in disability identity management work, while often resisting having disability as part of their identity. These can be conceptualised as acts of resilience and of resistance in the face of oppressive social forces. There is a powerful counter narrative in a sub group of the participants who were actively engaged with peers with experience of disability. For these young people, the inclusion of disability within social identities became possible. The findings of this study have implications for our understandings of managing identities in young lives, particularly for those in marginal positions.
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Signs prescribing our permission to enter or abstain from specific places, such as those on toilet doors, mark murky borders between quasi-public and private space and have profound impacts upon our lives and identities. In this paper we draw on research which centred trans, queer and disabled people's experiences of toilet in/exclusion to explore how the signs on toilet doors shape disabled people's experiences of toilet access away from home and therefore their use of public space more broadly. We argue that the use of the International Symbol of Access (ISA) both delivers a false promise of accessibility and maintains the borders of disability through (re)enforcing a particular public imaginary of disability. We note the forced reliance on toilets in institutional and commercial settings when away from home and argue that, under capitalism, accessibility is persistently restricted by its potential to be lucrative.
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This chapter explores historical and contemporary tensions and overlaps in activist and scholarly interventions at the intersections of madness, queerness, and transness. It elucidates the origins of a single-issue politic in LGBTQ activism that employed sanist logics in the service of declassifying homosexuality as a mental illness in the DSM as well as the existence of an intersectional, coalitional politic that was present at the time of declassification struggles. This chapter discusses the scholarly outgrowths of these activist interventions and the possibilities of emerging scholarship using a mad-queer-trans lens. This chapter suggests that ideas and activism that are often disparaged as belonging to the “lunatic fringe” are sources of subjugated knowledge that shed light on the mutually constitutive character of madness, queerness, and transness as well as intersectional analyses of structural racism, colonialism, sanism, homophobia, transphobia, classism, and other forms of oppression in the biomedical model of mental illness.
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Given its subject matter, biological psychiatry is uniquely poised to lead STEM DEI initiatives related to disability. Drawing on literatures in science, philosophy, psychiatry, and disability studies, we outline how that leadership might be undertaken. We first review existing opportunities for the advancement of DEI in biological psychiatry around axes of gender and race. We then explore the expansion of biological psychiatry’s DEI efforts to disability, especially along the lines of representation and access, community accountability, first person testimony, and revised theoretical frameworks for pathology. We close with concrete recommendations for scholarship and practice going forward. By tackling head-on the challenge of disability inclusion, biological psychiatry has the opportunity to be a force of transformation in the biological sciences and beyond.
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Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) participation involves two dimensions: quantity and quality. Research has been undertaken to explore strategies for increasing the quantity of LTPA among ambulators with spinal cord injury (SCI). Yet, no studies have been conducted to examine the quality of LTPA participation among ambulators with SCI, which may be important for well-being, health, and maintaining participation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore conditions and elements involved in positive and negative quality LTPA experiences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 ambulators with SCI. Using pragmatism and integrated knowledge translation as guiding approaches, the data were thematically analysed. Following inductive coding, the Quality Participation Framework and the Quality Parasport Participation Framework were employed for deductively coding the elements and conditions associated with LTPA experiences, respectively. Three principal themes were identified which provide broad insights for LTPA among ambulators with SCI: ableism, feeling sidelined, and effects of SCI. These themes capture conditions that fostered a positive or negative quality PA experience, including: three intrapersonal, five social, four programme, and one physical condition(s). Elements identified in the Quality Participation Framework were also related to both positive and negative quality LTPA experiences. This study provides insight on how LTPA is uniquely experienced by ambulators with SCI, including conditions and elements that influence quality participation. Self-determination theory may be useful to inform the design of behavioural interventions due to its alignment with the Quality Participation Framework. Behavioural interventions should employ behaviour change techniques to target conditions and elements of LTPA participation.
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Autistic masking and camouflaging—concealing Autistic traits to ‘pass’ as non-Autistic—is linked to negative developmental consequences including stress, mental illness, identity loss, and suicidality. Recent psychological literature on masking and camouflaging seeks to urgently address these issues—yet overlooks relevant sociological research. This study uses Sara Ahmed and Frantz Fanon’s work on masking, alongside Judith Butler’s concept of performativity, to formulate distinct sociological definitions for Autistic masking and camouflaging. I offer a qualitative Critical Discourse Analysis of 2018’s #TakeTheMaskOff Neurodiversity Activism campaign, alongside psychology masking/camouflaging literature, to question the social drivers of masking and camouflaging. Autism is widely understood as an ‘Invisible’ Disability. However, I found that the necessity of masking and camouflaging to avoid discrimination renders Autistic people a ‘Visible Neurominority Group’. Proposing a new Minority Group Model of Neurodiversity, I argue that Neurotypical hegemony, invisibility, and majority group privilege are key social drivers of masking and camouflaging. Link: https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/524122
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Despite the increased technical accessibility of social media, disabled users’ attempts to be socially included are still understudied. These users’ agency-based choices are impacted by constant able-bodied surveillance and disciplining, especially when it comes to dis/ability visibility and potential context collapse. This paper develops the concept of disability performance within social media studies, presenting a qualitative study of social media users with concealable communicative disabilities: autistics, hard-of-hearing and people who stutter. Four factors were found to shape users’ dis/ability performances: the use of social media interfaces for the compartmentalization of disabled identity; users’ continuous efforts to make their social environment inclusionary; the centrality of users’ disabled identity and intersectionality; and the design of the performance’s message. Together, these show disability performances to be deliberate expressions of agency on the part of vulnerable social media users, who perform dis/ability according to their own evaluation of authenticity to increase their social inclusion.
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The author presents a case study of an in-depth interview conducted with David, a young blind man who has faced multiple and interacting forms of inequity. David’s experiences of blindness have carved out a path of upward economic mobility, as he gained cultural capital through a blind person’s organization in the United States. In addition, David’s experience of developing a political perspective on his disability was formative in shaping his process of coming out as queer and becoming active in Latinx issues and politics. David has gained critical skills in bringing intersectional perspectives to multiple activist communities to which he belongs. The author illuminates the importance of recognizing how culture matters in shaping the life trajectories of individuals with disabilities, which go beyond additive models of oppression. • Points of interest • Disabled people belong to multiple communities, but researchers have too often treated disability as a singular identity. • Activist communities have also been slow to recognize that people’s backgrounds interact with disability. • The participant’s journey to developing a positive disability identity had a profound impact on other aspects of his identity, including his social class position, his gay identity, and his advocacy around immigration issues. • The participant’s experiences and advocacy within activist communities illuminates how various forms of inequity intersect.
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In Taylor Johnson’s essay, “Please Don’t Pet: Reflections on Life with My Diabetes Alert Dog,” Johnson recounts the way social groups read and code her body as a Black diabetic with a service dog. Johnson brings readers attention to the staring, racism and ableism she manages from strangers and from within diabetic communities. In a culminating argument, Johnson calls attention to how “the non-disabled world prioritizes their convenience and profits over our access to an equitable life.”
Chapter
Cynthia Martin takes on the stigma entrenched in public service announcements (PSAs) intended to reduce diabetes incidence. In her essay, “The Monstering of Diabetes: The Failure of Fear and Sarcasm in Public Health PSAs,” Martin accounts for rhetorical strategies in international PSA campaigns that use “appeals to fear and sarcastic humor” in their advertisements. Martin argues that such strategies are not only unsuccessful at changing behavior, but they also reproduce diabetes stigma.
Chapter
Blending poetic narrative and theory, Matt Paczkowski provides an insightful critique of the popular film Panic Room. Blending his own experiences with diabetes and desire-frustration theory, Paczkowski outlines areas the film “gets right” and some of its flaws as well. Paczkowski pays extended attention to the mother-daughter relationship in the film, deeply exploring the caregiving and taking between the mother, Meg, and the diabetic daughter, Sarah. In his essay, “Panic Rooms: Suspense in Type 1 Diabetes” Paczkowski ultimately argues that everyday life with diabetes meets the metrics of the thriller genre of cinema.
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In this article, I use three theories from disability studies-compulsory able-bodiedness, coming out and masquerading, and crip time- o examine stories of non-apparent disability from my interview study of diversity issues among archaeologists. I consider how our discipline privileges some bodies and minds over others and offer suggestions for building a truly inclusive and accessible archaeology. Keywords disabled archaeologists · non-apparent disability · equity issues · crip theory
Chapter
In his memoir Exile and Pride, Eli Clare uses the mountain and the summit as metaphors for a normative ideology, which severely affects marginalized people. This conclusion points out how all of the texts discussed in the earlier chapters negotiate the significance of bodily and perceptual habits, the influence of language and culture on embodiment, the importance of relationality and community, the severe effects of misrecognition, and the possibilities of emancipation and social recognition. For these reasons, they can be regarded pioneering contributions to the emerging field of critical phenomenology, which has the potential to analyze the ways in which culture impinges on material bodies. Consequently, social constructionism and lived experience should be thought of as theoretical approaches that need to be addressed together instead of being regarded as incompatible.
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Contemporary feminists take a dismissive attitude toward the sex/race analogy of the 1970s. However flawed as an analysis of sex, race, and the relations between them, not least for its erasure of women of color, the sex/race analogy was a founding rhetorical strategy of the women's Liberation Movement. A history of the analogy is traced, focusing on its use as a legitimating strategy for the emergent women's Liberation Movement, as well as a literary critical/historical aspect of its use in feminist fictional re-visionings of Invisible Man. Concluding remarks examine ways the analogy continues to function in contemporary feminist fiction, most notably with a shift in the meaning of â–˜sexâ–™ from sex as gender to â–˜sexâ–™ as sexuality, with specific attention to the analogy's use in theory by women of color
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New Literary History 28.4 (1997) 655-672 As Wittgenstein uses the word, analogy is not just an image, an extended simile, or the juxtaposition of objects of comparison, any more than it is merely illustrative, concrete, or poetic. Fundamental both to science and theology, analogy in Wittgenstein's sense is a traditional method of reasoning from the known to the unknown, and from the visible to the speculative, by carrying familiar terms, paradigms, and images across into unfamiliar territory. This is why Derrida describes analogy as a form of translation -- a way of transporting something from place to place, from old to new, from original to copy, and from one (con)text to another. And it is why in the investigations of the later Wittgenstein, questions of resemblance or analogy -- the German word Ähnlichkeit, usually translated as "resemblance" in English versions of his text, means both -- are considered as questions about the legitimate or illegitimate translation or transposition of words and images from one "region of language" to another, from one system of symbolization to another, and from one context or scenario to another. In their different ways, Derrida and the later Wittgenstein both alter our dominant concept of the law of language and rule of culture in theory and cultural studies by drawing our attention to the analogical bridges by which language and law are translated from place to place. For Derrida, analogy acts as "a bridge" between different and often incommensurable domains, by creating "a link through resemblance" across "a frontier which is not thereby abolished." The bridge which Derrida uses in his own writing consists of what Saussure called "the sound-image" of words. A particular sound-image (sans/sang/sens or eau/au/o) or permutations of the "same" sounds (Glas-gla-cla) are Derrida's privileged vehicle of translation, the passe-partout which carries a word across the frontiers of different languages, texts, and disciplines. In his writing, analogous sounds link a multitude of heterogeneous and largely incommensurable meanings, languages, and contexts in the space of a single word reduced to a pure signifier, to an empty universal form, or to what Derrida calls, following Benjamin, "pure language." Wittgenstein's later writings foreground and problematize the analogical bridge in a different way: "In all language there is a bridge between the sign and its application. No one can make this for us; we have to bridge the gap ourselves. No explanation ever saves the jump." Wittgenstein's later writings mime the problems of the gap, the bridge, and the jump. By forcing the reader's mind and eye to "jump" from remark to remark, they underline the gaps between the sign and its different applications in different contexts in which it might be used. And by obscuring or eliding the transitions between, and often also within, remarks, they raise questions about the links: How (on earth!) did he move from here to there -- from this remark to that, or from this word or command to that translation into symbol or act? Is that really what this word means here? Can we still use this word there? And: Does this use of the word resemble that? For Wittgenstein, "meaning moves" from case to case by means of analogies. Resemblances or analogies form the bridge. Analogies or resemblances link the different things we call an "experience," a "muscular sensation," or "good." But there is a "gap" between the sign and its application because we use the words for any number of things which have no common essence -- for instance, we use the word "good" for roast beef, Greek art, and German music -- without any rule to tell us just how and where it must be applied. We have to "recognize each time afresh" that the word "good" may be applied here or that this is a particular instance of "goodness." And we do so by analogy with previous uses of the word "good": "What right did I have to speak of a new 'experience' or a new 'muscular sensation'? Surely I did so by analogy with my earlier use of these words." For Wittgenstein, and indeed for traditional rhetoricians, an analogy is not an identity; it...
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1995.
Disability, Identity, and Difference, " 105; and Wendell, Rejected Body
  • See Shakespeare
See Shakespeare, " Disability, Identity, and Difference, " 105; and Wendell, Rejected Body, 82.
Analogy As a Critical Term: A Survey and Some Comments
  • Nilli Diengott
Nilli Diengott, " Analogy As a Critical Term: A Survey and Some Comments, " Style 19 (1985): 228.
Unless Otherwise Stated, " 68. The example of " black, Asian, Latina, and white " is one that I have extrapolated from Swain and Cameron's article rather than one that they themselves offer
  • Cameron Swain
Swain and Cameron, " Unless Otherwise Stated, " 68. The example of " black, Asian, Latina, and white " is one that I have extrapolated from Swain and Cameron's article rather than one that they themselves offer.
introduction to Passing: Identity and Interpretation in Sexuality, Race, and Religion
  • Linda Schlossberg
Linda Schlossberg, introduction to Passing: Identity and Interpretation in Sexuality, Race, and Religion, ed. María Carla Sánchez and Linda Schlossberg (New York: New York University Press, 2001), 1.
disability is a specular moment " and argues that all disability, even mental illness, " shows up as a disruption in the visual field " (Enforcing Normalcy, xvi Garland-Thomson also focuses on the " stare
  • Davis That
Davis writes that " disability is a specular moment " and argues that all disability, even mental illness, " shows up as a disruption in the visual field " (Enforcing Normalcy, xvi, 11–15, 129 – 42). Garland-Thomson also focuses on the " stare " that constructs the category of disability (Extraordinary Bodies, 26);
The Sexual Politics of Disability: Untold Desires These authors clearly share Swain and Cameron's definition of coming out, as seen in their summary
  • Tom Shakespeare
  • Kath Gillespie-Sells
Tom Shakespeare, Kath Gillespie-Sells, and Dominic Davies, The Sexual Politics of Disability: Untold Desires (New York: Cassell, 1996), 55. These authors clearly share Swain and Cameron's definition of coming out, as seen in their summary on page 58.
Private Dancer: Evolution of a Freak
  • Nomy Lamm
Nomy Lamm, " Private Dancer: Evolution of a Freak, " in Restricted Access: Lesbians on Disability, ed. Victoria A. Brownworth and Susan Raffo (Seattle: Seal, 1999), 160–61.
CFIDS is a debilitating systemic illness that primarily affects the neurological, immune, and muscular systems. It is also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis. For more detail see Peggy Munson Stricken: Voices from the Hidden Epidemic of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Carolyn Gage Brownworth And Russo
Carolyn Gage, " Hidden Disability: A Coming Out Story, " in Brownworth and Russo, Restricted Access, 203. CFIDS is a debilitating systemic illness that primarily affects the neurological, immune, and muscular systems. It is also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis. For more detail see Peggy Munson, ed., Stricken: Voices from the Hidden Epidemic of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (New York: Haworth, 2000). 252 GLQ: A JOURNAL OF LESBIAN AND GAY STUDIES GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies Published by Duke University Press
You Don't Look Handicapped . . .': Why I Use a White Cane to Tell People That I'm Deaf Electric Edge
  • Megan Jonesgee
Megan Jones, " 'Gee, You Don't Look Handicapped...': Why I Use a White Cane to Tell People That I'm Deaf, " Electric Edge, July–August 1997, accessed on 10 July 2002 at www.ragged-edge-mag.com/archive/look.htm.
Seeing Is Be(liev)ing, " in Brownworth and Russo, Restricted Access, 34; Jones
  • Deborah Peifer
Deborah Peifer, " Seeing Is Be(liev)ing, " in Brownworth and Russo, Restricted Access, 34; Jones, " 'Gee, You Don't Look Handicapped...' " ; Kleege, Sight Unseen, 39.
The Black Notebooks: An Interior Journey
  • Toi Derricotte
Toi Derricotte, The Black Notebooks: An Interior Journey (New York: Norton, 1997), 112.
Seeing Is Be(live)ing
  • Ibid
Ibid., 111; Peifer, " Seeing Is Be(live)ing, " 34.
at www.ragged-edge-mag.com/archive/ look.htm; Adrian Piper Passing for White, Passing for Black
  • Amanda Hamilton
Amanda Hamilton, " Oh the Joys of Invisibility! " letter to the editor, Electric Edge, July–August 1997, accessed on 10 July 2002 at www.ragged-edge-mag.com/archive/ look.htm; Adrian Piper, " Passing for White, Passing for Black, " in Passing and the Fictions of Identity, ed. Elaine K. Ginsberg (Durham: Duke University Press, 1996), 256 –57, 266.
Analogy As Translation
  • Ginsberg
  • Passing
Ginsberg, Passing, 4. 33. Bannet, " Analogy As Translation, " 663.
The Persistent Desire: A Femme-Butch Reader
  • Joan Nestle
Joan Nestle, ed., The Persistent Desire: A Femme-Butch Reader (Boston: Alyson, 1992), 16.
Looking Like What You Are
  • Walker
Walker, Looking Like What You Are, 209 –10.
Passing Loquería Sandoval adapts Gloria Anzaldúa's description of being a lesbian of color as making for " loquería, the crazies
  • Gaby Sandoval Harris
  • Crocker
  • Femme
Gaby Sandoval, " Passing Loquería, " in Harris and Crocker, Femme, 173. Sandoval adapts Gloria Anzaldúa's description of being a lesbian of color as making for " loquería, the crazies " (Borderlands, 2d ed. [San Francisco: Aunt Lute, 1999], 19).
once received a letter from her university, responding to her request for funds for assistance, " which essentially saidWe do not understand what you mean when you refer to yourself as " deaf-blind When you were in the office the other day you seemed to function just fine
  • Jones
Jones, a graduate student, once received a letter from her university, responding to her request for funds for assistance, " which essentially said, 'We do not understand what you mean when you refer to yourself as " deaf-blind. " When you were in the office the other day you seemed to function just fine' " ( " 'Gee, You Don't Look Handicapped...' " ).
Invisible Man and Invisible Women
  • Hogeland
Hogeland, " Invisible Man and Invisible Women, " 36.
How Does She Look? " 176
  • Rugg
Rugg, " How Does She Look? " 176.