IgG4-related disease of the ureter: Report of two cases and review of the literature

ArticleinArchiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 462(6) · May 2013with33 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s00428-013-1421-5 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized multi-organ fibro-inflammatory lesion characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels and mass-forming lesions. This condition shows similar histological features independently of the site of origin including storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with a conspicuous IgG4-positive plasma cell component. Since this disease has only recently been categorized as a single specific nosologic entity, lesions with these typical morphological features have previously been named in different ways, creating some confusion and making it difficult to identify cases published in the literature. Lesions with features suggesting IgG4-RDs have very rarely been reported in the ureter, and they have been named using the terms "inflammatory pseudotumor" and "idiopathic segmental ureteritis." Herein, we describe the clinicopathological features of ureteral IgG4-RD found in two different patients. An 82-year-old female and a 77-year-old male underwent ureteral resection due to severe ureteral wall thickness and lumen stenosis suggestive of urothelial carcinoma. However, histological examinations showed transmural fibro-inflammatory lesions, with abundant IgG4 plasma cells intermixed with histiocytes, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and scattered eosinophils. We have also accurately reviewed the literature in order to identify, among lesions diagnosed with different names, examples of ureteral IgG4-related lesions to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this relatively rare inflammatory disease. We suggest using the name "ureteral IgG4-RD" for those lesions showing the same morphological features as IgG4-RDs located elsewhere.
    • "IgA nephropathy , membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, endocapillary or mesangioproliferative immune complex glomerulonephritis can also be observed. Cases of IgG4-related plasma cell renal arteritis and ureteritis have also been described [30,[135][136][137][138] . IgG4-related thyroiditis is more rapidly progressive compared to other forms of thyroiditis which are distinguished by the frequent subclinical hypothyroidism, lower levels of thyroid autoantibodies, and a less diffusely low echogenicity on imaging [139] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the earliest reports in 2001, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease has been defined as an autoimmune systemic disease characterized by the lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of affected tissues leading to fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis along with elevated serum IgG4 levels. Prior to this unifying hypothesis, a plethora of clinical manifestations were considered as separate entities despite the similar laboratory profile. The pathology can be observed in virtually all organs and may thus be a challenging diagnosis, especially when the adequate clinical suspicion is not present or when obtaining a tissue biopsy is not feasible. Nonetheless, the most frequently involved organs are the pancreas and exocrine glands but these may be spared. Immunosuppressants lead to a prompt clinical response in virtually all cases and prevent histological sequellae and, as a consequence, an early differential diagnosis from other conditions, particularly infections and cancer, as well as an early treatment should be pursued. We describe herein two cases in which atypical disease manifestations were observed, i.e. one with recurrent neck lymph node enlargement and proptosis, and one with jaundice. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease is largely incomplete but data support a significant role for Th2 cytokines with the contribution of innate immunity factors such as toll-like receptors, macrophages and basophils. Further, macrophages activated by IL4 overexpress B cell activating factors and contribute to chronic inflammation and the development of fibrosis. We cannot rule out the possibility that the largely variable disease phenotypes reflect different pathogenetic mechanisms and the tissue microenvironment may then contribute to the organ involvement. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
    • "Importantly, in about 10 % of patients with IgG4-related pancreatitis, there was a reported concurrent presence of RF [4]. Supporting these observations, in two of our iRF patients we have seen abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the ureter wall and kidney interstitium; based on overall findings, they met the diagnostic criteria for IgG4- related ureteritis and IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis, respectively [18, 32, 33]. As there are no specific clinical, laboratory, or imaging findings in RF, biopsy is frequently taken in a patient with retroperitoneal mass, particularly to exclude malignancy. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) is a rare disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of retroperitoneal soft tissues. It is classified into two types: idiopathic (iRF) and secondary (sRF). The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between iRF and IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and to eventually extend the clinicopathological features of this condition by analysis of the sample comprising six iRF and six sRF patients. The iRF patients included four males and two females, aged 12-62 years (median 55 years). Two lesions were periaortic, one was periureteral, and three cases showed both periaortic and periureteral localization. Two patients had increased serum levels of IgG4. None of the patients developed any manifestation of IgG4-RD during the follow-up period ranging for 15-133 months (median 43 months). Microscopically, in two iRF cases, fibrosis was highly cellular encircling the vessels, nerves, and paraganglia. Phlebitis was found in all cases and being obliterative in four. Lymphocytic inflammation with formation of follicles and plasma cell infiltration were scored as severe in five iRF cases. The numbers of IgG-positive plasma cells ranged 0-373 per 1 HPF (high power field; median 132) and of IgG4-positive plasma cells 0-238 per 1 HPF (median 91). The IgG4/IgG ratio values ranged 0.38-0.74 (median 0.68). Two of the iRF cases were diagnosed as definite and three cases as probable IgG4-RD. To the contrary, none of the sRF cases met the diagnostic criteria for either definite, probable, or possible IgG4-related disease. Our results indicate that a substantial portion of iRF cases, including some of very rare pediatric cases, is a manifestation of IgG4-RD.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013
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