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Stress Management Techniques: evidence-based procedures that reduce stress and promote health. Varvogli L, Darviri C.

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Abstract Purpose: According to the World Health Organization, stress is a significant problem of our times and affects both physical as well as the mental health of people. Stress is defined as a situation where the organism‘s homeostasis is threatened or the organism perceives a situation as threatening. Stress coping methods are the cognitive, behavioral and psychological efforts to deal with stress. Method: After a thorough literature review in major databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct) the following techniques were identified and are presented and briefly discussed here: progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic training, relaxation response, biofeedback, emotional freedom technique, guided imagery, diaphragmatic breathing, transcendental meditation, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction and emotional freedom technique. Conclusion: These are all evidence-based techniques, easy to learn and practice, with good results in individuals with good health or with a disease.

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... Of the college students that reported stress, 55% of these students claim their stress to be a result of rigorous academics. The endurance of this constant stress can lead to physical health and psychological problems (Liza, 2011;Moreland et al., 2017;Nixon, Mazzola, Bauer, Krueger, & Spector, 2011). According to the American Psychological Association, "High stress has been linked to a range of health conditions including high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity and diabetes" (Krantz, Thorn, & Kiecolt-Glaser, 2013, n.p.). ...
... Additionally, the presence of a mental illness can influence academic performance, which can have long-term repercussions on career choice and accessibility. Finally, lasting mental illness can induce long-term physiological effects such as high blood pressure, racing heartbeat, and digestion problems (American Psychological Association, 2017; Krantz et al., 2013;Liza, 2011;Moreland et al., 2017;Nixon et al., 2011). ...
... Not only is stress an inconvenience, but can also cause a wide range of physiological health conditions, that if left untreated, can plague an individual for a lifetime (Liza, 2011;Moreland, et al., 2017;Nixon, Mazzola, Bauer, Krueger, & Spector, 2011;NYU, 2016). This being said, studentathletes fall victim to the same statistics as most other millennials, with a prevalence of 10-15% warranting clinical attention, which is nearing the 1 million mark of current VOLUME 33, 2018 high school and college student athletes (NCAA, 2016;NFHS, 2014). ...
... In these three studies, the duration and or number of sessions performed was greater than in this study, and this factor may therefore have contributed to the differences observed. Reviews of PMR studies have similarly reported benefits for the management several conditions including antenatal stress, disturbed mood and perinatal outcomes (Beddoe & Lee, 2008); stress (Conrad & Roth, 2007;Varvogli & Darviri, 2011); anxiety, elevated blood pressure and heart rates (Varvogli & Darviri, 2011); psychological distress in cancer patients (Barrows & Jacobs, 2002); insomnia (Barrows & Jacobs, 2002;Morin et al., 1999); inflammatory arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome (Barrows & Jacobs, 2002); ...
... In these three studies, the duration and or number of sessions performed was greater than in this study, and this factor may therefore have contributed to the differences observed. Reviews of PMR studies have similarly reported benefits for the management several conditions including antenatal stress, disturbed mood and perinatal outcomes (Beddoe & Lee, 2008); stress (Conrad & Roth, 2007;Varvogli & Darviri, 2011); anxiety, elevated blood pressure and heart rates (Varvogli & Darviri, 2011); psychological distress in cancer patients (Barrows & Jacobs, 2002); insomnia (Barrows & Jacobs, 2002;Morin et al., 1999); inflammatory arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome (Barrows & Jacobs, 2002); ...
... headaches (Barrows & Jacobs, 2002;Varvogli & Darviri, 2011); and the management of chemotherapy (Pelekasis, Matsouka, & Koumarianou, 2017). In addition, improved rehabilitation in cardiac patients and quality of life following bypass surgery have been reported (Varvogli & Darviri, 2011). ...
Thesis
A mixed-methods study evaluating the effects of acupuncture as an adjunct intervention for antenatal depression.
... Diaphragmatic breathing is particularly effective in reducing anxiety, perception and symptoms, and pursedlip breathing controls the respiratory rate and depth, resulting in relaxation and a reduction in feelings of panic [16,17]. Diaphragmatic breathing exercises provide maximum benefit to individuals, and can be used as an effective relaxation technique if they are applied together with pursed lip respiration [17][18][19]. ...
... After inhalation through the nose and moving the air to the abdomen, the breath is held for two or three seconds, then exhaled slowly and deliberately through the lips, which are contracting as if blowing out a candle. Pursed-lip breathing is a technique designed to provide control over the time and volume of breathing [17][18][19]. ...
... Diaphragmatic breathing exercises provide a decrease in blood pressure and pulse rate by stimulating the parasympathetic system, and have been reported to lower stress levels and have a sedative effect on the individual [18]. Pursed-lips breathing provides relaxation, helping to control dyspnea and feelings of panic, through the control of the rate and depth of respiration [17]. ...
Article
Background and objective: Caring for a child with a disability affects musculoskeletal system pain, fatigue, sleep quality, and anxiety of the mothers. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of breathing exercises in mothers with chronic non-specific low back pain (NLBP). Methods: Forty-three mothers with chronic NLBP were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n= 23) and the control group (n= 20). The experimental group received breathing exercises with core stabilization exercises (BSET) for three sessions a week for 8 weeks, and the control group performed stabilization exercises (SET) only, for the same period. Pain severity, fatigue, anxiety, and sleep quality were evaluated before and after the treatment programs. Results: After the treatment programs, significant differences were observed in pain, fatigue, and sleep quality in both groups (p< 0.05). However, the BSET group showed a significantly better improvement in anxiety levels and sleep quality than the SET group (p< 0.05). Conclusions: The improvements in pain, fatigue and sleep quality were seen in both groups after treatment programs. It is recommended breathing exercises are added to core stabilization programs to provide greater improvements in anxiety level and sleep quality for mothers of children with disabilities, who have NLBP.
... O estresse vem sendo tema de grande interesse em diversos cenários, o que parece decorrer das implicações biopsicossociais geradas por ele (Friedrich; Macedo; CINTED-UFRGS Revista Novas Tecnologias na Educação ____________________________________________________________________________________________ V. 18 Nº 1, julho, 2020_______________________________________________________RENOTE DOI: Khodarahimi et al., 2009;Malagris et al., 2009;Novais et al., 2016;Alves Junior, 2007;Varvogli;Darviri, 2011). Trata-se de uma resposta fisiológica e psicológica a um estímulo, através de um esforço para adaptação ou tolerância do organismo. ...
... O estresse vem sendo tema de grande interesse em diversos cenários, o que parece decorrer das implicações biopsicossociais geradas por ele (Friedrich; Macedo; CINTED-UFRGS Revista Novas Tecnologias na Educação ____________________________________________________________________________________________ V. 18 Nº 1, julho, 2020_______________________________________________________RENOTE DOI: Khodarahimi et al., 2009;Malagris et al., 2009;Novais et al., 2016;Alves Junior, 2007;Varvogli;Darviri, 2011). Trata-se de uma resposta fisiológica e psicológica a um estímulo, através de um esforço para adaptação ou tolerância do organismo. ...
... intervenções direcionadas para os múltiplos fatores de risco (Crady, 2005). Técnicas de manejo do estresse, como estratégias de enfrentamento para reduzi-lo ou preveni-lo, podem ser utilizadas não só por pessoas que já estão doentes, mas também por pessoas saudáveis, a fim de aprimorar a qualidade de vida (Vargogli;Darviri, 2011). ...
Article
Os produtos educacionais são instrumentos para a melhoria do processo de aprendizagem sobre algum tópico em um contexto social singular. Objetivo: Descrever o desenvolvimento de uma produção técnica da Disciplina de Recursos Educacionais de um Mestrado Profissional em Ensino na Saúde e Tecnologia de uma Universidade Pública do Brasil. Métodos: O uso da educação em saúde na promoção da saúde para prevenção ou redução do estresse é descrito pelo percurso metodológico da construção de um aplicativo. A concepção do produto, a referência teórica sobre o tema e a referência metodológica com base em três teorias: Análise Transacional, Exploração Sensorial e Neurolinguística (Método-CTM3) foi a principal metodologia adotada. Considerações finais: O uso de estratégias de comunicação é fundamental para que a educação em saúde pretendida por esse aplicativo contribua para a modificação dos hábitos de vida do seu público-alvo.
... [7][8][9][10][11] Stress management programs such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, imagery, and muscle relaxation have shown to improve in positive coping skills and has been used in the treatment of various disease as an adjuvant therapy. [12] An evidence-based program, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), offers intensive mindfulness training to assist people with stress, anxiety, depression, and pain. It is a practical approach, which trains attention, allowing to cultivate awareness. ...
... The process was developed by Professor Jon Kabat-Zinn. [12] A study by Wong et al. [13] was aimed to gauge the effectiveness of MBSR in reducing menopause-related symptoms by comparing with a lively control, the menopause education control (MEC). The primary outcome was measured by the modified Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS). ...
... Steps of mindfulness-based meditation are as follows: [12] a. Take a seat. ...
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Background: The global burdens of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and obesity are rising, producing enormous losses of life and disability-adjusted life-years in both developed and developing nations. Stress is a modifiable risk factor for the development of CVD. Postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis (OA) of knee joint may often report episodes of knee instability limiting their daily activities and this causes an added stress. Aims: To evaluate the effects of mindfulness-based meditation on functional outcome of OA knee and to study the effect of mindfulness-based meditation on perceived stress scores (PSSs) and markers of obesity in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was conducted on forty postmenopausal women in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India after taking institutional ethical clearance and informed consent of the patients. Presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES) scores and PSSs of the patients were assessed. Patients with PSLES scores more than 200 were included in the study. They were all on nonvegetarian diet and came from the middle socioeconomic class. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups and received either balancing exercises and mindfulness-based meditation (Group A) or balancing exercises (Group B). Patients of both groups were age matched. Body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratios were measured. The outcome measures were visual analog scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. Results: There was no significant difference in age, PSLES and PSS scores, and WOMAC and VAS scores between the two groups before intervention. AGE Group A 62.4 ± 4.16 versus Group B 62.15 ± 3.75, P = 0.85; BMI Group A 26.6 ± 1.97 versus Group B 26.2 ± 1.002, P = 0.41; waist/hip Group A 0.833 ± 0.033 versus Group B 0.832 ± 0.03, P = 0.96; PSLES Group A 296.3 ± 34.95 versus Group B 291.8 ± 25.2, P = 0.65; PSS Group A 33.38.1 ± 1.97 versus Group B 32.8 ± 2.86, P = 0.185. PSS scores (20.75 ± 1.9 vs. 27.1 ± 1.65; P < 0.0001) and waist/hip ratio were significantly less in Group A as compared to Group B following intervention. Group A had significantly lower WOMAC (38.1 ± 4.03 vs. 50.8 ± 3.78; P < 0.0001) and VAS (4.35 ± 0.77 vs. 5.75 ± 0.68; P < 0.0001) scores as compared to Group B after practice of balancing exercises along with mindfulness-based meditation. Waist/hip ratio was significantly less in the group practicing mindfulness-based meditation (Group A) as compared to Group B. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that balancing exercises when practiced along with stress relaxation exercises are more effective in improving the functional ability of OA knee in postmenopausal women.
... Later on, the research expanded to humans emphasizing the cognitive system as mediating between stressors and stress responses [3,4]. As it became evident that continuing or repeated stress responses affect a wide range of negative outcomes, both physical and psychological [5,6], various stress management techniques were developed in an attempt to reduce the harms [7][8][9][10]. These include psychophysiological techniques (such as relaxation, biofeedback and more) aiming to reduce stress responses and regaining control, as well as cognitive behavioral techniques aiming to challenge misleading perceptions. ...
... A substantial body of research has explored the efficacy of these techniques (e.g. [10]). However, in most cases, interventions were not tailored to specific patterns of responses, and thus, the same interventions were used, sometimes unsuccessfully, for various stress responses. ...
... Later on, the research expanded to humans emphasizing the cognitive system as mediating between stressors and stress responses [3,4]. As it became evident that continuing or repeated stress responses affect a wide range of negative outcomes, both physical and psychological [5,6], various stress management techniques were developed in an attempt to reduce the harms [7][8][9][10]. These include psychophysiological techniques (such as relaxation, biofeedback and more) aiming to reduce stress responses and regaining control, as well as cognitive behavioral techniques aiming to challenge misleading perceptions. ...
... A substantial body of research has explored the efficacy of these techniques (e.g. [10]). However, in most cases, interventions were not tailored to specific patterns of responses, and thus, the same interventions were used, sometimes unsuccessfully, for various stress responses. ...
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Background Research on stress occupied a central position during the 20 th century. As it became evident that stress responses affect a wide range of negative outcomes, various stress management techniques were developed in attempt to reduce the damages. However, the existing interventions are applied for a range of different stress responses, sometimes unsuccessfully. Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether there are specific clusters of stress responses representing interpersonal variation. In other words, do people have dominant clusters reflecting the different aspects of the known stress responses (physiological, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive)? Methods The researchers derived a measure of stress responses based on previous scales and used it in two studies in order to examine the hypothesis that stress responses can be grouped into dominant patterns according to the type of response. Results The results of Study 1 revealed four distinctive response categories: psychological (emotional and cognitive), physiological gastro, physiological muscular, and behavioral. The results of Study 2 revealed five distinctive response categories: emotional, cognitive, physiological gastro, physiological muscular, and behavioral. Conclusion By taking into consideration each person’s stress response profile while planning stress management interventions and then offering them a tailored intervention that reduces the intensity of these responses, it might be possible to prevent further complications resulting in a disease (physical or mental).
... As already known, stress has physiological manifestations, such as muscle tension and tachycardia, which are reduced by relaxation techniques. This leads to the development of new coping skills to help the patient better manage her or his symptoms [159]. Furthermore, patients who are resistant to exposure-based therapies or medication can benefit from relaxation therapy to reduce their stress as well as the physiological manifestations of PTSD and to enhance their emotional regulation [160]. ...
... Relaxation techniques tend to work on a network of mediators including sympathetic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral factors to maintain physiological homeostasis and to ultimately result in stress reduction [159]. Having a social life on the Internet has a prominent role in deindividuating the person who will likely develop a self-centered behavior instead of having a regulated social behavior with an impoverished social interaction. ...
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Background In December 2019, Wuhan City in Hubei Province, China witnessed an outbreak of a novel type of coronavirus (COVID-19), named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The sharp rise in the number of infected cases and the surge spike in fatalities worldwide prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this rapid outbreak a global pandemic in March 2020. The economic, health, and social ramifications of COVID-19 induced fear and anxiety all over the world. Objective The purpose of this review is to discuss how precautionary measures and restrictions imposed by governments, such as quarantines, lockdowns, and social distancing, have not only caused economic losses, but also a rise in mental health problems specifically post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods A deep comprehensive analysis review in of the relevant literature regarding the pandemic and its debilitating consequences on the psychological status of the public were was discussed performed. Results: This review illustrates that the COVID-19 pandemic had a traumatic impact on the psychological functioning of the public, particularly COVID-19 survivors, older adults, and healthcare workers, in particularly, due to the difficulties in coping with new realities and uncertainties. Conclusion In this review, we have discussed the psychological implications of this pandemic and we have provided an extensive background for understanding options regarding PTSD management in healthy individuals and those with preexisting conditions.
... The human mind is constantly challenged by physical or psychological stressors (Lu et al. 2012;Riedl and Javor 2012), which can come from internal or external stimuli, that influence our mental or physiological resources (Varvogli and Darviri 2011). Examples of physical stimuli are noise (Smith and Jones 1992), temperature (Jewell 1998), and vibration ). ...
... Conversely, the individual resources available to deal with stress do not rise to the same extent, potentially deteriorating personal well-being (Riedl 2013) and causing severe illnesses such as burnout or depression (Bacharach et al. 1991;Hammen 2005). Besides the individual adverse consequences, excessive stress potentially also impacts the economy and society due to sick leave (Moreau et al. 2004), bad decision making (Astor et al. 2013), and rising healthcare costs (Varvogli and Darviri 2011). ...
Thesis
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Recent socio-technical developments caused by ongoing digitalization (e.g., robotic process automation, artificial intelligence, anthropomorphic systems) or the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., an increasing number of remote working employees and hence, increasing number of virtual collaboration) change the work environment and culture. Digital and smart workplace technol-ogies facilitate business processes and provide tools for efficient communication and (virtual) collaboration, “increasing the productivity of the workforce in the information age” (Attaran et al. 2019, p. 1). Especially in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, digital technologies play a crucial role in keeping us socially close, connected, and collaborative while increasing the phys-ical distance between humans. However, this development affects the health of employees (Tarafdar et al. 2013). In research, for example, it has long been known that the increased usage of digital technologies and media (DTM) may cause stress, leading to potentially harmful reac-tions in individuals. Research has noted this specific form of stress as technostress (Ayyagari et al. 2011; Tarafdar et al. 2007; Tarafdar et al. 2011; Tarafdar et al. 2019), which is an umbrella term for causes, negative organizational outcomes, and negative humanistic outcomes resulting from the use of DTM at work. The simultaneous consideration of humanistic (e.g., well-being, equality) and organizational outcomes (e.g., efficiency, productivity) is an integral part of a socio-technical system (Beath et al. 2013; Mumford 2006), which is at the core of the IS discipline (Bostrom et al. 2009; Chiasson and Davidson 2005). However, a review from Sarker et al. (2019) regarding published research articles in one of the top journals within the IS community revealed that most reviewed studies (91%) had focused exclusively on instrumental goals. They conclude that “many IS researchers have forgotten or ignored the premise that technologies need to benefit humankind overall (Majchrzak et al. 2016), not just their economic condition” (Sarker et al. 2019, p. 705). Especially as humanistic outcomes can lead to even more positive instrumental outcomes. Hence, Sarker et al. (2019) call for focusing on the connection between humanistic and instru-mental outcomes, enabling a positive synergy resulting from this interplay. For this reason, this dissertation adopts a socio-technical perspective. It aims to conduct re-search that links instrumental outcomes with humanistic objectives to ultimately achieve a healthier use of DTMs at the digital workplace. It is important to note that the socio-technical perspective considers both the technical component and the social component privileging nei-ther one of them and sees outcomes resulting from the reciprocal interaction between those two.Therefore, the dissertation focuses on the interaction while applying pluralistic methodological approaches from qualitative (e.g., semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions) and quantitative research (e.g., collection from a field study or survey research). It provides a theo-retical contribution applying both behavioral research (i.e., analysis of cause-and-effect rela-tionships) and design-oriented research (i.e., instructions for designing socio-technical information systems). Overall, this work addresses four different areas within the reciprocal interaction between the social and technical components: the role of the technical component, the role of the social component, DTMs fostering a fit between the technical and social compo-nents, and the imminent misfit between these two due to ongoing digitalization. First, to contribute to an understanding of the technical component’s role, this thesis presents new knowledge on the characteristics and features of DTM and their influence on employee health and productivity. Research on the design of digital workplaces examined different design approaches, in which information exchange and sharing documents or project support were regarded (Williams and Schubert 2018). However, the characteristics of DTM also play an es-sential role in the emergence of technostress (Dardas and Ahmad 2015). This thesis presents ten characteristics of DTM that affect technostress at an individual’s workplace, including a measurement scale and analysis on how these characteristics affect technostress. Besides, also, the provision of functional features by DTMs can affect instrumental outcomes or humanistic objectives. For example, affording users with certain kinds of autonomy regarding the config-uration of DTM while they work towards their goals could have a tremendous effect on pursu-ing goals and well-being (Patall et al. 2008; Ryan and Deci 2000). Therefore, this thesis presents knowledge regarding the design of DTM on the benefits of affording users with autonomy. Furthermore, it shows that merely affording more autonomy can have positive effects above and beyond the positive effects of the actualization of affordance. Second, to contribute to an understanding of the social component’s role, this thesis presents new knowledge on contextual and individual factors of social circumstances and their influence on employee health and productivity. In this context, the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the intensity of technostress among employees is considered, as work became more digital almost overnight. Therefore, this thesis provides empirical insights into digital work and its context in times of the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on employees’ well-being, health, and productivity. Furthermore, measures to steer the identified effects if the situation in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic persists or comparable disruptive situations should re-occur are discussed. On the other hand, this research takes a closer look at the effect of an individual preference regarding coping styles in dealing with upcoming technostress. A distinction is made between the effects of two different coping styles, namely active-functional and dysfunctional, on strain as a humanistic outcome and productivity as an instrumental outcome. In the course of this, evidence is provided that coping moderates the relationship between the misfit within the socio-technical system and strain as proposed by the psychological theory of job demands-resources model (Demerouti et al. 2001). Third, to contribute to a successful fit between the technical and social components, this thesis presents frameworks and guidelines on the design of DTM, which understand the social com-ponent (here the user and her/his environment) and adjust accordingly to the needs of their users. Therefore, the thesis provides knowledge on the design of DTMs that support users in applying stress management techniques and build the foundation for stress-sensitive systems (i.e., systems that aim to mitigate stress by applying intervention measures on the social and technical component (Adam et al. 2017)). As a matter of fact, a framework for collecting and storing data (e.g., on the user and her/his environment) is developed and experiences with im-plementing a prototype for life-integrated stress assessment are reported. The experiences from this and the existing knowledge in the literature will finally be aggregated to a mid-range design theory for mobile stress assessment. To contribute to the fourth and last aspect, the imminent misfit within the socio-technical sys-tem due to ongoing digitalization, this thesis presents new knowledge regarding digital work demands that potentially affect both employees’ health and instrumental outcomes. The current version of technostress’s theoretical foundation was introduced more than ten years ago by Tarafdar et al. (2007). However, the interaction with and use of DTM has considerably changed along with the societal and individual expectations. Therefore, this thesis puts the current con-cept of technostress to test. As a result, a new theory of digital stress, as an extension of the concept of technostress, is proposed with twelve dimensions – instead of five dimensions within the concept of Tarafdar et al. (2007) – that could be hierarchically structured in four higher-order factors. This theory holistically addresses the current challenges that employees have to deal with digitalization. To sum up, this dissertation contributes to the IS community’s knowledge base by providing knowledge regarding the interaction between employees and their digital workplace to foster the achievement of humanistic and instrumental outcomes. It provides both behavioral research and design-oriented research while using pluralistic methodological approaches. For this pur-pose, this thesis presents knowledge about the different components within the socio-technical system, design knowledge on DTMs fostering the fit between these components, and an under-standing of an upcoming misfit due to the ongoing digitalization. Overall, this research aims to support the successful change towards a healthy digital workplace in the face of digitalization.
... Evidence-based stress management and reduction techniques can be added to augment the curriculum of such health promotion programs. For example, transcendental meditation is a strategy known to induce positive health effects, such as enhanced mood, reduced stress levels, and increased stress recovery [61]. ...
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Cardiovascular disease is a global public health problem and leading cause of death. Stress is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor. The objectives of this study were to examine whether stress was a predictor of resilience among rural younger women and to explore whether social support mediated the relationship between acute stress and resilience and between chronic stress and resilience. The study had a cross-sectional, descriptive design. A total of 354 women were randomly recruited in the rural, southeastern United States. Survey instruments were used to collect data about acute stress, chronic stress, social support, and resilience. A structural equation model was fit to test whether social support mediated the relationship between perceived stress and resilience and between chronic stress and resilience. Chronic stress predicted family and belongingness support and all the resilience subscales: adaptability, emotion regulation, optimism, self-efficacy, and social support. Acute stress predicted the self-efficacy subscale of resilience. Family support partially mediated the relationship between chronic stress and self-efficacy. Belongingness support partially mediated the relationships between chronic stress and the social support subscale of resilience.
... They were more likely to experience symptoms of anxiety, depression, withdrawal, attention, social problems and low academic achievement [46]. Emotional regulation of the self was positively correlated with plan full problem solving, confronting coping, self-controlling and positive reappraisal, but negatively correlated with escape avoidance [47]. No gender difference was reported in development of emotional intelligence and ways of coping stress except for self-control, where males reported higher capability than females [48]. ...
... Page 2 of 7 not for indexing technique, during which patients are guided to throb and progressively relax major muscle groups, starting from the toes up to the facial muscles. This technique was formulated by Jacobson in 1938 and has since proven to significantly reduce stress in healthy subjects and in patients with various diseases (Varvogli and Darviri, 2011). The same patients received biofeedback-assisted stress management training for 15 minutes in every session, focusing mainly on RB. ...
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects the functionality and quality of life of the affected persons. There is a well-established detrimental reciprocal relationship between stress and IBS. In this randomised controlled trial, IBS patients were randomly assigned to an 8-week biofeedback-assisted stress management intervention group (n=24) or a control group (n=22). Psychometric measures were performed at baseline and following intervention to assess perceived stress, health locus of control and depressive symptoms. In patients of the intervention group, perceived stress and symptoms of depression were significantly decreased, while the sense of control over health was increased. The intervention program was beneficial to the health and quality of life of individuals with IBS. Future randomised controlled studies with larger samples and longer follow-up are required to establish the effectiveness of stress-management techniques in functional gastrointestinal disorders.
... Stress is defined as an organism's total response to environmental demands or pressures which is perceived as a threat to their abilities and resources and endangers their health [7]. Stress during pregnancy is related to neonatal delayed motor development, and cognitive and behavioral disorders. ...
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Background: Given the prevalence of infertility and consequences of stress, anxiety, and depression during pregnancy and after childbirth, this study aimed to determine the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based counseling on perceived stress (primary outcome), anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) of pregnant women with a history of primary infertility. Method: This controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted on 56 pregnant women with a history of primary infertility referred to Infertility Clinic of Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital of Tabriz. The participants were divided into the intervention (n = 28) and control (n = 28) groups using block randomization. The intervention group received group CBT-based counseling after the 14th week of the pregnancy: six in-person sessions and two telephone sessions once per week. The control group received routine care. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Van den Bergh's Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ), and Quality of Life in Pregnancy (Gravidarum) (QOL-GRAV) were completed through interviews before and 4 weeks after the intervention by the researcher. Results: There was not any between-group difference in socio-demographic characteristics, except the gestational age and husband educational level (p > 0.05). Both of these variables were adjusted in ANCOVA. After the intervention, the mean scores of perceived stress (mean difference: - 7.3; confidence interval: 95%, from - 0.9 to - 5.6; p < 0.001) and anxiety (mean difference:-14.7; confidence interval: 95%. from - 20.6 to - 8.8; p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the intervention group. The mean depression score in the intervention group was lower than the control; however, this between-group difference was not significant (mean difference: - 1.95; confidence interval: 95% from - 3.9 to 0.2; p = 0.052). The mean score of quality of life in pregnancy was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control (mean difference: - 5.4; confidence interval: 95% from 3.4 to 7.4; p < 0.001). Conclusion: CBT counseling can affect the perceived stress, anxiety, and quality of life of pregnant women with a history of primary infertility. As a result, this counseling approach is recommended along with other counseling approaches to improve the mental health of pregnant women with a history of infertility. Trial registration: IRCT Registration Number: IRCT20111219008459N12 , registered on 10/11/ 2018.
... The term 'belly breathing' is easier for the layman to understand the technique being used than using terms such as 'diaphragmatic' or 'thoracic'. Physiologic responses following ef icient diaphragmatic breathing include a reduced oxygen consumption, decreased blood pressure and heart rate, increased theta wave amplitude, and increased parasympathetic activity, which makes an individual alert and invigorating (Varvogli and Darviri, 2011). The intake of oxygen is more in belly breathing when compared to shallow breathing. ...
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COVID-19 impacted many lives around the globe, leading to a nationwide lockdown in India from the 25th of March 2020. Home confinement, physical and social isolation, the spread of false news through social media, fear of contracting the disease, lack of physical activity, and work-from-home situations have affected the mental status and sleep quality of individuals during the lockdown. We intended to identify the effect of belly breathing exercise in reducing the depression, anxiety and stress levels in individuals who work-from-home during the lockdown. A hundred participants were identified through snowball sampling and were divided into two equal groups. Group A received a health education program and belly breathing techniques, whereas group B was provided with a health education program alone. DASS 21 and single item Sleep Quality Scale was assessed before recruitment and after three weeks of intervention in both groups. Significant reduction in depression, anxiety, and stress levels were observed in group A (p<0.001) than that of group B. Participants who underwent belly breathing also reported significant improvement in sleep quality after three weeks of intervention. Belly breathing has found to be an effective and simple technique to instruct and perform, which significantly reduces depression, anxiety and stress levels in individuals who work from home and are in need of medical advice for their mental health status. We suggest the use of belly breathing in improving the mental status in any black swan events such as home quarantine or strict physical isolation measures, and even during any stressful situations.
... In addition, Broussard et al. [53] indicate that forest activities and discussions are the most effective educational method in shaping positive attitudes towards forestry, which may also translate into mitigating social conflicts over forestry issues. In general, just talking to each other can help to combat stress [63,64]. Many studies point to the positive aspects of conducting classes in open natural spaces [65][66][67][68], and Mathias et al. [69], identified forest bathing as an educational enhancement. ...
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Background and Objectives: Nowadays, a significant part of the human population lives and works in urban agglomerations. Limited contact with nature, polluted air, stress, and a seden‐ tary work style all contribute to problems with the physical and mental health of a considerable number of city dwellers. There are many studies indicating the positive, restorative properties of natural environments, such as forests, on human well‐being. Our aim was to investigate whether suburban commercial forests in combination with informal environmental education can bring re‐ storative properties to people, especially those who are economically active. Materials and Methods: Four psychological questionnaires were used to determine the restorative properties of a suburban commercial forest on young active people: the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS), the Positive and Neg‐ ative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS), and the Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS). The experiment involved 60 participants who took forest baths (the act of spending time in a forest and opening your senses to the natural surroundings to experience feelings of peace and wellbeing) in a suburban commercial forest surrounding Świdnik, a city of 40,000 inhabitants located directly next to Lublin (a provincial city with a population of 339,811). The volunteers were divided into three groups; Group A walked an educational route with educational boards (route A1). Group B walked another route with a forest educator who described various forest manage‐ ment activities conducted in this forest (route A2). Group C walked alone, without an educator, along route A2. All three groups arrived at the site of forest stand redevelopment as the end of their route. After a short 10‐min exposure to this site, the volunteers again completed the psychological questionnaires. Results: Our study clearly indicates a positive effect from forest bathing in suburban commercial forests. Both the walk with a forest educator and the walk along the educational trail supported psychological recovery for the participants of the experiment, which shows that informal environmental education carried out in forests can be successfully combined with forest bathing, supporting the positive effects of this activity.
... 47 Evidence-based stress reduction elements that could be readily included in community-based group interventions include guided imagery, meditation, yoga, and journaling. [48][49][50] A cultural adaptation of a cardiovascular disease risk reduction program such as Strong Women -Healthy Hearts might leverage the enthusiasm participants expressed towards health promoting behaviors. Findings also suggest that it will be important to explicitly discuss racism and discrimination, and to promote collective coping strategies to be able to live one's best life. ...
Article
Objectives: There are disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) among African-American women and culturally adapted interventions are needed for this population. The purpose of this study was to conduct qualitative research to inform a cultural adaptation of the evidence-based Strong Women - Healthy Hearts intervention for midlife and older African-American women. Methods: Eligible participants were African-American women age ≥ 40 years, BMI ≥ 25, and sedentary. The study guide explored perceptions of heart disease and prevention using a novel construct, 'abundant life'. Twenty-two participants attended focus groups (N=5). A directed qualitative content analysis approach was used. Results: Participants described an abundant life as lack of stress, good health, and supportive relationships. Facilitators of abundant life and cardiovascular health often overlapped, including healthy diet, exercise, positive family and community ties, and spirituality. Key barriers included family caregiving burdens and the enduring legacy of racism which contributed to stress, environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and discriminatory experiences in the healthcare system. Conclusion: Participant responses were provided within the context of their personal values and social identities, providing insights that may support adaption of behavioral interventions for this high-need population.
... From this analysis, patient-specific intervention plans can be derived. Depending on patients' profiles, these plans may or may not include work on strategy-based emotion regulation (31,(131)(132)(133), psychophysiological self-regulation [e.g., via relaxation techniques, physical exercise, or heart rate variability biofeedback training; see (134)(135)(136)], and emotion evaluations [e.g., via techniques from cognitive therapy; see (137)]. Such individualized interventions are likely to be more effective than the one-size-fits-all approach of currently available emotion regulation trainings. ...
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Dysregulated emotion plays an important role for mental health problems. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, researchers have focused on the domains of strategy-based emotion regulation, psychophysiological self-regulation, emotion evaluations, and resulting emotion dynamics. So far, these four domains have been looked at in relative isolation from each other, and their reciprocal influences and interactive effects have seldom been considered. This domain-specific focus constrains the progress the field is able to make. Here, we aim to pave the way towards more cross-domain, integrative research focused on understanding the raised reciprocal influences and interactive effects of strategy-based emotion-regulation, psychophysiological self-regulation, emotion evaluations, and emotion dynamics. To this aim, we first summarize for each of these domains the most influential theoretical models, the research questions they have stimulated, and their strengths and weaknesses for research and clinical practice. We then introduce the metaphor of a ball in a bowl that we use as a basis for outlining an integrative framework of dysregulated emotion. We illustrate how such a framework can inspire new research on the reciprocal influences and interactions between the different domains of dysregulated emotion and how it can help to theoretically explain a broader array of findings, such as the high levels of negative affect in clinical populations that have not been fully accounted for by deficits in strategy-based emotion regulation and the positive long-term consequences of accepting and tolerating emotions. Finally, we show how it can facilitate individualized emotion regulation interventions that are tailored to the specific regulatory impairments of the individual patient.
... Pengobatan terhadap keluhan penderita kanker tidak hanya dapat dilakukan melalui terapi farmakologi, namun terdapat terapi komplementer sebagai pelengkap. Salah satu terapi komplementer yang dapat diberikan kepada pasien kanker serviks ialah relaksasi yang dilakukan untuk membantu penderita berinteraksi dengan lingkungannya (Varvogli & Darviri, 2011). Salah satu teknik relaksasi yaitu PMR yang dilakukan dengan cara menegangkan otot secara sementara, kemudian kembali diregangkan dimulai dari kepala sampai kaki secara bertahap (Casey, & Benson, 2012). ...
Article
Nyeri dan kecemasan merupakan dua gejala yang paling sering dirasakan oleh penderita kanker. Pengobatan terhadap keluhan penderita kanker ini dapat ilakukan melalui terapi komplementer sebagai pelengkap. Salah satu teknik relaksasi yaitu PMR yang dilakukan dengan cara menegangkan otot secara sementara, kemudian kembali diregangkan dimulai dari kepala sampai kaki secara bertahap. Tujuan kegiatan pengabdian kepada masayarakat ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kemampuan adaptasi pasien kanker terhadap nyeri dan kecemasan yang dirasakannya. Kegiatan dilakukan selama satu hari dengan latihan bertempat di ruangan serbaguna di wisma RSMH Palembang. Sebelumnya pada awal kegiatan dilakukan pengukuran terkait nyeri dan kecemasan. Selanjutnya akhir sesi latihan dilakukan pengukuran lagi untuk nyeri dan kecemasan. Kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat dilaksanakan di wisma RSMH Palembang, 12 orang pasien kanker yang menghadiri kegiatan tersebut. Selama penyuluhan peserta penyuluhan antusias dalam mendengarkan, melaksanakan senam, mengulangi gerakan senam dan berdiskusi dengan narasumber. Terdapat penurunan nyeri dan kecemasan sebelum dan sesuedah dilakukan PMR. PMR bekerja meningkatkan kerja saraf parasimpatis dan menurunkan stimulasi sistem saraf simpatis serta hipotalamus sehingga pengaruh stres fisik terhadap keduanya menjadi minimal. Berdasarkan pemahaman inilah latihan PMR mampu mengurangi distress akibat gejala fisik.
... Although the search was initially limited to articles addressing resiliency interventions for MM or PSP, the findings were very sparse, and the inclusion criteria were thus expanded. This resulted in the retrieval of 31 peer-reviewed publications that, when categorized, indicated evidence-based support for interventions in the area of mindfulness, (e.g., 30 ) progressive muscle relaxation, (e.g., 31) breathing techniques, (e.g., 32 ) non-pharmacological sleep interventions, (e.g., 33 ) and guided imagery. (e.g., 31 ) ...
Article
LAY SUMMARY A growing number of smartphone apps are being recommended to help build resilience. It is important to test whether these apps are of good quality and evidence-based. This study systematically evaluated 12 popular resilience-related apps for military and public service personnel and found that the majority were of high quality.
... In addition to a better understanding of the potential stressful link between passenger presence and driving, it is important to address the question how to overcome such stressful situations. Various stress management techniques have positive effects on measures of well-being and health (Varvogli & Darviri, 2011). In particular, meditation and relaxation have shown to be very effective in reducing stress (Davis et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Drivers are often held responsible for road crashes. Previous research has shown that stressors such as carrying passengers in the vehicle can be a source of accidents for young drivers. To mitigate this problem, this study investigated whether the presence of a passenger behind the wheel can be predicted using machine learning, based on physiological signals. It also addresses the question whether relaxation before driving can positively influence the driver's state and help controlling the potential negative consequences of stressors. Sixty young participants completed a 10-min driving simulator session, either alone or with a passenger. Before their driving session, participants spent 10 min relaxing or listening to an audiobook. Physiological signals were recorded throughout the experiment. Results show that drivers experience a higher increase in skin conductance when driving with a passenger, which can be predicted with 90%-accuracy by a k-nearest neighbors classifier. This might be a possible explanation for increased risk taking in this age group. Besides, the practice of relaxation can be predicted with 80% accuracy using a neural network. According to the statistical analysis, the potential beneficial effect of relaxation did not carry out on the driver's physiological state while driving, although machine learning techniques revealed that participants who exercised relaxation before driving could be recognized with 70% accuracy. Analysis of physiological characteristics after classification revealed several relevant physiological indicators associated with the presence of a passenger and relaxation.
... 2.10. Lack of physical activities: regular exercise and physical activities are two main factors, if lacking these factors, not only stress but many other health issues can be faced by females and males as well. body become lethargic and less active by lack of exercise(L. Varvogli et. al. (2011). ...
... To decrease the mental health burden and the addiction severity, a significant proportion of patients use Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) (7). In general, techniques such as Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), Guided Imagery (GI) and Autogenic Training (AT) have demonstrated significant effects on patients with several somatic and psychiatric disorders (8). However, there is no strong evidence supporting the efficacy of those interventions on persons with addictive behaviors. ...
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Background: According to the current state of knowledge, addictions are often developed as a maladaptive coping response to elevated stress levels. Stress management has a beneficial effect on various mental health problems. Yet, there is no strong evidence concerning the effect of stress management on stress levels of individuals with addictive behaviors, although such an effect might benefit their addictive symptoms. Objective: To investigate the effect of stress management on stress levels of persons with addictive behaviors. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was carried out on Biomed Central, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science searching for relevant trials investigating the effect of stress management techniques, specifically of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), Autogenic Training (AT) and Guided Imagery (GI), on stress levels of individuals with addictive behaviors. In order to be included, the studies had to be randomized trials using an intervention and a non-intervention or a placebo control group, to apply PMR, GI or AT, to include a sample with addictive behaviors, to be published in English, to involve a baseline and at least one subsequent measurement, to be published in peer-review journals and to measure stress through instruments or biochemical assessments. The trials' quality was assessed by the use of the Jadad Scale. Results: A total of four studies met the inclusion criteria and were further analyzed. The findings indicated that PMR might lead to a reduction of stress levels, while no such evidence is found concerning GI and AT. The quality of all trials was low. Conclusion: Progressive Muscle Relaxation and GI might have a divergent effect on persons with addictive behaviors. Yet, the low number of the studies and their poor quality debars drawing reliable conclusions for potential beneficial effects.
... However, by addressing and reducing stress through appropriate psychosocial interventions, we may be able to decrease a parent's risk for baby blues, postpartum depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health challenges during the perinatal period (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013). When the medical team supports parents in managing their stress during any stage of parenthood, the quality of health care and wellness outcomes improve (Bower & Segerstrom, 2004;Varvogli & Darviri, 2011). ...
Article
The perinatal experience contains many stressors that can impact parental mental health. We examined the integration of music therapy (MT), an evidence-based health profession, and its stress reduction role in parents during their inpatient maternity and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Stress Numeric Rating Scale (SNRS-11) were used to measure stress reduction in 34 maternity and NICU parents (17 maternity patients and 17 NICU parents). Participants included parents on the antepartum unit (expecting parents on bedrest), laboring parents, pre-operation parents before cesarean delivery, parents of full-term healthy infants on the postpartum unit, and parents of premature infants on the NICU. Results were calculated based upon number of sessions rather than total number of participants and indicated that after one MT session, a 50% reduction in the SNRS-11 was measured in NICU and antepartum parents. The PSS score demonstrated a more modest stress reduction in the NICU parents but failed to achieve a statistically significant decrease in the maternity group. Findings were in line with existing literature in MT-associated stress reduction levels and may be integrated as part of an ongoing continuity of care during pregnancy, delivery, and NICU hospitalization. Earlier screening for stress may benefit parents during their perinatal hospital stay. Further research exploring the benefits of MT, as part of continuum of care and stress management for the inpatient perinatal parent population, may encourage the inclusion of MT services and improve quality of care.
... Various instruments are used for assessing the stressrelated symptoms, determining possible treatment options, and gauging their progress to guide the treatment. Many of these instruments have been used in studies that serve as an evidence base for systematic reviews and developing treatment recommendations [9]. The instruments considered in the current meta-analysis include stress behavior score, heart-focused anxiety (HAF-17), quality of life (QoL), Beck depression inventory (BDI)-2, hospital anxiety scale (HAS), and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD). ...
Article
The stress management program is not considered as a part of routine cardiac rehabilitation due to the lack of consensus and inconsistencies in the studies detailing the relation between stress and coronary artery disease. The current meta-analysis is intended to determine the effectiveness of stress management in cardiac rehabilitation. The published literature studies until December 2020 were extracted from various databases and eligible studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quality assessment of the selected studies was carried out using Jadad. The literature search of various databases yielded 154 studies and 9 were selected based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. On the Jadad scale, 6 studies obtained a score of 3, whereas the remaining studies obtained a score of 2. Funnel plot findings reported no publication bias. The result of the meta-analysis showed a persistent improvement in Beck depression inventory-2, hospital anxiety scale and hospital depression scale in subjects who had undergone various stress management interventions. The meta-analysis corroborates the benefits of stress management training in cardiac rehabilitation and underscores the need to adopt a stress management program in routine cardiac care.
... Other studies have suggested that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) helps to relieve stress and mediate IGD severity, especially in women (Dong & Potenza, 2014). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is also effective in reducing stress (Varvogli & Darviri, 2011) and can prevent excessive internet use by allowing individuals to recognize and understand the situational, emotional, and cognitive context of internet use behavior (Sz asz-Janocha, Vonderlin, & Lindenberg, 2021). There is no stress management program for adolescents that considers childhood trauma experiences. ...
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Background and aims: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the mediating effect of stress based on the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model. Methods: The 2017 survey data from one community addiction management center in South Korea were analyzed. A sample of 3,593 adolescents (mean age = 13.75 years, SD = 2.22) were recruited from 23 elementary, middle and high schools and 11 local children's centers. The mediating effect was analyzed by the three-step analysis method. Results: Our study found that ACEs had a significant effect on the stress score (B = 1.420, P < 0.001) and the stress scale score had a significant effect the IGD score (B = 0.127, P < 0.001). After adjusting for the stress score in the model, ACEs had a significant effect on the IGD score (B = 0.328, P < 0.001), and the stress score had partial mediating effects (B = 0.1802, 95% C. I: 0.131-0.239). Discussion: We found that ACEs directly affect IGD and that ACEs directly affect IGD through stress in support of the I-PACE model. In the sensitivity analysis, the mediating effect of stress in the low-risk IGD group was significant, but the mediating effect of stress in the high-risk IGD group was not significant. Prior ACEs should be considered when interviewing IGD clients. In addition, enhancing stress management skills would be beneficial to IGD clients with a history of ACEs, and actions reducing exposure to ACEs in childhood are necessary.
... When the individual has resources to cope with the demands, this may be seen as a challenge, when the demands surpass the resources available, they are then viewed as stressors and the stress response is triggered (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Varvogli & Darviri (2011) looks at stress as an increase in demand that is made upon the individual's mind and body. The inability to adapt becomes evident, physically and/or mentally and may manifest as symptoms of stress. ...
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The prevalence and management of stressors experienced by rural-based foundation phase teachers in South Africa were examined in this study. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used to gain more insight into stressors experienced by teachers. A questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended questions was used to collect data from n=119 participants. The results of the study indicated that many foundation phase teachers experienced a wide variety of stressors. There was also an indication that whilst some teachers do have the necessary skills to cope with the stressors that they experienced, within their teaching and learning environment, using various techniques such as: exercise, spirituality and planning other participants struggled to cope and required support. Recommendations were made in order to assist those teachers who were unable to manage the stressors they experienced, limitations of the study discussed and avenues for further research are also presented.
... According to a scientific view, relaxation is a technique to reduce stress and tension by stretching the whole body to achieve a healthy mental state (Varvogli & Darviri, 2011). This can be combined with methods that involve cognition, such as psychoeducation, visualization, and positive thinking ...
... Centering Prayer. We chose Centering Prayer because it is a meditative practice, which generally have been shown effective at reducing stress (39), and we thought the spiritual aspects of Centering Prayer might make it acceptable to clergy. Few studies on Centering Prayer exist, but one reported promising reductions in perceived stress and anxiety symptoms (40), and another found that participants became more aware of God's presence in their lives (41). ...
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Background The job-demand-control-support model indicates that clergy are at high risk for chronic stress and adverse health outcomes. Methods A non-randomized participant preference design with a control group was used to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and range of outcome effect sizes for four potentially stress-reducing interventions: stress inoculation training, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), the Daily Examen, and Centering Prayer. All United Methodist clergy in North Carolina were eligible and recruited via email to attend their preferred intervention: in-person workshops of one (Daily Examen, Centering Prayer) or two days (stress inoculation training) at retreat centers, or eight weekly online 90-minute sessions (MBSR). Surveys at 0, 3, and 12 weeks assessed symptoms of stress, anxiety, and perceived stress reactivity. Heart rate variability was assessed at baseline and 12 weeks using data from 24h ambulatory heart rate monitoring. A patched-up control group was recruited after recruitment commenced. A subset of participants completed in-depth interviews and reported skill practice using daily text messages. Standardized mean differences with 95% and 75% confidence intervals were calculated for each intervention relative to control to determine the range of effect sizes likely to be observed in a definitive trial. Results 78 clergy participated in an intervention and 7 provided data as a control group. The daily percentage of participants engaging in stress management practices ranged from 47% (MBSR) to 69% (Examen). Every participant interviewed (n=23) reported that learning content was acceptable and they would recommend their intervention to others. Small-to-large effect sizes on measures of stress and anxiety were observed for Daily Examen, stress inoculation, and MBSR relative to control. Little evidence for change in HRV was observed between intervention and control, with the most favorable effects observed for MBSR. Results were mixed for Centering Prayer. Conclusions All four interventions were feasible and acceptable, with the best trends in outcomes for MBSR, although other interventions were promising. Participants welcomed daily text messages reminding them to engage in practice and wore ambulatory heart rate monitoring devices without incident. Three-week survey data did not contribute to study findings. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov trial registration number: NCT04625777, November 12, 2020 (retrospectively registered).
... Supervisors should consider encouraging various forms of self-care strategies to improve connection and provide a sense of ownership in the organization. Considering the success of work-based wellness programs, 33,34 organizations that offer and combine physical and interpersonal strategies to help ATs disengage from their professional role might find their employees have a stronger connection with the organization. ...
Article
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Context: Psychological ownership (PO) is a state where an individual feels possession over an object (e.g. PO over the organization where one works, PO over the profession one serves). Understanding PO could provide insight to “vitality of the profession” as defined in the Prioritized Research Agenda for the Athletic Training Profession. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore athletic trainers' (AT) PO over their employing organization and the athletic training profession. Design: Cross-Sectional Study Setting: Web-based survey Patients or Other Participants: Clinically practicing ATs that were active members of NATA. Main Outcome Measure(s): Demographic variables, Psychological Ownership Questionnaire (POQ), and Psychological Ownership of Athletic Training (POQ-AT) were the primary outcomes measured. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic variables, POQ and POQ-AT overall scores, form scores, and dimension scores. Non-parametric tests were used to investigate differences between the POQ and POQ-AT among demographic characteristics. Results: ATs indicated greater PO over the athletic training profession (Z=−3.45, p=0.001) than over their employing organization. They indicated greater belongingness (Z=−9.51, p<0.001) and self-identity (Z=−8.71, p<0.001) and less territoriality (Z=−5.52, p<0.001) and accountability (Z=−5.33, p<0.001) over their profession than within their organization. ATs that supervised others indicated greater overall POQ (U=34372, p<0.001) and overall POQ-AT score (U=36624, p=0.014) than ATs that did not supervise others. There was a difference in overall POQ (H(4)=20.47, p<0.001) and overall POQ-AT scores (H(4)=21.34, p<0.001) between groupings of years of experience. Conclusions: ATs indicate greater PO over their profession than their employing organizations. They indicate greater self-identity and belongingness and less territoriality and accountability over the athletic training profession than over their employing organization suggesting ATs are connecting aspirations and accomplishments with the profession but connecting duty and responsibility to their organizations. Years of experience and supervisor status may play a role in the level of organizational PO.
... Several effective easily accessible behavioral and psychological interventions, including web-and computer-based interventions, exist for managing stress 68 and could prove to be effective in preventing CVD. 69 Cocaine use was associated with CV risk, but this risk did not interact with HIV to increase CV risk scores or predict carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Although both cocaine and HIV have known associations with cardiovascular pathology, the combined effect of cocaine and HIV on the myocardium has not been extensively studied. ...
Article
Background: Traditional risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) include older age, smoking, poor diet, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and family history. Young-to-middle age adults (YMAA) are less often identified as being at risk of CVD, but traditional risk scores primarily target older adults and do not accurately estimate risk among YMAA. Methods: This study examined biomarkers associated with CVD risk in YMAA in the context of HIV and cocaine use; risk was assessed by two methods: (1) a relative cardiovascular (CV) risk score that includes several factors and (2) carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Associations between CVD risk (CV risk score and carotid atherosclerotic plaque) and proinflammatory cytokines, markers of immune activation, HIV status, and cocaine use were examined. Participants (N = 506) included people with and without HIV and people who use or do not use cocaine. Results: Participants' mean age was 36 (SD = 9.53); half (51%) were men. Cocaine use and C-reactive protein were associated with greater relative CV risk scores, but no associations between biomarkers and CV risk emerged. Age and CV risk scores were associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaque, but biomarkers were not. HIV was not associated with CV risk scores or carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Conclusions: Among YMAA, CV risk scores may help providers identify lifestyle changes needed among those at risk for CVD before more advanced risk (e.g., atherosclerotic plaque) is identified. Implications are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter, based on a survey of the literature, investigates the nature of stress from both physiological and psychological perspectives. It addresses various concepts including Hans Selye’s general adaption syndrome and the function of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis) in reaction to stress. The chapter reviews several definitions of psychological stress to provide some deep insights for leaders and managers of construction project management, and for academics who might not be familiar with psychology terminology. After establishing this firm foundation, the chapter progresses to investigate a particularisation of the impacts of psychological stress on the construction industry and especially on construction project management professionals. A discussion regarding aspects of the science behind stress leads into practical application aspects via a review of the impact stress can have on a person's sleep patterns. The increasingly concerning incidence of the stress-related medical condition known as metabolic syndrome is discussed before an in-depth review of the literature regarding workplace stress specifically and especially how it relates to construction workplaces. Stress impacts on individuals are addressed and impacts on national economies are presented, providing a useful contextualisation of the scale of the problems caused by psychological stress impacts on workplaces. After reviewing the effects of stress from long working hours, the chapter proceeds to examine the extent to which stress-initiated industry and broader economic problems are recognised by those working in the construction industry. The chapter concludes with a description of a gap identified in the existing knowledge, and a chapter summary.
Chapter
Many rising issues within the healthcare industry were highlighted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Burnout among healthcare professionals, increasing rates of lifestyle-related chronic illness, and lack of emphasis on professional self-care have contributed to a continued crisis within healthcare organizations. Numerous organizational and systemic issues have been combined with societal norms to create an unsustainable healthcare system operating on mechanisms of disease management versus of health promotion. This chapter aims to address the factors contributing to the overall health of healthcare professionals and proposed solutions to these issues through an integrative resilience model consisting of lifestyle medicine and positive psychology.
Article
The purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature on the role of yoga in managing the consequences of work stress to examine the current body of knowledge in this field and to provide directions for future research in this domain. A comprehensive literature search of 14 databases using 12 different search term combinations in the area of ‘yoga and work stress’ was carried out till the period January 2022 following the PRISMA guidelines to select the relevant English-language peer-reviewed SCImago Ranked articles for review. Two broad classification areas were considered to understand the research question of interest in this study: (i) consequences of work stress [which includes—(a) behavioural; (b) physical; and (c) psychological] and; (ii) schools of thought in yoga for work stress management [which includes—(a) Hatha yoga (HY); (b) Vini yoga (VY); (c) Dru yoga (DY); (d) Integrated yoga (IY); (e) Kundalini yoga (KUY); (f) Kripalu yoga (KRY); (g) Iyengar yoga; (h) Ashtanga yoga (AY); (i) Power yoga (PY); and (j) Yoga (General)]. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first of its kind comprehensive review in the area of ‘yoga and its role in managing the consequences of work stress’ collating the dispersed knowledge in this area by indicating the various understudied stand-alone and combined consequences of work stress and the less researched schools of thought in yoga and yoga practices administered to manage these consequences of work stress, to provide promising avenues for further examination for the development of this research field.
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Background: The current study focuses on the comparative effects of 12 weeks Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation technique as an intervention along with aerobic training and aerobic training alone on quality of life in asthmatic children.Methods: For this, 60 the asthmatic children were screened based on the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups (30 each). Group A included Jacobson’s relaxation along with aerobic training and Group B included aerobic training alone. Conventional physiotherapy treatment was given to both the groups. Quality of life was assessed using Paediatric asthma quality of life questionnaire. Exercise capacity was measured using six minute walk test distance, peak expiratory flow rate by the mini wright peak flow meter and rate of perceived exertion by Borg’s scale.Results: Data analysis revealed that there was a statistical and clinical significant improvement in all the three domains of QOL in Group A when compared to Group B. However, Relaxation along with aerobic training and aerobic training alone both had equal effects in improving six minute walk test distance, peak expiratory flow rate and rate of perceived exertion in Group B.Conclusions: Thus it can be concluded that in asthmatic children with mild to moderate severity, a 12 week protocol of Jacobson’s relaxation along with aerobic training should be in cooperated for better results.
Article
Aims The aims of the study were 1) to replicate the research based on the pilot study; 2) to increase resilience in nurses working on all units at four hospitals and 3) to determine which interventions were preferred and most effective. Background Work stress mediates resilience and resilience moderates work stress. Resilience building activities in the literature are often time consuming, complex and done outside work hours. This study investigated use of portable, accessible and brief interventions by nurses to decrease stress and increase resilience during work hours. Methods This study used a cross sectional, longitudinal, repeated measures survey design. The study took place in October 2018 to January 2019. Toolkits included written instructions for completing the study protocol, and six activities. Nurses completed surveys at baseline, at 10 time points over a four- to six-week period, and at study conclusion. Results Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10 instrument scores showed resilience increased significantly at four weeks and the effect continued at three months (p < .02). Self-reported stress levels decreased over the study period and nurses self-selected to continue use of the interventions. Conclusion The interventions used during work hours decreased self-reported stress and increased resilience. Nurse leaders may easily adopt these options to promote a less stressed workforce. Resilience can increase the ability of nurses to tolerate high stress in the workplace, which may decrease burnout and turnover. In the pandemic, resilience is even more important as hospitals struggle to retain nurses.
Chapter
This chapter begins with a contextualisation of the importance of the study presented in the book before proceeding to a discussion of study hypotheses. In regard to each of the major hypotheses, the chapter presents salient study findings, general comments, and important conclusions. The chapter then presents a summary table of the conclusions from research regarding each hypothesis before articulating the extent to which the study described in the book closed the knowledge gap identified earlier therein. A table that provides a synthesis of research questions, objectives and findings provides a basis for identification of important factors from that synthesis. The chapter then proceeds to discussion of key findings of the research before presenting conclusions in two categories. The first category presents general conclusions and the second, important conclusions requiring (preferably urgent) industry attention. The chapter presents recommendations for future research, with one most important point being research into stress impacts on female construction professionals. especially construction project managers. This is regarded as important given the steadily-increasing numbers of female professionals in the construction industry and especially in light of research-proven correlations between stress and fecundity and time to pregnancy. The main objective of such a study would not be to separate stress impacts between genders but rather to focus stress-reduction leadership intentions within the industry across both genders. This chapter presents study weaknesses and limitations before articulating perceived implications of the work and presenting closing thoughts regarding long-overdue change for industry and government leaders to consider.
Article
Background There is a rising demand for methods to support well-being at work. Mindfulness-based interventions have the potential to enhance nurses' psychological well-being. Purpose To identify mindfulness-based interventions and outcome measures and to evaluate the effect on the psychological well-being of nurses. Methods A systematic review following Prisma protocol with search of four electronic databases was undertaken covering English language publications between January 2011 and July 2021. Findings A total of 11 randomized controlled trial (RCT) and quasi-experimental studies with a total of 1009 participants were included. The outcome measures were stress, depression, anxiety, burnout, resilience, quality of life, self-compassion, happiness, and the level of mindfulness. Ten studies demonstrated positive impact of mindfulness-based intervention on nurses' psychological well-being. Discussion Mindfulness-based interventions have the potential to enhance the well-being of nurses. RCTs using rigorous designs, consistent outcome measures and bigger sample sizes are required to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness programs.
Article
Introduction This study aimed to examine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on caregiver satisfaction, caregiver burden, and depression levels of the caregivers of older patients. Methods This randomized controlled study was conducted with the caregivers of older patients receiving service from a home health care unit in a province in Turkey between March 2019 and March 2020. Data were collected using a Descriptive Information Form, Zarit Burden Interview, Beck Depression Inventory, Carer's Assessment of Satisfaction Index, and PMR Follow-Up Form. Caregivers in the intervention group practiced PMR for eight weeks (four times a week). For the randomization of the study, the days of service of the home health care unit were written down, put into a sealed envelope and were randomly drawn. For sample selection, caregivers receiving home visits on Mondays and Thursdays were included in the control group, and individuals receiving home visits on Tuesdays and Fridays were included in the intervention group. The study was completed with 20 caregivers. Results After eight weeks of PMR, we found that the mean scores from Zarit Burden Interview and Beck Depression Inventory were statistically significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the mean scores from the Carer's Assessment of Satisfaction Index (p ˃ 0.05). Conclusion Our study found that PMR decreased the caregiver burden and depression levels of the caregivers of older patients but did not affect caregiver satisfaction.
Article
The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to test an internet-delivered version of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for the psychological distress associated with bullying victimization. The sample comprised 52 adults (i.e. 69.20% women; mean age = 43.37 (SD = 12.47); 3.85% ethnic minority) who self-identified as having a lifetime history of bullying victimization. Participants were randomized into three groups, which received 12 sessions of internet-delivered, therapist-guided, and content-modified version of CPT, 12 sessions of internet-delivered and therapist-guided stress management (SM), or a waitlist. Treatment outcomes included maladaptive trauma appraisals, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, general anxiety and stress, social anxiety, and anger. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that CPT was effective in reducing the strength of maladaptive appraisals related to bullying victimization and symptoms of PTSD compared to the waitlist and SM. SM outperformed CPT and the waitlist in reducing symptoms of depression, general anxiety, and stress. In conclusion, the results of this trial suggest that internet-delivered CPT is effective for the psychological distress and maladaptive appraisals associated with bullying victimization but that adaptions might be needed to target more effectively symptoms of anxiety and depression.
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Ғылыми зерттеулерді атай келе, психологиялық-педагогикалық, әдiстемелiк әдебиеттердi және жоғары оқу орындары жұмысының тәжiрибесiн талдау нәтижелерi қазiргi кезде е-learning білім беру жүйесінің университеттерде бiлiм беру мiндеттерiн шешу мүмкiндiктерiнің ғылыми жетiстiктерге негiзделмей пайдаланылып отырғаны және оның iске асырылуының ойдағыдай емес екенiн көрсеттi. Осы орайда студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыруға қатысты теориялық әдебиеттер мен e-learning білім беру жүйесі бойынша нақты тәжірбиені талдай келе: – қазіргі қоғам сұранысының талаптарына сай студенттердің танымдық құзыретін меңгеру қажеттілігі мен оны педагогикалық жоғары оқу орындарында қалыптастырудың ғылыми түрде негізделуінің жеткіліксіздігі; – студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың қажеттілігі мен оны жоғары оқу орнында e-learning білім беру жүйесі негізінде толық жүзеге асыру мүмкіндіктерінің болмауы; – студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың қазіргі жағдайы мен жоғары оқу орындарындағы e-learning білім беру жүйесі мүмкіндіктерінің толық пайдаланылмауы арасында қарама-қайшылықтардың бар екендігі анықталды. Аталған қайшылықтардың шешімін табу ұсынылып отырған зерттеу мәселесін айқындап, диссертация тақырыбын «Е-learning білім беру жүйесі негізінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыру» деп таңдауымызға себеп болды. Зерттеудің мақсаты: е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыруды теориялық тұрғыда негіздеу және ұсынған әдістеменің тиімділігін эксперимент арқылы тексеру. Зерттеу нысаны: жоғары оқу орындағы e-learning білім беру жүйесіне негізделген үдеріс. Зерттеу пәні: e-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыру. Зерттеудің ғылыми болжамы: егер, цифрлық оқыту сапасын арттыру, оның ішінде цифрлы оқыту үдерісінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыру компоненттерін, деңгейлерін, жағдайларын, критерийлерін, сонымен қатарe-learning оқыту процесінде дамуын ұйымдастыру мақсатында студенттердің танымдық құзыретінің қалыптасу механизмін бөліп көрсетсе, онда танымдық құзыреттің мазмұндық компоненттерін (мәні, құрылымы мен деңгейлері, критерийлері, көрсеткіштері) мақсатты түрде қалыптастыру e-learning оқытудың тиімділігін (жетістігін) арттырады, өйткені e-learning оқыту процесінде «танымдық құзырет» ұғымы нақтыланып, оның құрылымдық компоненттері, деңгейлері, шарттары, критерийлері мен механизмі нақтыланады, e-learning оқыту жүйесі негізінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың құрылымдық-мазмұндық моделі негізделіп, тәжірибеге енгізіледі. Мақсат пен болжамға сәйкес зерттеу міндеттері: - е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың теориялық негіздері мен әдіснамалық туғырларын айқындау; - е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың ерекшеліктерін сипаттау және заманауи ақыл-ой интеллектердің дидактикалық мүмкіндіктерін анықтау; - е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың құрылымдық-мазмұндық моделін әзірлеу; - е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың әдістемесін жасап, оның тиімділігін тәжірибелік экспериментте тексеру. Зерттеудің жетекші идеясы – е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыру, оларды заманауи ақпараттандыру талаптарына сай жаңа сапалық және интеллектуалды деңгейге көтереді. Зерттеудің теориялық әдіснамалық негіздері: е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыруда философиялық, әлеуметтанушылық, ақпараттандыру қағидалары, жалпыадамзаттық құндылықтардың өзара бірлігі туралы тұжырымдамалары, ғалым педагогтардың, психологтардың, философтардың, әлеуметтанушылар мен мәдениеттанушылардың еңбектері, көзқарастары, тұжырымдары, зерттеулерімен анықталады. Зерттеу көздеріне білім туралыхалықаралық заңнамалық құжаттар, Қазақстан Республикасы мен Индонезия Республикасының білім берудегі заңдары, ҚР «Білім туралы» Заңы, «Педагог мәртебесі» Заңы, ҚР жалпыға міндетті білім және жоғары білім берудің мемлекеттік стандарттары, Білім беруді дамытудың 2020-2025 жылдарға арналған мемлекеттік бағдарламасы; зерттеу тақырыбы бойынша отандық, алыс және жақын шетелдік ғалымдардың психологиялық-педагогикалық еңбектері, зерттеу материалдары, ғылыми веб-сайттарының (Clarivate Analytics және Scopus) негізгі ақпараттық базалары және оқыту бағдарламалар, оқулықтар мен оқу құралдары және т.б. кіреді Зерттеу кезеңдері. Зерттеу жұмысы үш кезеңді қамтыды. Бірінші кезеңде (2017-2018) - e-learning білім беру жүйесі негізінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыруды зерттеу мәселесі бойынша шетелдік және отандық әдебиеттерге шолу жасалынды. Тақырып бойынша материалдар сұрыпталып, жинақталды. Зерттеудің ғылыми апараты айқындалды; Екінші кезеңде (2018-2019) зерттеу мәселесі бойынша жинақталған материалды жүйелеп, құрылымдық тұрғыдан талдау, жалпылау және оның нәтижелерін сипаттау жүргізілді. Тақырып бойынша теориялық материалдарды жүйелеу жалғасын тапты, анықтау эксперименті барысында болашақ педагог-психологтардың тест, сауалнама арқылы алғашқы білім деңгейлері тексерілді, ғылыми мақалалар дайындалып, басылымдарда жарық көрді. Тәжірибелік алаңдар анықталып, эксперименттік жұмыстың жоспары, бағдарламасы дайындалды Үшінші кезеңінде (2019-2020) -ҚР Абай атындағы Қазақ ұлттық педагогикалық университетінде «Педагогика және психология» білім беру бағдарламасында эксперименттік жұмыстар жүргізілді және студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың құрылымдық моделінің, әзірленген әдістеменің тиімділігі тексерілді, зерттеу аясында мақалалар отандық және халықаралық журналдарда жарияланды Зерттеудің ғылыми жаңалығы және теориялық маңыздылығы: е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың теориялық негіздері мен әдіснамалық туғырлары айқындалды; - е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың принциптері сипатталды және заманауи ақыл-ой интеллектердің дидактикалық мүмкіндіктері анықталды; - е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың анықтамасы нақтыланып, құрылымдық-мазмұндық моделі әзірленді; - е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың әдістемесі жасалынды, оның тиімділігін тәжірибелік эксперимент арқылы тексерілді. Зерттеудің практикалық маңыздылығы: - зерттеу негізінде жасалған оқу-әдістемелік материалдар, e-learning бағытындағы «Электрондық оқыту арқылы танымдық қабілеттерді дамыту» атты бағдарлама; - CLIL,CALLA, Problem based learning, Сase study технологиялары және авторлық диагностика; - Абай атындағы ҚазҰПУ-да Республикалық оқу-әдістемелік кеңес жанындағы (Білім беру) мамандықтар тобындағы оқу-әдістемелік кеңестің (ОӘБ) жариялауға ұсынған «Scenarios of monitoring and pedagogical measurements» бірлескен авторлық оқу құралы (2020ж.)»; «Тілдің феномендік нейробиологиясы» ЖОО оқытушыларына арналған неміс тіліндегі ұжымдық монография (Ресей, 2018). Зерттеу нәтижелері жоғары оқу орындарында болашақ мұғалімдерді даярлауда оқу процесінің жетістігін арттыру үшін қолданылуы мүмкін Қорғауға ұсынылатын қағидалар: 1. Е-learning білім беру жүйесі танымдық құзыреттің мән-мағыналық ерекше сипаты – оқу объектілеріне қатысты субъектінің танымдық іс-әрекетті жүзеге асыру үшін оқытудың e-learning жүйесін қолдану саласындағы білімдер, біліктер, дағдылар, ақыл-ой интеллект және өзіндік тәжірибесінің интегративті сипаттамасын қамтиды. 2. Құрылымдық-мазмұндық моделі e-learning оқыту жүйесі негізінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыруға бағытталып және кезеңдік сипатта орындалалып, оған сәйкес құрылымдық компоненттері, өлшемдері мен деңгейлерін қамтиды. 3. Е-learning жүйесінде қалыптасатын студенттердің танымдық құзыреті оқыту мен өзін-өзі оқыту процестерінде цифрлық құрылғыларды, технологиялар мен бағдарламаларды белсенді қолданылатын құзыреттіліктерді қамтиды. Ол сонымен қатар оқыту мен оқу қабілетін, өзін және әлемді, білім беру процестері мен нәтижелерін сыни тұрғыдан, рефлексиялық тұрғыдан түсіну қабілетін, өзі және әлем туралы ақпаратты шығармашылықпен өңдей алу қабілетін, зерттеушілік қабілетін, білім беруді икемді түсінуді және кәсіби жағдайлар мен олардың мазмұнын қамтиды. 4. Студенттердің танымдық құзіретін қалыптастыруда мазмұны адамзатқа білім беруде сандық технологияларды, құрылғылар мен бағдарламаларды пайдаланудың әр түрлі тәсілдерін қамтитын e-learning арқылы танымдық қабілеттерді дамытатын бағдарлама және CLIL, CALA технологиялары. Зерттеудің нақтылығы (дәлдігі).Зерттеудің мақсаты мен міндеттерінің ғылыми аппаратқа сай болуымен, зерттеу әдістерінің, тәжірибе- эксперимент жұмыстарының жоспарлы және жүйелі іске асуымен, жалпы білім беретін мектептердің, орта және жоғары оқу орындарының іс-тәжірибелеріне енгізілуімен, сондай-ақ зерттеудің негізгі мәселелері мен нәтижелері ғылыми-практикалық конференцияларда талқылануымен қамтамасыз етіледі. Зерттеудің тәжірибелік базасы. Эксперимент Абай атындағы Қазақ Ұлттық педагогикалық университетінің «Педагогика және психология» білім беру бағдарламасы бакалавр студенттері, 1-2 курс магистранттары мен Джогякарта мемлекеттік университетінің математика мамандығы бойынша 1-курс білімалушыларына жүргізілді. Жалпы, эксперименттік топта 115студент болды. Әл-Фараби атындағы Қазақ Ұлттық университетінің 150 студенті бақылау тобында болды. Сонымен қатар, Сәтбаев Университетінде EF English Live case study онлайн платформасында өткен сабақтар бақыланып, талқыланды. Негізгі нәтижелерді енгізу. Зерттеудің негізгі нәтижелерін сынақтан өткізу және тәжірибеге енгізу мақалалар мен баяндамалар жариялау және оларды білім беру бойынша халықаралық, ғылыми-теориялық және практикалық конференцияларда, Джогякарта мемлекеттік университеті мен Абай атындағы Қазақ Ұлттық педагогикалық университеті ұйымдастырған семинарларда презентациялау кезінде талқылап, жүзеге асырылды. Диссертацияның нәтижелері Scopus, Clarivate Analytics (Web of Science) дерекқорларында, Қазақстан Республикасы Білім және ғылым саласындағы бақылау комитеті бекіткен Қазақстандық және халықаралық журналдарда, халықаралық конференциялардың материалдарында жарияланды. 2017-2020 жылдар аралығында 69 мақала жарияланды. Диссертация құрылымы мен мазмұны. Диссертация білім туралы нормативтік құжаттар тізімі, глоссарий, қысқартулар, кіріспе, үш тарау, қорытынды, пайдаланылған әдебиеттер тізімі және қосымшадан тұрады. Жұмыстың Кіріспе бөлімінде тақырыптың өзектілігі дәлелденіп, оның ғылыми аппараттары ретінде зерттеу нысаны, зерттеу пәні, ғылыми болжамы, мақсат-міндеттері, зерттеудің теориялық-әдіснамалық негіздері, зерттеу әдістері, зерттеу көздері, зерттеудің ғылыми жаңалығы мен теориялық маңыздылығы қорғауға ұсынылатын негізгі қағидалары анықталды. «E-Learning білім беру жүйесі негізінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың теориялық-әдіснамалық негіздері»атты бірінші бөлімде білім беруді ақпараттандыру жағдайындағы е-learning білім беру жүйесінің дамуы зерделеніп студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың отандық және шетелдік тәжірибесі жан-жақты талданды; мәселенің әдіснамалық тұғырлары мен принциптері айқындалды. «E-Learning білім беру жүйесі негізінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың дидактикалық негіздері» атты екінші бөлімде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудағы ақыл-ой интеллектердің мүмкіндіктері, е-learning жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыреттілігін қалыптастыруда прблемалық оқытудың ерекшеліктері мен зерттеудің құрылымдық-мазмұндық моделі әзірленді. «E-Learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастырудың тәжірибелік- эксперименттің мазмұны» атты үшінші бөлімде негізгі мәселе бойынша «Педагогика және психология» білім беру бағдарламаларына талдау жасалынып, е-learning білім беру жүйесінде студенттердің танымдық құзыретін қалыптастыру әдістемесі ұсынылып, оның тиімділігі және эксперимент нәтижелері анықталды. Қорытынды бөлімде теориялық және эксперименттік-тәжірибелік жұмыстардың нәтижелеріне негізделген тұжырымдар мен ғылыми ұсыныстар.
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Depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events and death in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These risks persist even several months after the procedure. Guided imagery has been used with cardiac surgery patients for some time and with numerous anecdotal reports of considerable benefit. In addition, this therapy is low-cost and easy to implement, and the literature holds ample evidence for its efficacy in symptom reduction in various patient populations. It was thus hypothesized that preoperative use of guided imagery would reduce postoperative distress in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Fifty-six patients scheduled to undergo coronary artery bypass graft at Columbia University Medical Center were randomized into 3 groups: guided imagery, music therapy, and standard care control. Patients in the imagery and music groups listened to audiotapes preoperatively and intraoperatively. All patients completed psychological, complementary medicine therapies use, and other assessments preoperatively and at 1 week and 6 months postoperatively. Only preoperative distress was predictive of postoperative distress at follow-up. Use of complementary medicine therapies was high in all groups and this fact, in addition to the small sample size, may have accounted for the lack of significant relationship between imagery and postoperative distress. Regardless, this complementary and alternative medicine therapy remains palatable to patients. Given its efficacy in other patient populations, it is worth exploring its potential utility for this population with a larger sample.
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Aim: The aim of this paper is to summarise and critically evaluate the evidence available from controlled clinical trials regarding the use of guided imagery as a sole adjuvant therapy for cancer patients. Methods: Electronic searches for controlled clinical trials were carried out in eight databases and two clinical trial registers. Trials that featured guided imagery as a sole adjuvant therapy were included. No language restrictions were imposed. Data were extracted and validated independently by two researchers. Results: Six randomised clinical trials were included. Detailed results were available for four studies only. Poor reporting and heterogeneous populations, interventions and outcome measures across trials precluded statistical pooling of results. The methodological quality was on average low. Three studies reported significant differences in measures of anxiety, comfort or emotional response to chemotherapy for patients who received guided imagery over the control groups. Two studies showed no differences between guided imagery and other interventions in any of the outcome measures. Conclusion: Guided imagery, as a sole adjuvant cancer therapy may be psycho-supportive and increase comfort. There is no compelling evidence to suggest positive effects on physical symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. The data seem sufficiently encouraging for the use of guided imagery as an adjuvant cancer therapy to merit further research.
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Our understanding of trauma is expanding as clinical vignettes gradually flesh out the bones of the DSM-IV’s narrow definition [1]. Threat of loss of life is central to all definitions of trauma and is a pivotal element to the experience of cardiac events such as myocardial infarctions (MI) in coronary heart disease (CHD). The threat of loss is not only experienced by patients but is also vividly and vigilantly lived by the partners who watch and wait in waiting rooms and by bedsides hanging onto the every heartbeat of the person with whom they share their life and love. The majority of patients who suffer myocardial infarctions are married men under the age of 70 [2].CHD is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States, with 14 million people living with CHD and 1.5 million new MIs each year [3].
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The metabolic syndrome is likely to develop in patients in whom genetic predisposition, chronic stress, negative emotion, and unhealthy lifestyle habits converge. In light of the psychophysiologic aspect of most of these factors, biofeedback, relaxation, and other psychophysiologic interventions have been studied and used in patients with elements of the metabolic syndrome, particularly diabetes and hypertension. This article reviews the rationale and evidence for biofeedback for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension, which has been shown to effectively lower blood glucose and blood pressure in numerous studies. Patients with prehypertension may be a particularly appropriate target population for biofeedback for blood pressure reduction. Further research is needed to guide identification of the best candidates for psychophysiologic intervention for these conditions, although patient readiness for change is a clear prerequisite.