Effects of bisphosphonates in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: An AACPDM systematic review

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (Impact Factor: 3.51). 02/2009; 51(1):17-29. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03222.x
Source: PubMed


This systematic review of the effects of bisphosphonate treatment in children with osteogenesis imperfecta was conducted using the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine methodology for developing systematic reviews of treatment interventions (Revision 1.1) 2004. Despite a large body of published literature, there have been only eight studies with a sufficiently high level of internal validity to be truly informative. These studies confirm improvement in bone density. Many, but not all studies, demonstrate reduction in fracture rate and enhanced growth. There has been extremely limited evaluation of broader treatment impacts such as deformity, need for orthopedic surgery, pain, functioning, or quality of life. Short-term side effects were minimal. Which medication and dosing regimen is optimal and how long patients should be treated are unclear. This body of evidence would be strengthened by a larger controlled trial, because many studies lacked adequate power to evaluate stated outcomes. These studies do not address the impacts of bisphosphonates in children with milder forms of osteogenesis imperfecta and severe forms that are not due to mutations in the type I pro-collagen gene (e.g. types VII and VIII). Additional research is needed into treatment of infants. More studies evaluating medication choices, optimal dosing, duration of treatment, post-treatment impacts, and long-term side effects are necessary.

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    • "However, despite these reports by the various researchers, of improvement in bone mineral density, linear growth, reduced rates of fractures and chronic bone pain, the ultimate goal of treatment is yet to be achieved. There are even concerns on how long treatment should be continued to achieve a sustained result, the safety of prolonged use of bisphosphonates on children,[93435] as well as delay in healing of fractures after osteotomy.[36] Rauch et al.,[36] observed very little benefit after 2 to 4 years of therapy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of rare inherited disorders of connective tissue with the common feature of excessive fragility of bones caused by mutations in collagen. Diagnosis is mainly based on the clinical features of the disorder. We report, the case of a male neonate delivered to a 33-year-old para 2 female at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu with no family history suggestive of OI. He had clinical features of a type II OI and severe birth asphyxia. Multidisciplinary management was instituted, but he died on the 7(th) day of life.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    • "Bisphosphonates are the drug of choice for symptomatic treatment of patients with OI 6,7, but their effect is neither sufficient nor satisfactory. Treatment with other osteoporosis pharmaceuticals could be a more beneficial alternative or perhaps a complement to bisphosphonates in patients with OI, but the knowledge of which patients benefit from certain treatment regimens is limited. "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as "brittle bone disease", is a heterogeneous disorder of connective tissue generally caused by dominant mutations in the genes COL1A1 and COL1A2, encoding the α1 and α2 chains of type I (pro)collagen. Symptomatic patients are usually prescribed bisphosphonates, but this treatment is neither curative nor sufficient. A promising field is gene silencing through RNA interference. In this study small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed to target each allele of 3'UTR insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) in COL1A1 (rs3840870) and COL1A2 (rs3917). For both indels, the frequency of heterozygous individuals was determined to be approximately 50% in Swedish cohorts of healthy controls as well as in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Cultures of primary human bone derived cells were transfected with siRNAs through magnet-assisted transfection. cDNA from transfected cells was sequenced in order to measure targeted allele/non-targeted allele ratios and the overall degree of silencing was assessed by quantitative PCR. Successful allele dependent silencing was observed, with promising results for siRNAs complementary to both the insertion and non-insertion harboring alleles. In COL1A1 cDNA the indel allele ratios were shifted from 1 to 0.09 and 0.19 for the insertion and non-insertion allele respectively while the equivalent resulting ratios for COL1A2 were 0.05 and 0.01. Reductions in mRNA abundance were also demonstrated; in cells treated with siRNAs targeting the COL1A1 alleles the average COL1A1 mRNA levels were reduced 65% and 78% compared to negative control levels and in cells treated with COL1A2 siRNAs the average COL1A2 mRNA levels were decreased 26% and 49% of those observed in the corresponding negative controls. In conclusion, allele dependent silencing of collagen type I utilizing 3'UTR indels common in the general population constitutes a promising mutation independent therapeutic approach for osteogenesis imperfecta.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International journal of medical sciences
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    • "Such pharmacologic treatments are now commonly used on children (sometime extremely young) during long periods (2–5 years) with the rationale to maximize the impact on a growing skeleton. However, some concerns have been raised about the equivocal efficiency on the fracture reduction [4] [5], the accumulation of those long life drugs and the impact of inhibiting bone remodelling over long periods, which results in the build-up of poor quality, highly mineralized bone [1] [6]. It is recognized that the bone tissue is highly responsive to dynamic loading and is able to adapt its architecture and mass to the mechanical loading environment [7] [8] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45 Hz, 0.3 g, 15 minutes/days, 5 days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8 weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the μCT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the histological sections, it is possible that WBV reduced bone resorption, resulting in a relative increase in cortical thickness. Whole body vibration appears as a potential effective and innocuous means for increasing bone formation and strength, which is particularly attractive for treating the growing skeleton of children suffering from brittle bone disease or low bone density pathologies without the long term disadvantages of current pharmacological therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Bone
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