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From hydration to cell turnover: an integral approach to antiaging

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As the mechanisms of skin aging become better understood, their complexity commands a different approach for antiaging benefits-i.e., integrating multiple complementary actives into a single formulation. In the present article, the authors describe a comprehensive formula designed to effectively address sixteen different mechanisms of skin aging.
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... Extrinsic factors have a strong impact on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inflammation reactions, pigmentation, DNA repair, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, skin immunity and barrier function [9]. Additional mechanisms involved in skin ageing [10] may also be altered. Figure 2 The solar radiation spectrum and its effects on skin. ...
... These findings suggest that we should be seeking for a more comprehensive protection approach that would cover all mechanisms involved beyond UV radiation. A similar global and integral approach has been described previously for other skin concerns, including skin ageing and skin pigmentation [10,58]. As illustrated in Fig. 6, based on a new understanding of the physiology of extrinsic skin ageing, an integral dermo-protection approach should ideally include an AhR blocker to counteract some adverse effects of environmental factors, an array of anti-oxidants to neutralize pro-oxidative influence of visible light and IRA radiation, a modulator of TRPV1 to protect from IR-induced thermal ageing, in addition to the regular UVB and UVA filters. ...
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Since ancient times, human beings have been trying to protect their skin against the adverse effects of the sun. From the first mineral sunscreens used by Egyptians, to the current more sophisticated ultraviolet (UVA/UVB) organic sunscreens, progress has been made in terms of sun protection and deeper knowledge of skin physiology has been acquired in the process. The solar spectrum is composed of radiations of various wavelengths having specific, as well as overlapping effects on skin. UVB is mainly responsible for sunburn and DNA dimer formation that can lead to mutation. UVA generates oxidative reactions affecting DNA, proteins and lipids, and is also immunosuppressive. Recently, visible light and infrared radiation (IR) have been associated with oxidative damage and IR has been additionally linked to adverse heat effects on skin. Numerous other extrinsic factors, related to environment and lifestyle, also affect the appearance of skin, precipitating ageing. New molecular mechanisms linking sun and environmental factors to skin ageing have been identified: IR affects mitochondrial integrity and specific heat receptors also mediate some of its effects, tryptophan is a chromophore for UVB, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is activated by light and xenobiotics to alter skin physiology. Integrating all these new elements is changing the way we think about skin extrinsic ageing. Is UVA/UVB sunscreen protection still enough for our skin?
... The related report also showed a tremendous increase in global cosmetic market (cosmetic, skin care and beauty products and services) with Mintel projected an increase in this market revenue from USD 46.2 billion in year 2015 to USD 61.2 billion in 2020 [6]. Recent years have witnessed predominance of cosmeceutical industry that comprehensively integrates the formulation of active ingredients in jar of creams for sustained improvement of the skin [7]. ...
... All the considered oxygen products contained active ingredients with antioxidant properties (e.g. enzymes/extracts containing vitamin A, C and E, hydroxyl acids (HA)), which superior role in slowing down oxidation process was well documented [7,[17][18][19], henceforth reinforcing the possibility that S t O 2 is related indirectly to the oxidation process. The increase in this value is positively correlated with the treatment week. ...
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The role of oxygen in skin care is well known for assisting in skin rejuvenation and repair. This work is an unprecedented scientific and clinical effort to understand changes in percent skin oxygen saturation level (StO2) with topical application of a range of oxygen therapeutic skin care products, and in a course of skin breakout, using a newly developed three-wavelength system in a trial involving a total of eight volunteers. This technology is able to provide measurable positive effects on facial StO2 of the recruited volunteers one week after the topical application of oxygen creams with mean (standard deviation, SD) relative change in StO2 of 5.8 (4.6) %. Meanwhile a case study using this system on an individual with untoward skin condition revealed a drastic change in the mapping of StO2 values from the formation of papule to pustule, and to its encrustation. This optical technology could be a significant breakthrough in the dermatology research by redefining pharma-cosmeceutical research design and process in the development of skin care products by evaluating the efficacy of these products in improving skin oxygen level. In the future, this system may have major applications in the translational research of human physiology and pharmacology.
... In the particular case of dermal application, hesperitin has been reported to limit the formation of abnormal cross-linking of proteins by inhibiting hemoglobin glycation in vivo and collagen glycation in vitro, which could preserve skin's resilience and suppleness. In 186 addition, this molecule displayed antielastase activities that preserve elastin fibers (Dupont et al., 2010). Nevertheless, the use of hesperitin (or more generally any other flavonoids) in cosmetology is limited by their relatively poor stability in formulation, especially in hydrated media where they oxidize extremely rapidly. ...
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The main objective of the present work was a prospective valorisation of flavonoids extracted from lemon fruit peels (Citrus limon (L). Burm. f.), through a preliminary study of steps of extraction, analysis and synthesis of nano-ingredients for cosmetic applications. An optimised protocol was applied for the extraction of compounds of interest from the selected plant material. Special attention was given during this procedure to the variation of three experimental parameters, i.e.: DPPH free radicals scavenging activity (AA), total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The most active extracts were analysed by LC-DAD-MS2. The chromatogram showed the presence of a major compound identified as hesperidin, which could be easily converted into its aglycone hespertin by acid hydrolysis. The third and last part of this work deals with the preparation of biocompatible polymeric nanoparticules which will be used for the encapsulation of molecules of interest. The experimental approach has focused on the encapsulation of hesperitin in PolyCaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticules and the study of size and morphological aspects using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and Laser particle size analyser. The main results showed that the obtained particles, with a mean size of 220 nm and a small dispersion, are compatible with dermal application.
... The test product was a gel integrating several cosmetic active ingredients (listed in Table 1) selected on the basis of their potential to address all major mechanisms generally recognized as being involved in the development of cellulite ( Figure 1 and Table 1), according to published literature and/or patent documents. The formulation also covers all major skin aging mechanisms, 14 since skin aging and cellulite may influence each other, 12 as outlined in the Introduction. By the end of the clinical trial (day 84), following twicedaily application of the test product, all studied parameters relating to cellulite, including skin tonicity, orange-peel appearance, and stubborn cellulite, were statistically improved over placebo (P,0.05) on all studied areas, ie, buttocks, thighs, and hips. ...
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Cellulite is a serious cosmetic concern for most of the 90% of women affected by it. To assess the clinical efficacy of a complex integral anti-cellulite gel. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study involved 44 healthy women, aged 25-55 years. Subjects had a normal to slightly overweight body mass index and presented slight to moderate cellulite on their thighs, buttocks, and/or hips at baseline. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the treated or placebo group and accordingly applied the active product or placebo on their hips, stomach, buttocks, and thighs, twice daily for 3 months. Skin tonicity, orange-peel aspect, and stubborn cellulite were assessed at day 0, 28, 56, and 84. A self-evaluation questionnaire was completed by all volunteers. At the end of the study, an average of 81% of the subjects applying the active product presented improvement in their cellulite condition versus 32% for the placebo group (all descriptors and sites combined). At day 84, skin tonicity, orange-peel appearance, and stubborn cellulite were improved in a significant manner (P<0.05) over placebo, on all studied areas. Skin tonicity improved on average by +41% for buttocks, +35% for hips, and +31% for thighs. Orange peel appearance was reduced on average by -25% for buttocks, -22% for hips, and -22% for thighs. Stubborn cellulite was reduced on average by -19% for buttocks, -24% for hips, and -22% for thighs. Circumference measurements decreased in a significant manner (P<0.05) over placebo, for the abdomen (average value of -1.1 cm) and thighs (average value of -0.8 cm). The product was well tolerated and perceived by the volunteers themselves as better performing than placebo on all criteria. All results validate the efficacy of the present integral formulation to significantly reduce signs of cellulite and reshape the silhouette.
... The test product (100RXED2025) was supplied as a serum. The commercially available formulation contains several cosmetic ingredients (listed in Table 1), including a patented technology aiming at reducing the signs of skin aging as described elsewhere, 14 Glycine soja protein 50 Ubiquinone cosmetic ingredients were added on the basis of their documented potential to address the specific needs of sensitive aging skin, with a tendency to redness. The total concentration of ingredients (excluding excipients) in the formulation reaches 40% (w ⁄ w). ...
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Skin redness is a common cosmetic concern affecting predominantly fair-skin individuals and often leading to rosacea. On the basis of the current scientific knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying the problem, a complex and integral skin care serum (100RXED2025) was developed and tested clinically for efficacy. Forty-five healthy men and women volunteers, age 30-65, were recruited. All subjects had fair skin (phototype I, II, or III) and presented some degree of skin redness with telangiectasia on the cheeks, the nose, or the nose sides, at baseline. In the course of this open label study, subjects applied the test product on their face, twice daily for 56 days. For each subject, skin redness was evaluated through colorimetric and visual analysis of photographs taken under cross-polarized light at T = 28 (week 4) and T = 56 (week 8), then compared to baseline measurements obtained at day 0. Forty-four volunteers completed the study. On visual evaluation, skin redness had decreased in average by 32.2% at T = 28 (P < 0.001) and by 48.0% at T = 56 (P < 0.001). Importantly, 91% of the subjects showed improvement of skin redness at T = 28, reaching 100% at T = 56. Colorimetric analysis gave an average reduction in redness of 11.6% at T = 28 (P < 0.001) and 13.7% at T = 56 (P < 0.001). The anti-redness efficacy of the test product was demonstrated after 28 days with further increase following 56 days of application.
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