NRAS mutant melanoma - undrugable?

University of California San Francisco, Department for Dermatology, Mt. Zion Cancer Research Center, California, USA.
Oncotarget (Impact Factor: 6.36). 04/2013; 4(4):494-5. DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.970
Source: PubMed


Mutations in the three rat sarcoma (RAS) family members NRAS (neuroblastoma-RAS), HRAS (Harvey-RAS) and KRAS (Kirsten-RAS) are found in one third of human cancers. Among the first oncogenes discovered in cutaneous melanoma was NRAS, which is mutant in up to 20% of tumors causing aberrant signaling in several downstream cascades. Despite, being a highly relevant therapeutic target, design of small molecules selectively inhibiting mutant NRAS in melanoma, to date, remains an unsolved challenge. The end?

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Available from: Christian Posch, Mar 14, 2014
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    • "NRAS Q61R appears to be the more frequent NRAS mutation in melanoma with about 40– 67 % to of NRAS mutations [20, 24]. NRAS targeting is a new field in melanoma treatment and there is no consensus on the NRAS inhibitors to date25262728 . Nevertheless , the determination of NRAS mutational status is already of interest in melanoma treatment strategies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The determination of NRAS and BRAF mutation status is a major requirement in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. Mutation specific antibodies against NRAS(Q61R) and BRAF(V600E) proteins could offer additional data on tumor heterogeneity. The specificity and sensitivity of NRAS(Q61R) immunohistochemistry have recently been reported excellent. We aimed to determine the utility of immunohistochemistry using SP174 anti-NRAS(Q61R) and VE1 anti-BRAF(V600E) antibodies in the theranostic mutation screening of melanomas. Methods: 142 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma samples from 79 patients were analyzed using pyrosequencing and immunohistochemistry. Results: 23 and 26 patients were concluded to have a NRAS-mutated or a BRAF-mutated melanoma respectively. The 23 NRAS (Q61R) and 23 BRAF (V600E) -mutant samples with pyrosequencing were all positive in immunohistochemistry with SP174 antibody and VE1 antibody respectively, without any false negative. Proportions and intensities of staining were varied. Other NRAS (Q61L) , NRAS (Q61K) , BRAF (V600K) and BRAF (V600R) mutants were negative in immunohistochemistry. 6 single cases were immunostained but identified as wild-type using pyrosequencing (1 with SP174 and 5 with VE1). 4/38 patients with multiple samples presented molecular discordant data. Technical limitations are discussed to explain those discrepancies. Anyway we could not rule out real tumor heterogeneity. Conclusions: In our study, we showed that combining immunohistochemistry analysis targeting NRAS(Q61R) and BRAF(V600E) proteins with molecular analysis was a reliable theranostic tool to face challenging samples of melanoma.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Diagnostic Pathology
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    • "Signaling pathways activated in melanoma. and 13 prevent the association of GAP proteins with the NRAS complex [21]. Association with the inner face of the plasma membrane is necessary for RAS function. "
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the least common form of skin cancer, but it is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Traditional therapeutics and immunomodulatory agents have not shown much efficacy against metastatic melanoma. Agents that target the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) signaling pathway-the BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, and the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib-have increased survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Further, the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib has been shown to be superior to single agent therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, resistance to these agents develops rapidly. Studies of additional agents and combinations targeting the MAPK, PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PI3K), c-kit, and other signaling pathways are currently underway. Furthermore, studies of phytochemicals have yielded promising results against proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis by targeting signaling pathways with established roles in melanomagenesis. The relatively low toxicities of phytochemicals make their adjuvant use an attractive treatment option. The need for improved efficacy of current melanoma treatments calls for further investigation of each of these strategies. In this review, we will discuss synthetic small molecule inhibitors, combined therapies and current progress in the development of phytochemical therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Cancer Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been implicated in tumor growth via interactions with its receptors (FGFRs) on the cell surface and therefore, bFGF/FGFRs are considered essential targets for cancer therapy. Herein, a consensus heptapeptide (LSPPRYP) was identified for the first time from a phage display heptapeptide library after three sequential rounds of biopanning against FGFR-expressing cells with competitive displacement of phage by bFGF, followed by subtraction of non-specific binding by FGFR-deficient cells. Phage bearing LSPPRYP showed high levels of binding to Balb/c 3T3 cells expressing high-affinity bFGF-binding FGFR (bFGFR), but not to the cells that do not express bFGFR (Cos-7), or express a very low affinity bFGFR (HaCat). The selected-phage-derived peptide synthesized by solid phase method using a rapid and practical Fmoc strategy was found to specifically compete with bFGF for binding to its receptors, inhibit bFGF-stimulated cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest, and block bFGF-induced activation of Erk1 and Erk2 kinase in B16-F10 melanoma cells. Importantly, treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with the synthetic peptide significantly suppressed tumor growth. The results demonstrate a strong anticancer activity of the isolated bFGFR-binding peptide (and its future derivatives), which may have great potential for cancer therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Oncotarget
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