Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Population-Based Study

Department of Pediatrics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada: JOGC 04/2013; 35(4):323-8. DOI: 10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30959-2
Source: PubMed


To determine maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

In a retrospective cohort study using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, 97 pregnancies in women with SLE, with 99 live births, were compared with 211 355 pregnancies in women without SLE and their 214 115 babies. All were delivered in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2008.

In women with SLE, gestational age at birth and mean neonatal birth weight were lower (P < 0.001) than in women without SLE. On bivariate analysis, severe preeclampsia, Caesarean section, newborn resuscitation for > 3 minutes, respiratory distress syndrome, assisted ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, mild to moderate intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, and congenital heart block in neonates were significantly more frequent in the women with SLE. Logistic regression analysis identified that having SLE increased the risks of Caesarean section (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8, P = 0.005), postpartum hemorrhage (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3 to 4.3, P = 0.003), need for blood transfusion (OR 6.9; 95% CI 2.7 to 17, P = 0.001), postpartum fever (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.7 to 6.1, P = 0.032), small for gestational age babies (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.005 to 2.9, P = 0.047), and gestational age ≤ 37 weeks (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.4, P = 0.001). Neonatal death was not shown to be more common in women with SLE (RR 3.05; CI 0.43 to 21.44, P = 0.28).

Mothers with SLE have an increased risk of Caesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, and blood transfusion. They are more likely to deliver premature babies, smaller babies, and babies with congenital heart block.

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Available from: Firoozeh Nili, Jun 16, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective In a study of Gullah African–Americans, we compared pregnancy outcomes before and after systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis to controls to test whether there is a predisease state that negativelyaffects pregnancy outcomes. Design Cases and controls reporting at least one pregnancy were included. Controls were all Gullah African-American females. We collected demographic, socioeconomic and pregnancy data. We modelled pregnancy outcome associations with case status using multiple logistic regression to calculate ORs. Results After adjustment for age, years of education, medical coverage and pregnancy number, compared with controls, cases were more likely to have any adverse outcome (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.10), including stillbirth (OR 4.55, 95% CI 1.53 to 13.50), spontaneous abortion (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.00), preterm birth (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.58 to 4.20), low birth weight (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.61 to 4.34) and preeclampsia (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.01). The odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes all increased after SLE diagnosis compared with before diagnosis, even after adjustment for age, years of education, pregnancy number and medical coverage. Conclusion From a large cohort of African–American women, our findings suggest there may be a predisease state that predisposes to adverse pregnancy outcomes.
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