Dietary Quality, Caloric Intake, and Adiposity of Childhood Cancer Survivors and Their Siblings: An Analysis from the Cardiac Risk Factors in Childhood Cancer Survivors Study
a Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, and Batchelor Children's Research Institute , University of Miami Miller School of Medicine , Miami , Florida , USA. Nutrition and Cancer
(Impact Factor: 2.32).
05/2013; 65(4):547-55. DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2013.770042
Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, in part because of adiposity. Whether survivors have healthy diets and whether dietary quality is associated with adiposity among survivors are not known. Survivors and siblings from the Cardiac Risk Factors in Childhood Cancer Survivors Study completed 3-day food records that were used to estimate daily caloric intake relative to recommended and dietary quality using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI). Medical records were reviewed for cancer therapies. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Of 91 childhood cancer survivors and 30 sibling controls, there were no marked differences in mean daily caloric intakes (98% vs. 100% of recommended) or HEI total scores (55.5 vs. 53.3), respectively, with both groups scoring worst for the consumption of dark green vegetables and whole grains. Survivors exposed to cranial irradiation had lower total HEI scores (-6.4, P = 0.01). Among survivors, better dietary quality, as reflected by the total HEI score, was associated with decreasing percent body fat (β = -0.19, P = 0.04). Survivors consume diets similar to their siblings although these diets are only moderately adherent to current guidelines. Decreased dietary quality is associated with higher body fat and receipt of cranial irradiation in survivors.
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Available from: Vivian I Franco
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ABSTRACT: Treatment advances and higher participation rates in clinical trials have rapidly increased the number of survivors of childhood cancer. However, chemotherapy and radiation treatments are cardiotoxic and can cause cardiomyopathy, conduction defects, myocardial infarction, hypertension, stroke, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance later in life. These cardiotoxic effects are often progressive and irreversible, emphasizing a need for effective prevention and treatment to reduce or avoid cardiotoxicity. Medical interventions, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and growth hormone therapy, might be used to treat cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors. Preventative strategies should include the use of dexrazoxane, which provides cardioprotection without reducing the oncological efficacy of doxorubicin chemotherapy; less-toxic anthracycline derivatives and the use of antioxidant nutritional supplements might also be beneficial. Continuous-infusion doxorubicin provides no benefit over bolus infusion in children. Identifying patient-related (for example, obesity and hypertension) and drug-related (for example, cumulative dose) risk factors for cardiotoxicity could help tailor treatments to individual patients. However, all survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of cardiotoxicity, suggesting that survivor screening recommendations for assessment of global risk of premature cardiovascular disease should apply to all survivors. Optimal, evidence-based monitoring strategies and multiagent preventative treatments still need to be identified.
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ABSTRACT: Anthracyclines have markedly improved the survival rates of children with cancer. However, anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity is also well recognized and can compromise the long-term outcome in some patients. The challenge remains of how to balance the chemotherapeutic effects of anthracycline treatment with its potentially serious cardiovascular complications. Here, we review the pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, prevention, and treatment of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity.
Some risk factors and biomarkers associated with an increased probability of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity have been identified. Modifying the structural forms and dosages of anthracyclines and coadministering cardioprotective agents may prevent some of these cardiotoxic effects. Cardiovascular complications have also been treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and growth hormone replacement therapy. Cardiac transplantation remains the treatment of last resort.
Despite major advances in cancer treatment, anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in survivors of childhood cancer. Promising areas of research include: use of biomarkers for early recognition of cardiac injury in children receiving chemotherapy, development and application of cardioprotective agents for prevention of cardiotoxicity, and advancements in therapies for cardiac dysfunction in children after anthracycline treatment.
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