Article

Reliability of Overcoverage Parameters With Varying Morphologic Pincer Features: Comparison of EOSA (R) and Radiography

Center for Hip Preservation and Children's Orthopaedics, 5471 Kearny Villa Road, Suite 200, San Diego, CA, 92123, USA.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (Impact Factor: 2.77). 05/2013; 471(8). DOI: 10.1007/s11999-013-3001-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background
Multiple radiographic parameters used for diagnosis and quantification of morphologic pincer features have emerged, but the degree to which pelvic tilt or rotation affects conventional radiography and EOS® is unknown.
Question/purposes
We asked: (1) What is the reliability of EOS® and conventional radiography at increasing sizes of morphologic pincer features with varying degrees of tilt and rotation? (2) What is the effect of tilt and rotation on acetabular overcoverage measurements?
Methods
Using a dry cadaveric pelvis, AP conventional radiographs and EOS® images were taken at intervals of increasing modeled pincer size with 0° to 15° varying tilt and rotation. Lateral center-edge angle, Sharp angle, Tönnis angle, crossover sign, and retroversion index were measured on all images. Statistical analysis was conducted.
Results
The intermodality intraclass correlation coefficients for conventional radiography and EOS® radiography across all pincer sizes, rotations, and tilts were excellent (0.93–0.98). Crossover sign was in perfect agreement in conventional radiography and EOS®. Rotation of the hip away from the beam source and/or increased anterior tilt falsely increased all overcoverage parameters except for Tönnis angle. Rotation away from the beam of 10°or greater or anterior tilt of 5° or greater produced a false-positive crossover sign.
Conclusions
EOS® radiography maintained excellent reliability in comparison to conventional radiography but both were equally vulnerable to the effects of tilt and rotation for quantification of hip parameters used in acetabular overcoverage assessment. A standardized pelvic radiograph ensuring that the pelvis is not excessively tilted or rotated should be used for assessing acetabular overcoverage parameters.

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    ABSTRACT: Acetabular anatomy on AP pelvic radiographs depends on pelvic orientation during radiograph acquisition. However, not all parameters may change to a clinically relevant degree with differences in pelvic orientation. This issue may influence the diagnosis of acetabular pathologies and planning of corrective acetabular surgery (reorientation or rim trimming). However, to this point, it has not been well characterized.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Excessive acetabular coverage is the most common cause of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. To date, an association between acetabular over-coverage and genetic variations has not been studied. In this study we investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of paralogous Homeobox (HOX) 9 genes and acetabular coverage in Japanese individuals to identify a possible genetic variation associated with acetabular over-coverage. Methods We investigated 19 total SNPs in the four HOX9 paralogs, then focused in detail on seven of those located in the 3' untranslated region of HOXB9 (rs8844, rs3826541, rs3826540, rs7405887, rs2303485, rs2303486, rs79931349) using a case-control association study. The seven HOXB9 SNPs were genotyped in 316 subjects who had all undergone radiological examination. The association study was performed by both single-locus and haplotype-based analyses. Results The genotype and allele frequencies of the five HOXB9 SNPs showed significant association with acetabular over-coverage compared with controls (rs7405887 OR = 3.16, p = 5.29E-6, 95% CI 1.91 to 5.25). A significant difference was also detected when haplotypes were evaluated (OR = 2.59, p = 2.61E-5, 95% CI 1.65 to 4.08). The two HOXB9 SNPs (rs2303485, rs2303486) were associated with decreased acetabular coverage (rs2303485 OR = 0.524, p = 0.0091, 95% CI 0.322 to 0.855; rs2303486 OR = 0.519, p = 0.011, 95% CI 0.312 to 0.865). Conclusions The five HOXB9 SNPs (rs8844, rs3826541, rs3826540, rs7405887, rs79931349) were associated with acetabular over-coverage. On the other hand, the two SNPs (rs2303485 and rs2303486) were associated with the lower acetabular coverage. The association of rs2303486 would be consistent with the previous study. Therefore, the HOXB9 SNPs might be involved in the morphogenesis of acetabular coverage, and could be an independent risk factor for developing pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Abnormalities in acetabular orientation can promote the development of hip osteoarthritis, femoro-acetabular impingement, or even acetabular cup malposition. The objective of the present study was to determine whether pedicle substraction osteotomy (PSO) to correct sagittal spinal imbalance affected acetabular orientation. Hypothesis: PSO performed to correct sagittal spinal imbalance affects acetabular orientation by changing the pelvic parameters. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive study in which two observers measured the acetabular parameters on both sides in 19 patients (38 acetabula) before and after PSO for post-operative flat-back syndrome. Mean time from PSO to post-operative measurements was 19months. Measurements were taken twice at a 2-week interval, on standing images obtained using the EOS(®) imaging system and sterEOS(®) software to obtain 3D reconstructions of synchronised 2D images. Acetabular anteversion and inclination were measured relative to the vertical plane. Mean pre-PSO and post-PSO values were compared using the paired t-test, and P values lower than 0.05 were considered significant. To assess inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility, we computed the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results: The measurements showed significant acetabular retroversion after PSO, of 7.6° on the right and 6.5° on the left (P<0.001). Acetabular inclination diminished significantly, by 4.5° on the right and 2.5° on the left (P<0.01). Inclination of the anterior pelvic plane decreased by 8.4° (P<0.01). Pelvic incidence was unchanged, whereas sacral slope increased by 10.5° (P<0.001) and pelvic tilt decreased by 10.9° (P<0.001). The ICC was 0.98 for both inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility. Conclusion: Changing the sagittal spinal alignment modifies both the pelvic and the acetabular parameters. PSO significantly increases sacral slope, thus inducing anterior pelvic tilt with significant acetabular retroversion. The measurements obtained using sterEOS(®) showed good inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility. To our knowledge, this is the first study of changes in acetabular version after PSO.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Orthopaedics & Traumatology Surgery & Research
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