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# Skinning of circles and spheres

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Skinning of an ordered set of discrete circles is discussed in this paper. By skinning we mean the geometric construction of two G1 continuous curves touching each of the circles at a point, separately. After precisely defining the admissible configuration of initial circles and the desired geometric properties of the skin, we construct the touching points and tangents of the skin by applying classical geometric methods, like cyclography and the ancient problem of Apollonius, finding touching circles of three given circles. Comparing the proposed method to a recent technique (Slabaugh et al., 2008, 2010), larger class of admissible data set and fast computation are the main advantages. Spatial extension of the problem for skinning of spheres by a surface is also discussed in detail.
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Skinning of circles and spheres
R.Kunklia, M.Homanna,b,1,
aDepartment of Computer Graphics and Image Processing, University of Debrecen, Egyetem sqr. 1,
H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary
bInstitute of Mathematics and Computer Science, K´aroly Eszterh´azy College, Le´anyka str. 4, H-3300 Eger,
Hungary
Abstract
Skinning of an ordered set of discrete circles is discussed in this paper. By skinning
we mean the geometric construction of two G1continuous curves touching each of
the circles at a point, separately. After precisely deﬁning the admissible conﬁgura-
tion of initial circles and the desired geometric properties of the skin, we construct
the future touching points and tangents of the skin by applying classical geometric
methods, like cyclography and the ancient problem of Apollonius, ﬁnding touching
circles of three given circles. Comparing the proposed method to a recent technique
(Slabaugh et al.,2008; Slabaugh et al.,2009), larger class of admissible data set and fast
computation are the main advantages. Spatial extension of the problem for skinning of
spheres by a surface is also discussed in detail.
Keywords: interpolation, skinning, circles, spheres, cyclography
2000 MSC: 68U05
1. Introduction
Interpolation of geometric data sets is of central importance in Computer Aided
Geometric Design. If geometric data consist of points, then we have several, now stan-
dard methods to interpolate them (Farin,1997; Piegl and Tiller,1995; Hoschek and Lasser,1993).
If, however, the data set consists of other types of objects (e.g. circles), interpola-
tion is transferred to skinning, that is construction of a curve or surface which touches
each of the objects and somehow bounds the given data. Since this is a largely ill-
posed problem, constraints have to be deﬁned for the data set as well as for the desired
solution.
In this paper we address the problem of skinning of a sequence of circles. This
problem is sometimes called 2D ball skinning, with a natural extension to 3D, where a
skinning surface of a set of given spheres is to ﬁnd.
Corresponding author
Email addresses: rkunkli@gmail.com (R.Kunkli), hofi@ektf.hu (M.Homann)
1Author supported by Bolyai Research Fellowship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Preprint submitted to Elsevier May 3, 2010
Since the problem of skinning is not necessarily deﬁned in a unique way in the
literature, here we formally describe what type of input is admissible for us and what
type of output we are searching for.
Deﬁnition 1. A sequence of circles C={c1,c2,c3, . . . , cn}(nN) is called admissible
conﬁguration if the following conditions are fulﬁlled (didenotes the closed disk deﬁned
by circle ci):
di1
n
[
j=1,j,i
dj,i∈ {1,2, . . . , n}
didj=,i,j∈ {1,2, . . . , n},j<{i2,i1,i,i+1,i+1}
if di1di+1,, then di1di+1di
These assumptions also yield
ri<
i+1
[
j=i1
dj,i=2, .., n1
where riis the radical center of three consecutive circles ci1,ci,ci+1. In Fig. 1 one can
see an admissible conﬁguration and a conﬁguration where some circles do not fulﬁll
the conditions.
Figure 1: An admissible conﬁguration (left) and a non-admissible conﬁguration (right) where circles c2c4,
c6and c8do not fulﬁll the conditions: circles are not allowed to be entirely in the union of other circles while
radical center r3of three consecutive circles must be out of c3
Since the position of radical center will be of central importance in the algorithm,
we brieﬂy remind the reader to the deﬁnition and computation of it. The radical axis (or
radical line) of two circles is the locus of points at which tangents drawn to both circles
have the same length. Since it is evidently orthogonal to the line passing through the
centers, it is enough to compute the distance of the axis to the centers:
d1=1
2
d+r2
1r2
2
d
d2=1
2
dr2
1r2
2
d
2
where dis the distance of the two centers, r1,r2are the radii of the circles. By a
classical theorem of Monge the radical lines of three circles are either concurrent in a
point, known as radical center, or parallel ithe three circle centers are congruent.
Now we deﬁne the desired output.
Deﬁnition 2. Given an admissible conﬁguration of circles C={c1,c2,c3, . . . , cn}, we
are looking for two, at least G1continuous curves s(t) and ¯
s(t), called skins of the given
There is a point of contact picifor all i=1, ..., nsuch that pis(t) and tangent
lines of circle ciand s(t) are identical at pi. Analogously exist points ¯
pifor ¯
s(t).
Tangent vector viof skin s(t) at pican be rotated to the direction of the center of ci
by 90in clockwise direction. Analogously this rotation is in counterclockwise
direction for tangent vectors of ¯
s(t).
pi1
n
[
j=1,j,i
dj,and ¯
pi1
n
[
j=1,j,i
dj,i∈ {1,2, . . . , n}
For the sake of simplicity s(t) will be called ”left” skin and ¯
s(t) will be called ”right”
skin, based on the second requirement which ensures us that running along the skins, at
the points of contact the circles will always be in one (right or left) side of the curves.
Note, that due the last restriction, points of contact on the actual circle are required
to be out of other circles, which seemed to us a natural condition for skinning.
This or similar problem - beside its theoretical interest - frequently arises in ap-
plications like designing tubular structures, covering problems, molecule modeling
(Cheng and Shi,2005; Edelsbrunner,1999)). Medical image processing applies these
methods in e.g. blood vessel reconstruction (Whited et al.,2007; Slabaugh et al.,2009).
In computer animation, characters can also be constructed from a skeletal structure and
a corresponding geometric skin (Singh and Kokkevis,2000).
Figure 2: Two curves at left satisfying all the requirements to be skins. At right there are two curves which
also touch each circles but they do not fulﬁll the requirements: some of the touching points are inside of
other circles and separation of the two sides is not appropriate
The paper is organized as follows. After discussing the previous approaches, in
Section 3 we describe the new method and show that for an admissible conﬁgura-
tion of circles it always works. Detailed algorithm, several examples and comparison
3
to Slabaugh’s method can also be found in this section. Spatial extension to sphere
skinning by a surface is explained in Section 4. Conclusions and possible further im-
provements close the paper.
2. Previous work
The ﬁrst and most natural approach of the problem would be the application of
the deep theoretical knowledge of the computation of envelope curves and surfaces,
dated back to Monge (Monge,1850), who ﬁrst dealt with canal surfaces. Skin is def-
initely not an envelope, since this latter notion is deﬁned for continuous data set, for
a one- or two-parameter family of curves or surfaces. The ﬁrst requirement at De-
ﬁnition 1, however may be considered as the discrete version of envelope property.
An important contribution of this topic with computational aspects is the PhD thesis
of Josef Hoschek (Hoschek,1964). Since then a large number of papers have dealt
with envelope design, most of them with numerical computation (for the survey see
e.g. (Farin et al.,2002)). For circles and spheres, a recent exact solution is Peternell’s
method which is based on a cyclographic approach. In 2D cyclography deﬁnes a one-
to-one correspondence between the oriented circles of the plane and points in space
by cones. This way the sequence of given circles can be transformed to a sequence
of spatial points. An interpolating curve through these points can be deﬁned by any
standard method and ﬁnally points of this spatial curve can be transferred back to
circles on the plane by the cones. The envelope of these circles is obtained as the
intersection of the plane and the envelope surface of the cones. Similar correspon-
dence works for spheres and points in 4D space. For a more detailed description, see
(Kruithof and Vegter,2006; Peternell et al.,2008) .
Figure 3: Given a set of discrete circles (black), classical interpolation may yield further circles (dashed
blue) in a way that the skin cannot be constructed for the original circles since the new set of circles do not
satisfy the requirements to form an admissible conﬁguration (positions pointed by red arrows)
Although the papers mentioned above do not deal with skinning, one may try to
transfer the discrete data set to a one-parameter family of circles/spheres, having cen-
ters and radii as functions of a parameter. These functions can be achieved from the set
of discrete data by classical interpolating methods in the space, but this way the set of
4
new circles do not necessarily satisfy our requirements to be an admissible conﬁgura-
tion, as one can observe in Fig. 3.
A recent approach to the skinning problem for circles and spheres is Slabaugh’s
method (Slabaugh et al.,2008; Slabaugh et al.,2009). It is an iterative way to construct
the desired curves or surfaces. Let the discrete sequence of circles with centers ciand
radii ri,(i=1,...,n) be given. Initially pairs of Hermite arcs are deﬁned between
the consecutive circles. Considering two neighbouring circles ciand ci+1, an initial
Hermite arcs are speciﬁed with touching points pi,pi+1and tangents vi,vi+1for the
skin. The ﬁnal positions of these points and tangents are obtained by the end of several
iteration steps.
Figure 4: A one-sided (left) skin obtained by the method of Slabaugh (left ﬁgure, from
(Slabaugh et al.,2008)). For two-sided skin they constrain the points of contact to be separated by 180 de-
grees, but this way some of the points of contact may fall into other circles (middle ﬁgure). Right ﬁgure
shows the result of the proposed method: the green touching points of the left skin are almost identical to the
ones obtained by Slabaugh. The right (lower) skin has signiﬁcantly dierent touching points.
The iteration itself is based on the minimization of a predeﬁned energy function.
For computational reasons the positions of the touching points and the tangents are
transferred into one single variable, namely the angle αibetween the xaxis and the
radius pointing towards the touching point.
pi=oi+"ricosαi
risinαi#,
vi="kisinαi
kicosαi#,
where kiis a predeﬁned constant for each circle, half of the distance between the centers
oiand oi+1.
The method provides energy-minimized, C1continuous skin without any user in-
teraction, which, in this sense, the optimal solution, if it exists. But the method also
suers from problems. The touching points are not guaranteed to be out of the circles,
especially not for two-sided skin, when the two touching points at each circle are con-
strained to be separated by 180degrees (c.f. Fig. 4). There are simple conﬁgurations
when it is theoretically impossible to ﬁnd two diametrically opposite points on a circle
being out of other given circles, see e.g. the second circle in the leftmost ﬁgure of Fig.
9 or the lower right ﬁgure of Fig.5. Slabaugh’s method does not provide acceptable
skin by our deﬁnition, especially the last requirement in Deﬁnition 2 is not necessarily
fulﬁlled. From this point of view our method can handle a larger class of data sets. One
5
would try to omit this 180constrain from that method but then we are facing to solve
the separation of touching points, which is far from being trivial in a numerical itera-
tion. The same problem arises in 3D-ball skinning, where Slabaugh’s method allows
only great circles as possible touching circles. A further problem is that the conver-
gence of iteration to a global minimum is not proved and the number of iterations can
be over 100 which is time consuming. Moreover, the process has to be restarted after
any modiﬁcation of data, thus this method is not suitable for real time modeling and
adjustment. For comparison to our method: the one-sided skin in Figure 4 (left) has
been computed by Slabaugh in 143 milliseconds ((Slabaugh et al.,2008), the two-sided
skin (right) has been computed by our method in 14 milliseconds (both at single core
3GHz CPU).
3. Our method
Now our task of skinning can be divided into the following steps:
check if the given circles form an admissible conﬁguration
ﬁnd appropriate points of contact for each circle ci,i=1, ..., n
separate points into two classes, denoted by piand ¯
pifor left and right skin
deﬁne tangent vectors viand ¯
vi
compute the skins
The admissible criteriae of Deﬁnition 1 can be tested by elementary computation.
3.1. Localization of touching points
As we have learned from the previous section, the localization of possible touching
points on the given circles is essential for skinning. Our solution of ﬁnding the touching
points is based on the circles of Apollonius, which are touching circles to three given
circles. This ancient construction provides suitable touching points to each inner circle
in the data set, while the ﬁrst and last circles are handled in a simple special way.
A classical result (Muirhead,1896) on the possible positions of three circles and
solutions of problem of Apollonius states that for three given circles ci1,ci,ci+1,(i<
{1,n}) which satisfy our admissible conditions, exactly one of the following statements
holds:
There exist exactly two circles touching externally by all the three given ones
There exist exactly two circles touching internally by all the three given ones
There exists exactly one circle touching externally and another one touching
internally by all the three given ones.
6
Figure 5: Considering three consecutive given circles (black), the touching points of the second circle are
computed by the two circles of Apollonius (red). Orientation of circles help to ﬁnd the correct solutions. The
method always works for circles in admissible conﬁguration
These touching circles together with their touching points can be found by a classi-
cal geometric method, the cyclography. Consider the three given circles to be oriented,
this yields eight dierent possibilities. The touching circle is always expected to have
the same orientation at each touching point as the given circles. This way the eight
dierent solutions can be distinguished by the original orientation of the given circles.
In two cases all the three given circles have the same orientation. The solutions of
these two cases provide the touching points piand ¯
piof the circle ci(c.f. Fig.5). These
points can be constructed and computed by known methods (M¨
uller and Krames,1928)
(Coaklay,1860). Moreover, it is also proved (M¨
uller and Krames,1928) that these touch-
ing points and the radical center of the three given circles are collinear (see Fig.6).
In the very special situation, when centers of the three circles are collinear and
having equal radii, simply the common tangent lines give the points of contact.
After deﬁning the touching points at each inner circle, the ﬁrst and last circles in the
sequence have to be handled as well. Touching points to these two circles can also be
deﬁned by the common external tangent lines of the ﬁrst two and the last two circles,
respectively.
3.2. Separation to left and right group
Finally two points have been localized at the circles ciwhich all satisfy the last
requirement of Deﬁnition 2. The next step is to separate them for ”left” and ”right”
classes, i.e. to identify which one should be denoted by piand which one by ¯
pi.
At ﬁrst it is proved in (M¨
uller and Krames,1928) that these points of cican always
be separated by the circle with radical center rias center and intersecting orthogonally
the given three circles ci1,ciand ci+1. Moreover it is mentioned that the radical center
7
Figure 6: Given three circles ci1,ciand ci+1in admissible conﬁguration, one can ﬁnd the future points of
contact for skinning at ciby the two special solutions of the problem of Apollonius. The three possible
situations: one circle touching externally and another one touching internally by all the three given ones
(upper left); two circles touching externally (upper right); and two circles touching internally (middle).
Radical center and touching points are collinear.
and the two touching points are collinear. Thus the separation can easily be computed
by the following steps (see notations of Fig. 7): if the vector oi1oican be rotated to
the direction of vector oi1oi+1by a positive angle (in counterclockwise direction, with
less than 180) then the touching point being closer to the radical center riwill be in
the left group, i.e. will be denoted by pi. If the direction of rotation is opposite (as it
is for the next circle in Fig. 7) then the touching point closer to the radical center ri+1
is in the right group: ¯
pi+1. Special attention must pay to the ﬁrst and last circle as well
as for circles with collinear centers. In these cases the vector oi1oiis rotated to the
direction of oi1piand the angle is similarly measured and evaluated as above.
3.3. Deﬁnition of tangent vectors
Finally we have two groups of well deﬁned touching points on the circles. Between
each pair of points Hermite interpolation curve will be computed at each group, sepa-
rately. To these arcs, one has to deﬁne the length of the tangent vectors at these points
(the direction of the tangents is inherited from the actual circle). In Slabaugh’s method
the length of the tangent vectors was a simple function of the radius of the current
circle. This method works well if there is no large dierence between the radii and
the distance of the consecutive circles. Contrary to that method we specify the length
of the tangent in a way that the radii and the distance of the circles, as signiﬁcant in-
formation, are also incorporated. The radical line of two circles provides information
about the radii and the distance of the circles as well. Thus we use this line to obtain
8
Figure 7: Grouping of the constructed touching points into two groups, ”left” and ”right” (green and blue).
Detailed explanation can be found in the text.
uniﬁed information about the positions and size of the circles. For two consecutive
circles and touching points piand pi+1the distance of these points to the radical line
are computed, and the lengths of the tangent vectors at these points are settled to be
twice of these distances.
Figure 8: Deﬁnition of tangent vectors at the touching points by the help of radical line ri
3.4. Construction of the skin
Our ﬁnal step is to construct the curve which is now a simple interpolation problem
for given points piand tangent vectors vi. At this point it is irrelevant that these data
are computed from a set of circles, so we have to emphasize that other interpolation
9
methods may work as well as our choice, the Hermite interpolation. We deﬁne a cubic
curve q(t), t[0,1], where
q(0) =pi,q(1) =pi+1,q0(0) =vi,q0(1) =vi+1,
and q(t)=H3
0(t)q(0) +H3
1(t)q(1) +H3
2(t)q0(0) +H3
3(t)q0(1),t[0,1],
where
H3
0(t)=2t33t2+1
H3
1(t)=2t3+3t2
H3
2(t)=t32t2+t
H3
3(t)=t3t2.
The Hermite interpolation arcs computed from these data serve as a G1continuous skin
of the given circles. Results can be seen in Fig. 9, comparison to Slabaugh’s method is
in Fig. 4 and Fig. 10.
Figure 9: Results of the proposed method. It works for rather complicated data sets and gives correct result
in the simplest case as well.
4. Extension to spheres
As aforesaid, we can deﬁne the problem in larger dimensions, too. Given an or-
dered set of (hyper)spheres, we are looking for a skinning (hyper)surface with similar
properties as it had in 2D. Deﬁnition 1 of admissible conﬁguration of circles can di-
rectly be applied to spheres. The deﬁnition of skin is however, dierent from the one
given in Def. 2. We would like to obtain a G1continuous surface, which touches each
sphere along a circle, that is tangent to the spheres.
Deﬁnition 3. Given an admissible conﬁguration of spheres C={s1,s2,s3, . . . , sn}, we
are looking for a G1continuous surface s(φ, t) called skin of the given spheres satisfying
the following requirements:
10
Figure 10: Comparison of Slabaugh’s method (left) and the proposed method (right). Note the dierence in
the zoomed part below.
There is a circle of contact (touching circle) cifor all i=1, ..., nsuch that the
skin s(φ, t) and sphere sihave common tangent planes at each point of ci. Circle
ciis an isoparametric curve of s(φ, t)
ci1
n
[
j=1,j,i
dj,i∈ {1,2, . . . , n}.
We have to emphasize again that, due to the last restriction, circle of contact on the
actual sphere is required to be out of other spheres, which is a natural condition for
skinning from our point of view.
Steps of our solution are analogous to that ones applied in the planar case.
First of all, we have to localize the touching circles with centers ˜
Ri
(i=1,...,n). For this step we can invoke the solution of the planar problem. Let us
consider a sphere si, where i=2, . . . , n1, that is we exclude the ﬁrst and the last
spheres for a moment (Fig.11). Now consider the plane Pi, determined by the centers
oi1,oi,oi+1of the considered sphere and its neighbours. Intersecting the spheres by
this plane we obtain three circles. With the help of the above mentioned planar method
with Apollonius circles, we can ﬁnd two points in the middle circle. There exists
exactly one plane Ti(i=2, . . . , n1), which passes through these two points and
orthogonal to plane Pi. The intersection of sphere siand this orthogonal plane Tiis the
touching circle for the future skinning surface. We can localize a circle by this method
on every sphere, which has two neighbours.
The Appollonius problem itself can also be generalized in 3D, where touching
spheres of three given spheres have to be found. The envelope of these spheres is the
Dupin cyclide, which surface is widely used in CAGD (for an overview, see (Farin et al.,2002;
11
Figure 11: Touching circle localization on the sphere si, where i,1,n.TiPi, where Tiis the plane of
the touching circle and Piis the plane passing through the centers. Dashed line shows Apollonius circles
as solution of the planar problem in Pi. Note that in general the touching circle is not a main circle of the
sphere si
Figure 12: Construction of touching circle on s1
Pratt,1990; Pratt,1995)). The touching circle we constructed now is identical to the one
in which the Dupin cyclide deﬁned by the three given spheres si1,si,si+1touches the
sphere si.
Touching circles for the ﬁrst and the last spheres have to be deﬁned in a dierent
way. Let us consider the ﬁrst and the second spheres and the regular cone which touches
both spheres. The touching circle of this cone on the ﬁrst sphere will be the circle for
the skinning surface as well (Fig. 12). Circle on the last sphere is deﬁned analogously.
It directly follows from the planar construction, that this method always works in
Now we obtained touching circle with center ˜
Rion each sphere, thus
we can start to create the skin, following the ideas developed in the planar case: patches
are deﬁned successively to each pair of spheres using Hermite interpolants through
corresponding points of the touching circles.
Consider the future patch si(φ, t) of the skin between touching circle cion sphere
siand touching circle ci+1on sphere si+1. Circle ciis the isoparametric curve si(φ, 0),
while ci+1is the isoparametric curve si(φ, 1) of this patch. At ﬁrst we will deﬁne the
12
starting point on cias zi=si(0,0) and on ci+1as zi+1=si(0,1), then rotating them
by the same angle φalong the circles, corresponding pairs of points zφ
i=si(φ, 0),
zφ
i+1=si(φ, 1) will be deﬁned. Lengths of tangent vectors are computed by the help of
the radical plane of the two spheres. Lines of all the tangents pass through the pole wi
of the plane of the touching circle with respect to the sphere si(i=1, . . . , n), see Fig.
13. To avoid unnecessary torsion, corresponding points are selected by the help of a
ﬁxed spatial direction e(which can be e.g. the direction of the zaxis, not parallel to
any of the vectors wi˜
oi).
Figure 13: Computation of tangent lengths is analogous to the spatial case, using radical plane Mi. Corre-
sponding points ziand zi+1are connected by isoparametric curve of the skin surface.
Let s: → {−1,1}and p: {si} → {−1,1}be functions deﬁned by
s(x)=
1 if x<0,
1 else
p(si)=
sD wioi
kwioik,oi+1oi
koi+1oikE if i,n,
sD wioi
kwioik,oioi1
koioi1kE else
where h,iis the standard inner product.
Figure 14: Result of the proposed algorithm. This data set has also been used by Slabaugh in
(Slabaugh etal.,2009), but, contrary to our algorithm, symmetric data set does not necessarily yield sym-
metric skin with Slabaugh’ method
13
Figure 15: A complex data set and its skin produced by the proposed algorithm. Note, that centers of spheres
are not coplanar.
Let ebe a ﬁxed direction, e(wi˜
oi), and let zibe deﬁned by
zi=˜
oi+˜
Ri·e×p(si)·(wi˜
oi)
e×p(si)·(wi˜
oi)
(i=1,2, . . . , n).
Further corresponding points zφ
iof the touching circles are deﬁned by rotating ziby
angle φaround the line passing through ˜
oiand having direction p(si)·(wi˜
oi).
Let Mibe the radical plane of sphere siand si+1. We build our skinning surface up
from n1 patches, where the ith patch is deﬁned as:
si(φ, t)=H3
0(t)zφ
i+H3
1(t)zφ
i+1+
H3
2(t)·p(si)·2·d(Mi,zφ
i)·wizφ
i
wizφ
i
+
H3
3(t)·p(si+1)·2·d(Mi,zφ
i+1)·wi+1zφ
i+1
wi+1zφ
i+1
t[0,1], φ [0,2π],i=1, . . . , n1
where d is the Euclidean distance function and H3
iare the cubic Hermite-polynomials.
Results of the algorithm can be seen in Figure 14, 15 and 16.
5. Conclusion
An algorithm for skinning circles and spheres has been presented in the paper. Con-
trary to other approaches, our method works for large class of data sets, and it is proved
that for any admissible conﬁguration the skin exists, however it does not minimize en-
ergy function and have only G1continuity. Applying classical tools from constructive
geometry, our method is robust and fast with real-time computing speed. Even if one
may wish to numerically minimize energy functions such as in Slabaugh’s work, the
presented skin can be applied as initialization of the iterative process, avoiding trivial
faults, local minima and consuming computation. Our technique provides a curve or
surface which can be modiﬁed in real time, and the shape is sensitive for the change of
radii and positions of the data set as well. Since the crucial point of the algorithm is
14
to ﬁnd suitable touching points or touching circles, and it is independent of the current
interpolation method, extension of the algorithm using other types of surfaces can be a
future direction of research. Further improvements can be higher order continuity and
avoiding unnecessary intersection of the skin and the data set.
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Figure 16: The algorithm can handle distant spheres as well as sudden changes in size. Note that the upper
part of the stomach or the neck of the vase cannot be modeled by main circles as touching circles.
17
... The resulting skinning curves bound the input circles and create an aesthetic shape for modeling purposes. In the last decade, several skinning methods has been developed [14][15][16][17]. The idea has been extended to branched systems of circles to obtain more complex shapes, and also to 3D, introducing the skinning of simple and branched system of spheres. ...
... To resolve these problems, an inverse approach was presented. For each circle, we first define the touching points (e.g., with the localization method of the skinning technique by Kunkli and Hoffmann [14], as it guarantees that the touching points always lie outside the neighboring circles), then we construct those exact tangent vectors which provide exactly the same points of contact of the envelope curves using (2). Kruppa showed that this approach solves both of the aforementioned problems and provides results suitable for skinning purposes. ...
... For this step, Bizzarri et al. leave the α i values as free parameters in (3). As Kruppa showed in [22], we may use the idea of Kunkli and Hoffmann [14] to define the corresponding tangent vectors based on the radical lines of the circles as follows: ...
Article
Full-text available
Minkowski Pythagorean hodograph curves are widely studied in computer-aided geometric design, and several methods exist which construct Minkowski Pythagorean hodograph (MPH) curves by interpolating Hermite data in the R^{2,1} Minkowski space. Extending the class of MPH curves, a new class of Rational Envelope (RE) curve has been introduced. These are special curves in R^{2,1} that define rational boundaries for the corresponding domain. A method to use RE and MPH curves for skinning purposes, i.e., for circle-based modeling, has been developed recently. In this paper, we continue this study by proposing a new, more flexible way how these curves can be used for skinning a discrete set of circles. We give a thorough overview of our algorithm, and we show a significant advantage of using RE and MPH curves for skinning purposes: as opposed to traditional skinning methods, unintended intersections can be detected and eliminated efficiently.
... The idea can also be extended to three-dimensional (3D) modeling, leading to the skinning of an input set of spheres. In recent years, several skinning methods have been developed by Kunkli and Hoffmann (2010), Bana et al. (2014), Bastl et al. (2015), and Kruppa et al. (2019). In addition, skinning can be applied in various fields like computer animation (e.g., ZSpheres R (Pixologic Inc., 2020) and Spore TM (Electronic Arts Inc., 2008)), molecular biology, and medical image processing (Rossignac et al., 2007;Slabaugh et al., 2008Slabaugh et al., , 2010Piskin et al., 2017). ...
... Next, let us overview the G 1 Hermite interpolation method proposed by Bizzarri et al. (2016) because the RE curve construction method will be used for our new skinning approach. In Section 2.2, we examine the standard skinning method of Kunkli and Hoffmann (2010). ...
... As mentioned in Section 1, skinning is a technique used in CAGD for modeling. We introduce the skinning method of Kunkli and Hoffmann (2010). Given an ordered set of circles, skinning is the construction of two G 1 continuous curves touching each of the given circles at one point separately. ...
Article
Full-text available
Special curves in the Minkowski space such as Minkowski Pythagorean hodograph curves play an important role in computer-aided geometric design, and their usages are thoroughly studied in recent years. Bizzarri et al. (2016) introduced the class of Rational Envelope (RE) curves, and an interpolation method for G ¹ Hermite data was presented, where the resulting RE curve yielded a rational boundary for the represented domain. We now propose a new application area for RE curves: skinning of a discrete set of input circles. We show that if we do not choose the Hermite data correctly for interpolation, then the resulting RE curves are not suitable for skinning. We introduce a novel approach so that the obtained envelope curves touch each circle at previously defined points of contact. Thus, we overcome those problematic scenarios in which the location of touching points would not be appropriate for skinning purposes. A significant advantage of our proposed method lies in the efficiency of trimming offsets of boundaries, which is highly beneficial in computer numerical control machining.
... The idea can also be extended to 3D, leading to the skinning of an input set of spheres. In recent years, several skinning methods have been published, such as [11,12,13,14]. ...
... Now let us overview the G 1 Hermite interpolation method proposed by [1], since we will use this RE curve construction method for skinning approach. In the second part of this section, we examine the standard skinning method of [11]. ...
... As mentioned in Section 1, skinning is a technique used in Computer Aided Geometric Design for modeling. Now let us introduce the skinning method of [11]. Given an ordered set of circles, skinning is the construction of two G 1 continuous curves touching each of the given circles at one point separately. ...
Preprint
Special curves in the Minkowski space such as Minkowski Pythagorean hodographs play an important role in Computer Aided Geometric Design, and their usages have been thoroughly studied in the recent years. Also, several papers have been published which describe methods for interpolating Hermite data in R2,1 by MPH curves. Bizzarri et al.introduced the class of RE curves and presented an interpolation method for G1 Hermite data, where the resulting RE curve yields a rational boundary for the represented domain. We now propose a new application area for RE curves: skinning of a discrete set of input circles. We find the appropriate Hermite data to interpolate so that the obtained rational envelope curves touch each circle at previously defined points of contact. This way we overcome the problematic scenarios when the location of the touching points would not be appropriate for skinning purposes.
... Some of them also use evolutionary, iterative approach to find the optimal skin [15,21,22,23], however, these methods are not only time-consuming, but they also depend on the initial position of the skin and may fall into local minima. Other 50 methods use direct real-time computation of the skin, where the central problem is to find the most appropriate touching points on the given circles (in 2D) or touching circles on the given spheres (in 3D) along which the skin will touch the given dataset [1,2,19,24,25]. ...
... In this paper, we evaluate and improve these latter methods, fundamentally 55 based on two different recent techniques proposed by Kunkli and Hoffmann [1] and by Bastl et al. [2]. We provide a new, improved skinning algorithm based on these methods: preserving their advantages while offering a solution to their greatest insufficiencies, in terms of their behavior in extreme cases and the lack of smooth transition in the designing phase. ...
... Given an ordered set of circles, the method proposed by Kunkli and Hoffmann [1] defines skinning as the construction of two G 1 continuous curves touch-75 ing each of the given circles at one point separately. The touching points are determined by applying the solutions to the problem of Apollonius; then they are separated into two groups for the "left" and for the "right" skin. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently there has been a growing interest in the topic of skinning of circles and spheres, since modeling based on these objects has been found useful in areas such as medical applications and character animation. Among others, an efficient method was presented by Kunkli and Hoffmann [1], whilst Bastl et al. also provided an effective skinning algorithm [2]. In this study, we outline the major advantages and disadvantages of these methods, and we show that there are major insufficiencies in [2] in terms of dynamic modeling. We provide a new, improved skinning technique, which preserves the advantages of the two aforementioned algorithms and gives a solution to their arisen problems: it can be used for real-time modeling due to the smooth alteration of skins, and provides good results even in extreme cases. We overcome the problem of self-intersections, and we extend the method to branched systems of circles and spheres.
... [19] and references therein. Due to its technical importance, skinning has attracted the geometric modelling community in recent years and one can find several papers on this topic, see [20,21,22,23]. One of the application areas is computer animation: given a skeletal pose, skinning algorithms are responsible for deforming the geometric skin to respond to the motion of the underlying skeleton. ...
... Following the approach of [21], we consider a given sequence of spheres Σ = {S 1 , S 2 , . . . , S n }, which is admissible as defined in [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We continue the study of rational envelope (RE) surfaces. Although these surfaces are parametrized with the help of square roots, when considering an RE patch as the medial surface transform in 4D of a spatial domain it yields a rational parametrization of the domain's boundary, i.e., the envelope of the corresponding 2-parameter family of spheres. We formulate efficient algorithms for G1 data interpolation using RE surfaces and apply the developed methods to rational skinning and blending of sets of spheres and cones/cylinders, respectively. Our results are demonstrated on several computed examples of skins and blends with rational parametrizations.
... About real applications of this problem to our world, Newton (1687) recognized its equivalence with triangulating a position from the differences of its distance with respect to three known points, giving us the ubiquitous Global Positioning System [11]. Medical imaging [12,13] and pharmacology [14] have similarly benefited from Apollonius, both in experiment and simulation work. This nonexhaustive list demonstrates the problems timelessness and how it has occupied some of the most brilliant minds through the ages. ...
Article
We have discovered the existence of extremely polydisperse High Internal-Phase-Ratio Emulsions (HIPEs) in which the internal-phase droplets, present at 95% volume fraction, remain spherical and organize themselves in the available space according to Apollonian packing rules. Such Apollonian emulsions are obtained from dispersing oil dropwise in water in the presence of very little surfactant, and allowing them to evolve at rest for at least a week. The packing structure of the droplets was confirmed through size distribution measurements that evolved spontaneously towards power laws with the known Apollonian exponents, as well as comparison of the structure factors of aged HIPEs measured by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering with that of a numerically simulated Random Apollonian Packing. Thanks to the perfect sphericity of the droplets, Apollonian emulsions were found to display Newtonian flow even at such extremely high volume fraction. We argue that these fascinating space-filling assemblies of spherical droplets are a result of coalescence and fragmentation processes obeying simple geometrical rules of conserving total volume and sphericity, and minimizing the elastic energy associated with interactions of neighbouring droplets.
... In addition the future research is set out to investigate the role that the proposed optimization strategy can play in the optimal design of skinning of circles and spheres [246], and isoptics of Bézier curves [148] which are considered as interesting subjects in CAGD. Moreover customizing the proposed methodology for decision-making tasks e.g., in [359], and in further optimal engineering designs, would be a part of our future research. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The task of solving optimal engineering design problems is considered as a demanding decision-making process where the real-life industrial problems typically have to be considered from very different perspectives. In this context the most logical approach to achieving the best solution, at the presence of multiple design criteria and numerous design variables, has been the task of performing scientific optimization to produce potential solutions for further decision-making. Accordingly multiple criteria decision-making approaches to optimal engineering design problems, via employing efficient, robust, global and multi-objective optimization algorithms, have brought a significant and competitive advantage to the optimal design. However most of these approaches, due to the characteristics of the real-life problems, often associated with the usage, dimensionality and high computational cost of the objective evaluations, have not been practical and widely acceptable in engineering design community. Here the difficulties and further requirements of utilizing the optimization approaches in optimal engineering design are discussed with a more emphasis on challenges to complex geometries, dimensionality, and multiple criteria nature of the real-life engineering design problems. As a response to the considered challenges, performing the optimizations approaches in the framework of an integrated design environment is proposed as the key success to win industry.
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In this paper, the problem of Hermite interpolation by clamped Minkowski Pythagorean hodograph (MPH) B-spline curves is considered. Using the properties of B-splines, our intention is to use the MPH curves of degrees lower than in algorithms designed before. Special attention is devoted to C1∕C2 Hermite interpolation by MPH B-spline cubics/quintics. The resulting interpolants are obtained by exploiting properties of B-spline basis functions and via solving special quadratic and linear equations in Clifford algebra Cℓ2,1. All the presented algorithms are purely symbolic. The results are confirmed by several applications, in particular we use them to generate an approximate conversion of a given analytic curve to MPH B-spline curve with a high order of approximation, then to an efficient approximation of the medial axis transform of a planar domain leading to NURBS representation of the (trimmed) offsets of the domain boundaries, and to skinning of systems of circles in plane.
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A disk B‐spline curve (DBSC) is an extension of a B‐spline curve and is used to represent a two‐dimensional (2D) region. DBSC is a useful 2D geometric representation and is widely applied in the 2D art design area, such as computer calligraphy, 2D computer animation, and nonphotorealistic rendering. To enhance the flexibility of DBSC, in this article, we propose a physics‐based generalization of DBSC–dynamic DBSC (D‐DBSC), which extends the traditional DBSC in the time domain. We give the mathematical expression of D‐DBSC and prove its several mathematical properties. We derive the motion equations of D‐DBSC based on Lagrangian mechanics and investigate the motion equations when it is under linear geometric constraints. Last, a D‐DBSC physical simulation system based on finite difference method is presented. Dynamic disk B‐spline curves.
Chapter
Lofting—also denoted as surface skinning—is one of the fundamental operations for creating free-form surfaces in Computer Aided Design. This process generates a surface from a given sequence of section curves. It is particularly useful for airfoils and turbine blades, since these shapes are often defined by cross sections with a family of auxiliary surfaces. The use of tensor-product B-splines, which is currently the standard technology, leads to large data volumes if section curves with incompatible knot vectors are used. We adopt the framework of Patchwork B-splines, which supports very flexible refinement strategies, and apply it to the construction of lofting surfaces. This approach not only reduces the resulting data volume but also limits the propagation of derivative discontinuities.
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This paper presents Pearling, a novel three-dimensional ap- proach to the interactive segmentation and modeling of tubular struc- tures from a volumetric image. Given a user-supplied initialization, Pearling extracts runs of pearls (balls) from the image, where each pearl is speci- fied by a center position and radius. The runs are combined into a graph, with bifurcations and possibly loops. By treating each pearl's center and radius parameters as a control point in 4D space, a continuous tubular model is defined via subdivision. We show that Pearling is both computa- tionally ecient and flexible, providing a convenient mechanism for fast, interactive segmentation of a portion of interest in a tubular network.
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Full-text available
This paper considers the problem of computing an interpolating skin of a ordered set of discrete 2D balls. By construction, the skin is constrained to be C 1 continuous, and for each ball, it touches the ball at a point and is tangent to the ball at the point of contact. Using an energy formulation, we derive differential equations that are designed to minimize the skin’s arc length, curvature, or convex combination of both. Given an initial skin, we update the skin’s parametric representation using the differential equations until convergence occurs. We demonstrate the method’s usefulness in generating interpolating skins of balls of different sizes and in various configurations.
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A new paradigm for designing smooth surfaces is described. A finite set of points with weights specifies a closed surface in space referred to as skin . It consists of one or more components, each tangent continuous and free of self-intersections and intersections with other components. The skin varies continuously with the weights and locations of the points, and the variation includes the possibility of a topology change facilitated by the violation of tangent continuity at a single point in space and time. Applications of the skin to molecular modeling and to geometric deformation are discussed.
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The Dupin cyclides provide a generalisation of all the surfaces conventionally used in solid modelling —the plane, cylinder, cone, sphere and torus. They offer the potential for a significant extension of the geometric capabilities of solid modelling systems. This paper presented a rational biquadratic representation for cyclide surface patches, and also gives details of an important parallel offset property of these surfaces. The main results of the paper are however concerned with the use of cyclides for blending in solid modelling. It is shown that they can be used to give exact G1-continuous blends between pairs of other cyclide surfaces in several situations which frequently occur in engineering design. The basic principle is extended by using a new theorem due to Sabin and by employing piecewise cyclide blending surfaces to give still greater generality. All the blends created are subject to the restriction that their boundaries must be circles lying on the surfaces being blended. Such blends occur surprisingly often in the design of real objects
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Extensions are made to the methods of Part I [the author, ibid. 7, No. 1-4, 221-242 (1990; Zbl 0712.65008)] for the use of cyclides in solid modelling, with particular regard to their application as blend surfaces. New insights are given into the geometry and Bézier representation of cyclide surface patches. The existing theory of symmetric cyclide blends is extended and then generalised to cover asymmetric problems. Finally, some details are given of a wider class of surfaces which show great promise for CAD use in the future.