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Molecular phylogeny of Calathea (Marantaceae) - revised generic limits and one new genus

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... Boom (1955) also mistakenly cited Maranta insignis as, allegedly, a species of Ward (1906), not Bull ex Marshall (1902). Finally, Borchsenius et al. (2012) transferred Calathea lancifolia to Goeppertia. However, the epithet insignis has priority and is, in fact, available for Goeppertia, allowing transfer of the valid name Maranta insignis (Art. ...
... 11.4), as is proposed here. It should be further noted that an incorrect reference to the publication of Calathea lancifolia by Boom (1955) is found in Borchsenius et al. (2012). Thus, the combination proposed by Borchsenius et al. (2012) is not validly published because a full and direct reference to a valid publication of the basionym was not given. ...
... It should be further noted that an incorrect reference to the publication of Calathea lancifolia by Boom (1955) is found in Borchsenius et al. (2012). Thus, the combination proposed by Borchsenius et al. (2012) is not validly published because a full and direct reference to a valid publication of the basionym was not given. Notes:-Without any diagnosis or illustration, Lindley (1825) initially cited only the name Calathea violacea, indicating that he would soon publish this new species. ...
Article
New synonyms are proposed, references and authors of basionyms corrected, and changes made to some combinations recently proposed. Maranta insignis, Calathea violacea and Calathea koernickeana are hereby transferred to the genus Goeppertia and types are designated.
... (2012)recently proposed a redefinition of the generic limits of Calathea and resurrected the genus Goeppertia Nees (1831: 337) for most species previously treated as Calathea (placed in his Calathea Clade I;Borchsenius et al. 2012). With this new circumscription, Goeppertia has become the largest genus of Marantaceae.In this context and based onBorchsenius et al. (2012),Braga (2012) andAlbuquerque et al. (2013), the transfer of some species recently described byKennedy (2012aKennedy ( , 2012b for the Flora of Panama is proposed here. ...
... (2012)recently proposed a redefinition of the generic limits of Calathea and resurrected the genus Goeppertia Nees (1831: 337) for most species previously treated as Calathea (placed in his Calathea Clade I;Borchsenius et al. 2012). With this new circumscription, Goeppertia has become the largest genus of Marantaceae.In this context and based onBorchsenius et al. (2012),Braga (2012) andAlbuquerque et al. (2013), the transfer of some species recently described byKennedy (2012aKennedy ( , 2012b for the Flora of Panama is proposed here. Thesewere previously included in Calathea sect. ...
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Article
Calathea basiflora , C. rhizanthoides and C. peregrina were recently described for the Flora of Panama and because the majority of the species of Calathea are now placed in Goeppertia, the combinations for these species are hereby provided.
... Marantaceae had the second largest number of individuals and was represented by two genera in the sample units, Goeppertia and Ischnosiphon, with Goeppertia being one of the two genera in our quantitative survey with 100% frequency. Goeppertia is the most diverse genus of the Marantaceae (Borchsenius et al. 2012), preferentially inhabiting humid environments. When they occur in environments with pronounced seasonality, the leaves perish in response to water deficit and are renewed at the beginning of the rainy season, using the starch reserves present in their tubers (Kennedy 1978). ...
Article
The contribution of the herbaceous stratum to tropical plant diversity is considerable, however this component remains undersampled. We investigated floristic, structural, ecological and conservation issues concerning the herbaceous component of a seasonal deciduous forest associated with granitic rock outcrops in the Cristalino Region, a key area for biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. We installed a permanent plot of 1 ha, allocating 10 transect-lines of 20 m each. We identified the sampled individuals, measured height and projection, and verified cover and frequency per species, genera and family. We recorded 86 species, 62 genera and 25 families, with Orchidaceae being the family with the highest species richness. Among the 26 new species added to Cristalino Flora, we included Philodendron deflexum Poepp. ex Schott and Griffinia nocturna Ravenna, the latter ‘Critically Endangered’. Furthermore, the occurrence of G. nocturna in an Amazonian forest matrix is a novelty in this study. The estimate of species diversity according to Shannon-Wiener (H’) was 2.43 nats.ind.-1 (equivalent to 11.37 ± 0.90 IC95% equally common species), and according to Simpson (1/D), 6.82 (± 0.648 IC95%). The rarefaction and extrapolation curves for the diversity estimates tended to stabilize. Although the vegetation on rock outcrops usually presents a high number of endemic species, this pattern was not found in our study area, which can be explained by its continuous occurrence in the forest matrix. The understory of our study area consists in a mixture of floras, being composed mainly of species from the Amazon and/or Cerrado biomes. In view of the current anthropic pressure faced by the southern Amazon, we reinforce the importance of carrying out inventories of its herbaceous communities, since the risk of species loss is even more alarming when considering present undersampling of this component.
... The family includes lianas as well as economically important perennial herbs, such as Maranta arundinacea L., whose rhizomes are used to produce arrowroot flour. Several Maranta, Calathea and Ctenanthe species are widely used in tropical garden landscaping ornamentation and as indoor plants due to their varied color leaves, with spots or bands of white, red or orange, and often bright purple undersides (Borchsenius et al., 2012). ...
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Article
Marantaceae is a pantropically distributed family, which includes species with ornamental and food potential. Chromosome number change and its outcomes, such as nuclear 2C value variation, provide valuable information for cytotaxonomy as well as about evolution and speciation of the different taxa. Here, we aimed to determine the 2n chromosome number of nine species and measure the nuclear 2C value of 23 species representing eight genera of Marantaceae. The chromosome number of six species and the 2C nuclear value of 18 species were reported for the first time. In addition, we performed the morphometric characterization and 5S rDNA mapping in Monotagma plurispicatum, which exhibited the lowest 2n chromosome number (2n = 12). The species exhibited notable chromosome number differences, 2n = 12, 24, 26, 36, 44, 46, 48 or 50 chromosomes. For each species, we found a stable somatic chromosome number. The mean 2C nuclear value also varied between the species from 2C = 0.63 pg (Ischnosiphon leucophaeus) to 13.49 pg (Saranthe eichleri), representing an intergeneric variation reaching 2,041%. M. plurispicatum chromosome number, karyogram and 5S rDNA mapping (chromosome 3) evidenced that its diploidy with complement set x = 6, with two metacentric (1 and 5), three submetacentric (3, 4 and 6), and one acrocentric (2) chromosome. Considering our findings and previously published data, we reinforce that polyploidy play an important role in the interspecific variation of chromosome number and/or nuclear genome size in Marantaceae, and that these genomic changes influence diversification and speciation in this family.
... The largest number of species in the study came from the Marantaceae which is well represented in both understory and forest edge habitats. Included were 11 species traditionally placed in Calathea but now split between Calathea s.s. and Goeppertia (Borchsenius, Suárez & Prince, 2012) and a single species each of Ischnosiphon and Pleurostachya. Finally, the Zingiberaceae was represented by two species of Renealmia from the forest understory. ...
... The largest number of species in the study came from the Marantaceae which is well represented in both understory and forest edge habitats. Included were 11 species traditionally placed in Calathea but now split between Calathea s.s. and Goeppertia (Borchsenius, Suárez & Prince, 2012) and a single species each of Ischnosiphon and Pleurostachya. Finally, the Zingiberaceae was represented by two species of Renealmia from the forest understory. ...
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Article
Broad-leaved monocot herbs are widespread and dominant components of the shaded understories of wet neotropical forests. These understory habitats are characterized by light limitation and a constant threat of falling branches. Many shaded understory herb species have close relatives that occupy forest edges and gaps, where light availability is higher and defoliation threat is lower, creating an opportunity for comparative analysis of functional traits in order to better understand the evolutionary adaptations associated with this habitat transition. We documented ecological, morphological and ecophysiological traits of multiple herb species in six monocot families from each of these two habitats in the wet tropical rainforest at the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We found that a mixture of phylogenetic canalization and ecological selection for specific habitats helped explain patterns of functional traits. Understory herbs were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves than forest edge species. Although the mean number of leaves per plant and specific leaf area did not differ between the two groups, the larger leaf size of forest edge species gave them more than three times the mean plant leaf area. Measures of leaf water content and nitrogen content varied within both groups and mean values were not significantly different. Despite the high leaf nitrogen contents, the maximum photosynthetic rates of understory herbs were quite low. Measures of δ 13 C as an analog of water use efficiency found significantly lower (more negative) values in understory herbs compared to forest edge species. Clonality was strongly developed in several species but did not show strong phylogenetic patterns. This study highlights many functional traits that differ between broad-leaved monocot species characteristic of understory and forest edge habitats, as well as traits that vary primarily by phylogenetic relatedness. Overall, plant functional traits do not provide a simple explanation for the relative differences in abundance for individual understory and forest edge species with some occurring in great abundance while others are relatively rare.
... Therefore, we rejected further subdivisions but established a separate system allowing recognition by macroscopic investigations, which is convenient for easier application in the field (Fig. 3-8). Meanwhile, we found that for about 80% of the genera with variegated leaf species, variegation types are genus-specific (see Appendix), and that those genera with more than one kind of variegation type are species-rich genera, for example Begonia (Doorenbos et al., 1998), Aechmea (Sass and Specht, 2010), and Goeppertia (Borchsenius et al., 2012). This implies that the specific type of variegation is constrained to some extent by taxon-specific traits. ...
Article
Variegated leaf plants are a group of plants with stable patterns of differently colored leaf areas. The variously colored patches on the surface of the leaves have important biological functions in plant reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Apart from that, these plants have attracted interest as valuable ornamental plants. In this study, 1710 species with variegated leaves belonging to 78 families were investigated based on field-collected samples and previous literature, including transverse sections of 117 species. The macroscopic patterns of variegated leaves are highly diverse and can be distinguished as fishbone-shaped, blotched, V-shaped, spotted, striped, reticulate, and pinnate, with varying levels of diversity across different families and genera. We classified variegated leaves into five types according to the location, shape, color, and cross-sectional structure of the differently colored leaf areas. These are: I, chlorophyll type; II, air space type; III, epidermis type; IV, pigment type; and V, appendages type. Type II is the most common type, which is found in approximately 56% of all variegated leaf species, whereas type V is newly defined to accommodate the variegated leaves with colored, unequally distributed, multicellular outgrowths on the epidermis. Relationships between the diverse macroscopic patterns and the five structural types are discussed.
... Borchs. & S. Suárez, that is represented by the sequence JQ341297 (published by Borchsenius et al. 2012) in GenBank and has 97% percent identity with the sequence from the plant from Bolivia. For the rbcL sequence (GenBank acc. ...
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The Brachybasidiaceae are a family of 22 known species of plant-parasitic microfungi belonging to Exobasidiales, Basidiomycota. Within this family, species of the largest genus Kordyana develop balls of basidia on top of stomatal openings. Basidial cells originate from fungal stroma filling substomatal chambers. Species of Kordyana typically infect species of Commelinaceae. During fieldwork in the neotropics, fungi morphologically similar to Kordyana spp. were found on Goeppertia spp. (syn. Calathea spp., Marantaceae), namely on G. panamensis in Panama and on G. propinqua in Bolivia. These specimens are proposed as representatives of a genus new to science, Marantokordyana, based on the distinct host family and molecular sequence data of ITS and LSU rDNA regions. The specimens on the two host species represent two species new to science, M. oberwinkleriana on G. panamensis and M. boliviana on G. propinqua. They differ by the size and shape of their basidia, molecular sequence data of ITS and LSU rDNA regions, and host plant species. In the past, the understanding of Brachybasidiaceae at order and family level was significantly improved by investigation realized by Franz Oberwinkler and his collaborators at the University of Tübingen, Germany. On species level, however, our knowledge is still very poor due to incomplete species descriptions of several existing names in literature, scarceness of specimens, as well as sequence data lacking for many taxa and for further barcode regions. Especially species of Kordyana and species of Dicellomyces are in need of revision. Graphical Abstract
... Amplification of the target plastid locus trnC-petN1r was performed using the primers trnC 5´-CCAGTTCAAATCTGGGTGTC-3´ (modified from Demesure et al. 1995) and petN1r 5´-CCCAAGCAAGACTTACTATATCC-3´ (Lee & Wen 2004), for locus rps16 the primers rpsF, 5´-GTGGTAGAAAGCAACGTGCGACTT-3´, and rpsR2, 5´-TCGGGATCGAACATCAATTGCAAC-3´ (Oxelman et al. 1997) were used and for locus trnL/trnL-F the primers ucpc and ucp-f (Taberlet et al. 1991) were applied. MatK was amplified in two independent parts using the internal primers: matK-867F 5´-TGGAGTCTTTCTTTCTTGAGCGAA-3´; matK-988R 5´-CTTTTCCTTGATAYCGAACATAATG-3´; matK-1639R: 5´-AATATCRAAATACCAAATACGTTCT-3´ (Borchsenius et al. 2012) and mIF (Prince & Kress 2006a). For the nuclear loci 5S (including 5S nrDNA gene and non-transcribed spacer region) we used the primers designed by Cox et al. (1992) 5S forward (5´-TGG GAA GTC CTY GTG TTG CA-3´) and 5S reverse (5´-KTM GYG CTG GTA TGA TCG CA-3´), and for ITS (including ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) we used ITS-1 5´-TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGG-3´ and ITS-4 5´-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3´ (White et al. 1990). ...
Article
The genus Haumania (Marantaceae) consists of three described species of perennial climbers endemic to the tropical lowland rainforest in Central Africa. To unravel their phylogenetic relationship to each other, we used variation among DNA sequences of two nuclear ribosomal (nr) and four plastid (p) markers in five to seven accessions per species sampled across their respective distribution range. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses were applied. All datasets and analyses corroborated the monophyly of the genus. Within the genus, individuals of the species H. danckelmaniana and H. leonardiana were each monophyletic. Individuals of H. liebrechtsiana, however, were paraphyletic. They clustered into two distinct geographic clades (Gabon and Democratic Republic of Congo), with the Gabonese clade being most closely related to the individuals of H. danckelmaniana. The latter might be due to introgression in areas of distributional overlap between these two species, as shown in earlier phylogeographic studies. A recent hybridisation event between H. danckelmaniana and H. liebrechtsiana is documented here in a single individual by incongruence in the nr and p dataset. Overall, the study provides support for H. leonardiana being sister to all other species of this genus. To confirm the absence of hybridisation in H. leonardiana further sampling is proposed in the respective areas of distributional overlap with its sister species.
... We identified host plants using the labels in the station's park or by using the keys in Weber et al. (2001). With regard to plant taxonomy and nomenclature, we followed Borchsenius et al. (2012), GRIN (2013), andTropicos (2013). For the statistical analysis we used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). ...
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A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young – rolled – leaves might be the actual decisive factor.
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The Marantaceae family is composed of 550 species of pantropical distribution, with a strong clustering in the Neotropics. Although the family forms a monophyletic group, the circumscription of genera and consequently its phylogenetic relationships are not sufficiently understood. Its species produces silica phytoliths in varied forms, ornamentation and distribution in leaves, and these silica deposits are considered important in vegetable physiology and taxonomy. We have conducted the morphological characterisation of phytoliths and their distribution in foliar blades of Neotropical Marantaceae genera, evaluating the use of such characters to support the morphological delimitation of the genera and the physiological aspects of the family’s adaptation to rainforests. Phytoliths of 22 species of 12 genera, namely Calathea, Ctenanthe, Goeppertia, Hylaeanthe, Ischnosiphon, Koernickanthe, Maranta, Monotagma, Myrosma, Saranthe, Stromanthe and Thalia, were analysed using light and scanning electron microscopes. When comparing Neotropical species to those of the old world, one can observe the family’s homogeneity by the presence of two morphotypes in the foliar blade, the globular and the irregular, as well as stegmata associated with the fibres. However, two distinguishing features have been identified in these Neotropical species: (1) a new morphotype, the cylindroid, located in the mesophyll, (2) intra- and extracellular amorphous silica deposits associated with the stomata, which play an important role in the restriction of transpiration. In addition, the form, size and distribution of the silica deposits appear conservative in all analysed samples, which makes them useful in the morphological characterisation of the genera and species, and consequently, in the taxonomic circumscription of the Marantaceae.
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Article
Marantaceae are the second largest family in the order Zingiberales, with approximately 31 genera and 535 species. Earlier studies based on morphological and molecular characters could not confidently determine the relationships among major lineages of the family, nor could they identify the basal branch of the family tree. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from all three genomic com- partments (chloroplast: matK, ndhF, rbcL, rps16 intron, and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer; mitochon- drion: cox1; nucleus: ITS region and the 5 -end of 26S) for a restricted set of taxa were conducted under parsimony criteria to define the root node and to assess geographical distribution patterns. Our results support the recognition of five major lineages, most of which are restricted to a single geo- graphical region (tropical America, tropical Africa, or tropical Asia). The phylogenies and character reconstructions (Fitch parsimony optimization, Bremer ancestral areas, and DIVA) support an African origin for the family, followed by a minimum of two dispersal events to the New World tropics and four or more dispersal events to the Asian tropics. Less likely are two alternative hypotheses: (1) vicariance of a western Gondwanan group (the Americas and Africa) followed by several dispersals to Asia and Africa, or (2) an American origin followed by several dispersals to Africa and Asia. The low specific diversity in Africa may be due to higher extinction rates as a result of shrinking lowland tropical forests during the Tertiary.
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Article
The Marantaceae (530 spp.) are one of the most species rich families within the order Zingiberales which incites the search for evolutionary factors favoring speciation. A positive influence on their divergence is ascribed to their unique explosive pollination mechanism which has been proposed to be a key innovation. To test this hypothesis phylogenies of the two major African clades (Sarcophrynium and the Marantochloa clade) were established based on data from nuclear (ITS, 5S) and chloroplast (trnL/trnL-F) DNA for an almost complete taxon sample. The phylogeny was used to parsimoniously reconstruct morphological and ecological traits and geographic distribution patterns. The resulting molecular relationships of the genera are congruent with the existing family phylogeny. As in previous studies the species Ataenidia conferta is nested within Marantochloa so that a new circumscription of Marantochloa is proposed leading to the new name Marantochloa conferta . Hybridization events, adaptation to different pollinators, and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations are hypothesized evolutionary factors fostering speciation in the African clades. The explosive pollination mechanism might have played an important role in optimizing the mating system but did certainly not force speciation directly through mechanisms of reproductive isolation.
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Six primers for the amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been designed. In order to find out whether these primers were universal, we used them in an attempt to amplify DNA from various plant species. The primers worked for most species tested including algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. The fact that they amplify chloroplast DNA non-coding regions over a wide taxonomic range means that these primers may be used to study the population biology (in supplying markers) and evolution (inter- and probably intraspecific phylogenies) of plants.
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Relationships among representatives of the five major Hawaiian Drosophila species groups were examined using data from eight different gene regions. A simultaneous analysis of these data resulted in a single most-parsimonious tree that (1) places the adiastola picture-winged subgroup as sister taxon to the other picture-winged subgroups, (2) unites the modified-tarsus species group with flies from the Antopocerus species group, and (3) places the white-tip scutellum species group as the most basal taxon. Because of the different gene sources used in this study, numerous process partitions can be erected within this data set. We examined the incongruence among these various partitions and the ramifications of these data for the taxonomic consensus, prior agreement, and simultaneous analysis approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction. Separate analyses and taxonomic consensus appear to be inadequate methods for dealing with the partitions in this study. Although detection of incongruence is possible and helps elucidate particular areas of disagreement among data sets, separation of partitions on the basis of incongruence is problematic for many reasons. First, analyzing all genes separately and then either presenting them all as possible hypotheses or taking their consensus provides virtually no information concerning the relationships among these flies. Second, despite some evidence of incongruence, there are no clear delineations among the various gene partitions that separate only heterogeneous data. Third, to the extent that problematic genes can be identified, these genes have nearly the same information content, within a combined analysis framework, as the remaining nonproblematic genes. Our data suggest that significant incongruence among data partitions may be isolated to specific relationships and the "false" signal creating this incongruence is most likely to be overcome by a simultaneous analysis. We present a new method, partitioned Bremer support, for examining the contribution of a particular data partition to the topological support of the simultaneous analysis tree.
Article
Sanblasia dressleri is described from material from the Serranía de San Blas, E Panamá. The inflorescence has the general appearance of an Ischnosiphon, but the ovary is 3–ovulate, as in Calathea, and the bracteole is channeled and keeled, as in many species of Calathea, and in Pleiostachya.
Article
The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) represents one of the most popular molecular markers in phylogenetics. The number of investigations revealing high degrees of intra-individual polymorphism connected with the presence of pseudogenic ITS regions is on the increase. Studies including pseudogenic ITS regions can lead to erroneous phylogenetic trees and false taxonomic conclusions. For their recognition, we focus on the 5.8S rDNA as the functional part of this region, which is also affected by degeneration processes. We outline three conserved Viridiplantae 5.8S motifs: GAATTGCAGAAwyC, TTTGAAyGCA, CGATGAAGAACGyAGC, which can be simply checked in sequence alignments. The latter 5.8S motif we also recognised in the large subunit RNA (LSU) of Escherichia coli. The utility of different methods for pseudogene detection based on easily recognisable 5.8S sequence motifs by comparison with 5.8S secondary structure reconstructions and statistical tests are discussed and illustrated with three previously published angiosperm data sets.
Article
Eight genera and approximately 55 species of Marantaceae occur in Asia. Until recently these were the most poorly understood members of the family, but over the last few years much progress have been made in understanding their alpha taxonomy and distribution. Generic delimitation and phylogenetic relationships between genera, however, remain unclear. We analysed phylogenetic relationships in Asian Marantaceae using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis of plastid (rps16 intron) and nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and 5S-non-transcribed spacer (NTS)] DNA sequence data. The results show that two Asian genera, Halopegia and Stachyphrynium, are well-defined monophyletic entities that should be maintained in their current form. Schumannianthus virgatus is sister to Halopegia and should be transferred to a genus of its own. Phacelophrynium, Monophrynium and Cominsia are nested within a paraphyletic Phrynium. Within this large clade, a number of geographically focused monophyletic species groups can be identified, in some cases corroborated by flower and fruit characters not previously emphasized in taxonomic studies, but these do not provide a useful framework for a revised generic classification. A revised generic classification of Asian Marantaceae is supplied, including the description of a new genus Indianthus Suksathan & Borchs. to which S. virgatus is transferred. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 159, 381–395.
Article
Relationships of Marantaceae were estimated from nucleotide sequence variation in the rps16 intron (plastid DNA) and from morphological characters. Fifty-nine species (21 genera) formed the ingroup, and 12 species (12 genera) of other Zingiberales formed the outgroup. There is no support for the traditional subdivision of Marantaceae into a triovulate and a uniovulate tribe or the informal groups previously proposed. The so-called Donax group forms a paraphyletic grade that is basal within Marantaceae. Thalia appears as the distal branch of this grade, but its position is not supported in jackknife analysis. The so-called Calathea group is monophyletic in all shortest trees but not supported with greater than 50% jackknife. The genus Calathea appears to be paraphyletic. The Maranta and Phrynium groups are clearly polyphyletic. Maranta, Koernickanthe, and genera of the Mymsma group, all neotropical, form a strongly supported monophyletic group. The sister of this group is the palaeotropical genus Halopegia. Koernickanthe is nested within Maranta, as this genus is traditionally circumscribed. The African genera Ataenidia and Marantochloa form a strongly supported clade in which Ataenidia is the sister group to Marantochloa. Based on phylogeny it is concluded that Africa, in spite of being much poorer in species, is the most likely ancestral area of Marantaceae
Article
Calathea maasiorum from French Guiana and Surinam is described as new. It belongs toCalathea sectionBreviscapus Bentham. The foliage is patterned with a light green band along the midrib above. This new species has previously been confused withC. cyclophora Baker from Amazonian Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela, and Guyana but it is distinguished fromC. cyclophora by the absence of bracteoles, the elliptic to obovate leaf blade, and shorter (1–2 cm long) bracts.
Article
The family Brassicaceae comprises 3710 species in 338 genera, 25 recently delimited tribes, and three major lineages based on phylogenetic results from the chloroplast gene ndhF. To assess the credibility of the lineages and newly delimited tribes, we sequenced an approximately 1.8-kb region of the nuclear phytochrome A (PHYA) gene for taxa previously sampled for the chloroplast gene ndhF. Using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the gene and used the approximately unbiased (AU) test to compare phylogenetic results from PHYA with findings from ndhF. We also combined ndhF and PHYA data and used a Bayesian mixed model approach to infer phylogeny. PHYA and combined analyses recovered the same three large lineages as those recovered in ndhF trees, increasing confidence in these lineages. The combined tree confirms the monophyly of most of the recently delimited tribes (only Alysseae, Anchonieae, and Descurainieae are not monophyletic), while 13 of the 23 sampled tribes are monophyletic in PHYA trees. In addition to phylogenetic results, we documented the trichome branching morphology of species across the phylogeny and explored the evolution of different trichome morphologies using the AU test. Our results indicate that dendritic, medifixed, and stellate trichomes likely evolved independently several times in the Brassicaceae.
Article
A major advantage of clonal growth forms is the intergenerational transfer of resources through vascular connections (clonal integration). Connections linking ramets can be persistent or ephemeral. For species with ephemeral connections, whether the extent of clonal integration changes over time is unclear. To address this issue, we tracked water movement using an isotopic label and assessed the demographic performance of parent and offspring ramets over time in a severing experiment. Our study system was the understory herb Calathea marantifolia, which has parent ramets that produce vegetative bulbils (clonal offspring) that pass through distinct pre- and post-rooting stages. Little water was transported between parents and offspring, and the direction of movement was primarily from parent to pre-rooting offspring. Anatomical observations of inter-ramet connections showed that vascular bundles were twice as abundant in parent stems compared to inter-ramet connections. Severing inter-ramet connections reduced the growth of offspring ramets but not parents. Survival of pre-rooting offspring was reduced by 10% due to severing, but post-rooting offspring were not affected. Our results suggest that offspring ramets of C. marantifolia are weaned from their parent as they progress from pre- to post-rooting stages.
& Hook. f.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea guianensis Klotzsch ex Benth. & Hook
  • Goeppertia
  • Klotzsch
  • Benth
Goeppertia guianensis (Klotzsch ex Benth. & Hook. f.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea guianensis Klotzsch ex Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 3: 654. 1883.
Rowlee ex Standl.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea panamensis Rowlee ex Standl
  • Goeppertia Panamensis
Goeppertia panamensis (Rowlee ex Standl.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea panamensis Rowlee ex Standl., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 15: 4. 1925.
Veitch ex Hook. f.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea veitchiana Veitch ex Hook
  • Goeppertia Veitchiana
Goeppertia veitchiana (Veitch ex Hook. f.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea veitchiana Veitch ex Hook. f., Bot. Mag. 91: t. 5535. 1865.
Maranta prolifera Vell., Fl. Flumin. 1: 4, t. 10. 1829. Calathea prolifera (Vell
  • Goeppertia
  • Vell
  • S Borchs
  • Suárez
Goeppertia prolifera (Vell.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Maranta prolifera Vell., Fl. Flumin. 1: 4, t. 10. 1829. Calathea prolifera (Vell.) J. M. A. Braga, Acta Bot. Bras. 19: 766. 2005.
  • Goeppertia Buchtienii
Goeppertia buchtienii (Pax) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea buchtienii Pax, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 107. 1909.
ex Sweet) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Phrynium rossii Lodd
  • Goeppertia
  • Lodd
Goeppertia rossii (Lodd. ex Sweet) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Phrynium rossii Lodd. ex Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3: 658. 1839. Calathea rossii (Lodd. ex Sweet) Kö rn., Gartenflora 7: 88. 1858.
Maranta truncata Link ex A. Dietr., Sp
  • Goeppertia
  • A Link
  • Dietr
  • S Borchs
  • Suárez
Goeppertia truncata (Link ex A. Dietr.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Maranta truncata Link ex A. Dietr., Sp. Pl. 1: 26. 1831. Calathea truncata (Link ex A. Dietr.) K. Schum. in H. G. A. Engler (ed.), Pflanzenr., IV, 48: 104. 1902.
Phrynium coloratum Hook
  • Goeppertia
  • Hook
  • S Borchs
  • Suárez
Goeppertia colorata (Hook.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Phrynium coloratum Hook., Bot. Mag. 57: t. 3010. 1830, comb. nov. Calathea colorata (Hook.) Benth. in G. Bentham & J. D. Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3: 654. 1883.
Pl. 2: 20. 1837. Calathea dicephala (Poepp. & Endl.) Kö rn
  • Gen
  • Sp
Gen. Sp. Pl. 2: 20. 1837. Calathea dicephala (Poepp. & Endl.) Kö rn., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 35(1): 127. 1862.
ex Gris) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea modesta Brongn. ex Gris
  • Goeppertia
  • Brongn
Goeppertia modesta (Brongn. ex Gris) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea modesta Brongn. ex Gris, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., IV, 41: 193. 1859.
  • Goeppertia
  • Steyerm
Goeppertia lasseriana (Steyerm.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea lasseriana Steyerm., Fieldiana, Bot. 28: 163. 1951.
made the combination Calathea tuberosa (Vell.) Körn. based on Thalia tuberosa Vell., Fl. Flumin. 1: 4, t. 18. 1829. [= Goeppertia tuberosa (Vell.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, see below) Therefore, a new name was assigned for Maranta tuberosa when transferred to Calathea
Körnicke (1862) made the combination Calathea tuberosa (Vell.) Körn. based on Thalia tuberosa Vell., Fl. Flumin. 1: 4, t. 18. 1829. [= Goeppertia tuberosa (Vell.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, see below). Therefore, a new name was assigned for Maranta tuberosa when transferred to Calathea.
  • Hort
  • E Belge
  • Trangère
Hort. Belge E ´ trangère 15: 99. 1865. Calathea pavonina (K. Koch & Linden) Petersen in C. F. P. von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 3(3): 128. 1890.
  • Goeppertia
  • Urb
Goeppertia martinicensis (Urb.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea martinicensis Urb., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15: 103. 1917.
Calathea grandis Petersen in
  • Goeppertia
  • Petersen
  • S Borchs
  • Suárez
Goeppertia grandis (Petersen) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea grandis Petersen in C. F. P. von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 3(3): 124. 1890.
Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea ursina Standl., Publ. Field Mus
Goeppertia ursina (Standl.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea ursina Standl., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 22: 70. 1940.
Phrynium longibracteatum Sweet, Hort
  • Goeppertia
  • Sweet
  • S Borchs
  • Suárez
Goeppertia longibracteata (Sweet) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Phrynium longibracteatum Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 2: 494. 1830. Calathea longibracteata (Sweet) Lindl., Bot. Reg. 12: t. 1020. 1827.
Calathea sophiae Huber
  • Goeppertia
  • Huber
  • S Borchs
  • Suárez
Goeppertia sophiae (Huber) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea sophiae Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi Hist. Nat. Ethnogr. 4: 550. 1906.
Kö rn. ex Horan.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea kappleriana Kö rn. ex Horan
  • Goeppertia Kappleriana
Goeppertia kappleriana (Kö rn. ex Horan.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea kappleriana Kö rn. ex Horan., Prodr. Monogr. Scitam.: 12. 1862.
Goeppertia exserta (Rusby) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea exserta Rusby, Bull
Goeppertia exserta (Rusby) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea exserta Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 495. 1910.
Forzza) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea hopkinsii Forzza
  • Goeppertia Hopkinsii
Goeppertia hopkinsii (Forzza) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea hopkinsii Forzza, Rodriguésia 58: 535. 2007.
Goeppertia cleistantha (Standl.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea cleistantha Standl
Goeppertia cleistantha (Standl.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea cleistantha Standl., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 17: 250. 1927.
Linden & André) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea nigrocostata Linden & André, Ill
  • Goeppertia Nigrocostata
Goeppertia nigrocostata (Linden & André) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea nigrocostata Linden & André, Ill. Hort. 20: t. 144. 1873.
  • Goeppertia Hirta
Goeppertia hirta (Ravenna) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea hirta Ravenna, Onira 9: 46. 2004.
Goeppertia saxicola (Hoehne) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea saxicola Hoehne
Goeppertia saxicola (Hoehne) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea saxicola Hoehne, Relat. Commiss. Linhas Telegr. Estratég. Matto Grosso Amazonas 5: 24. 1915.
Rowlee ex Woodson & Schery) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea foliosa Rowlee ex Woodson & Schery
  • Goeppertia Foliosa
Goeppertia foliosa (Rowlee ex Woodson & Schery) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea foliosa Rowlee ex Woodson & Schery, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29: 332. 1942.
Eichler ex Petersen) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea concolor Eichler ex Petersen in
  • Goeppertia Concolor
Goeppertia concolor (Eichler ex Petersen) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea concolor Eichler ex Petersen in C. F. P. von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 3(3): 126. 1890.
Fenzl ex Regel) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea affinis Fenzl ex Regel
  • Goeppertia Affinis
Goeppertia affinis (Fenzl ex Regel) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea affinis Fenzl ex Regel, Gartenflora 28: 294. 1879.
Maranta leonia Sander, Cat. 1896: 63. 1896. Calathea leonia (Sander) K. Schum
  • Goeppertia
  • Sander
  • S Borchs
  • Suárez
Goeppertia leonia (Sander) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Maranta leonia Sander, Cat. 1896: 63. 1896. Calathea leonia (Sander) K. Schum. in H. G. A. Engler (ed.), Pflanzenr., IV, 48: 90. 1902.
Kö rn.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea widgrenii Kö rn
  • Goeppertia Widgrenii
Goeppertia widgrenii (Kö rn.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea widgrenii Kö rn., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 35(1): 117. 1862.
Sm.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea verapax Donn
  • Goeppertia
  • Donn
Goeppertia verapax (Donn. Sm.) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea verapax Donn. Sm., Bot. Gaz. 31: 124. 1901.
Linden ex Regel) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea virginalis Linden ex Regel
  • Goeppertia Virginalis
Goeppertia virginalis (Linden ex Regel) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea virginalis Linden ex Regel, Gartenflora 28: 299. 1879.
Rusby) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea whitei Rusby, Mem
  • Goeppertia Whitei
Goeppertia whitei (Rusby) Borchs. & S. Suárez, comb. nov. Calathea whitei Rusby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 7: 221. 1927.