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NOSTALGIA: The bittersweet history of a psychological concept

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Abstract

The concept of nostalgia has changed substantially both denotatively and connotatively over the span of its 300-year history. This article traces the evolution of the concept from its origins as a medical disease to its contemporary understanding as a psychological construct. The difficulty of tracing a construct through history is highlighted. Attention is paid to roles played first by the medical context, and then by the psychiatric, psychoanalytic, and psychological approaches. Emphasis is given to shifts in the designation of nostalgic valence from bitter to sweet to bittersweet, and the processes of semantic drift and depathologization are explored. Because the sense of nostalgia was constructed and reconstructed within social, cultural, and historical contexts, its meaning changed along with the words used to describe and connect it to other entities. Nostalgia's past illustrates the influence of language, social-cultural context, and discipline perspectives on how a construct is defined, researched, and applied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

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... Inicialmente, Batcho (1995) considera a nostalgia como uma característica intrínseca dos indivíduos, cuja expressão desse traço depende da magnitude com que cada um a apresenta, isto é, a frequência das experiências nostálgicas difere entre as pessoas devido à sua característica de personalidade. Além disso, a autora sugere que o sentimento nostálgico ocorre por meio da interação entre a interpretação cognitiva da experiência e a emoção do momento lembrado (Batcho, 2013). Assim, a nostalgia tem como objetivo essencial à estimulação cognitiva sobre o passado, com o propósito de encontrar significado no presente e no futuro do indivíduo (Batcho, Nave, & DaRin, 2011). ...
... Há um consenso relativo quanto à ambivalência em torno da nostalgia. Efetivamente, Batcho (2013), ao fazer uma revisão procurando entender a natureza ambivalente da nostalgia, concluiu que a percepção deste sentimento amargo ou doce depende do viés contextual e disciplinar. Nesta mesma direção, Sedikides e Wildschut (2016) concebem a nostalgia como uma emoção ambivalente, mas que pode se relacionar a melhor adaptação e bem-estar a longo prazo, ou seja, pode ser parcialmente responsável por benefícios à saúde. ...
... A partir do exposto, no presente estudo adota a definição da nostalgia como uma característica relativamente estável (Batcho, 1995) e ambivalente, uma vez que há a justaposição de afetos negativos e afetos positivos . Ademais, é um construto profundamente social, uma vez que os relacionamentos interpessoais são importantes para o seu manejo (Batcho, 2013) e para suas implicações motivacionais (Stephan et al., 2015). ...
Preprint
O presente estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver a Escala de Disposição à Nostalgia (EDN), reunindo evidências de validades baseada na estrutura interna, concorrente e consistência interna. Procurou-se reunir 20 itens que constavam na literatura ou foram elaborados com o fim de descrever vivências nostálgicas. Os participantes do estudo foram 208 estudantes universitários (Midade = 22,8; DP = 6,13; variando de 18 a 60 anos), a maioria do sexo masculino (50,7%), solteira (86,5%) e de classe social média (54,1%). Estes responderam aos itens iniciais da EDN e duas outras medidas que avaliam o mesmo construto: Inventário de Nostalgia (IN) e Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS), além de perguntas demográficas. Uma análise fatorial (PAF) foi realizada, identificando um fator geral que explicou 42,3% da variância total, apresentando precisão adequada (α = 0,84). Corroborando evidências de validade convergente, as pontuações da EDN se correlacionaram positivamente com as duas outras medidas de nostalgia (IE e SNS). Conclui-se que a EDN pode ser usada para avaliar a disposição à nostalgia, mostrando evidências psicométricas adequadas. Palavras-chave: nostalgia; escala; validade; precisão.
... If rational persuasion emphasizes the quality, function, and performance of a product, emotional emphasizes consumer feelings, especially about certain products [7]. Royne [9][10] states that there are two branches of the most basic emotional appeal: positive and negative emotions. Negative emotions such as fear, shame, and guilt can arouse passion for designing an advertisement or campaign that wants to create specific results. ...
... According to Swiss physician Johannes Hofer in the 17th century, nostalgia is a combination of the Greek nostos (homecoming) and algos (painful condition) to describe the anxiety seen in mercenaries fighting far from their hometowns [10][11][12]. It was once compared to homesickness but was still a term that has yet to be understood. ...
... However, in the first half of 20 th century, the psychoanalytic movement shifted nostalgia to the psychological field. Nostalgia was considered as a variant of depression: a saddening farewell to childhood, a longing for a past forever lost, a defence against mourning, and an acute desire for a union with the preoedipal mother; this term is essential to nostalgia in its emotional development [10]. This time, nostalgia was arguably a reaction of alienation of individuation or an overwhelming craving causing a weak attempt in coping with one's circumstances. ...
... Inicialmente, Batcho (1995) considera a nostalgia como uma característica intrínseca dos indivíduos, cuja expressão desse traço depende da magnitude com que cada um a apresenta, isto é, a frequência das experiências nostálgicas difere entre as pessoas devido à sua característica de personalidade. Além disso, a autora sugere que o sentimento nostálgico ocorre por meio da interação entre a interpretação cognitiva da experiência e a emoção do momento lembrado (Batcho, 2013). Assim, a nostalgia tem como objetivo essencial a estimulação cognitiva sobre o passado, com o propósito de encontrar significado no presente e no futuro do indivíduo (Batcho et al., 2011). ...
... Há um consenso relativo quanto à ambivalência em torno da nostalgia. Efetivamente, Batcho (2013), ao fazer uma revisão procurando entender a natureza ambivalente da nostalgia, concluiu que a percepção desse sentimento amargo ou doce depende do viés contextual e disciplinar. Nessa mesma direção, Sedikides e Wildschut (2016) concebem a nostalgia como uma emoção ambivalente, mas que pode se relacionar à melhor adaptação e ao bem-estar a longo prazo, ou seja, pode ser parcialmente responsável por benefícios à saúde. ...
... A partir do exposto, no presente estudo adota a definição da nostalgia como uma característica relativamente estável (Batcho, 1995) e ambivalente, uma vez que há a justaposição de afetos negativos e afetos positivos . Ademais, é um construto profundamente social, uma vez que os relacionamentos interpessoais são importantes para o seu manejo (Batcho, 2013) e para suas implicações motivacionais (Stephan et al., 2015). ...
Article
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This study aimed to develop the Disposition to Nostalgia Scale (DNS) and to investigate evidence for its factorial validity, convergent validity and internal consistency. The aim was to assemble 20 items that were in the literature or were designed with the purpose of describing nostalgic experiences. Participants were 208 undergraduate students (Mage = 22.8 years, SD = 6.13, ranging from 18 to 60), the majority male (50.7%), single (86.5%), and from the middle social class (54.1%). They answered the initial items of the DNS and two other measures that assess the same construct: The Nostalgia Inventory (NI) and the Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNS), in addition to demographic questions. Factorial analysis (PAF) was performed, identifying a general factor that accounted for 42.3% of the total variance, presenting adequate reliability (α = .84). Corroborating evidence for its convergent validity, the DNS scores correlated positively with the two other nostalgia measures (NI and SNS). In conclusion, the DNS presents adequate psychometric properties and can be used to assess the disposition to nostalgia.
... From a functional perspective, nostalgia offers customers the opportunity to engage in spiritual dialogue with tradition, history, or ethnic belongingness (Begüm, 2016;Wardono et al., 2012). Restaurant menus with items that are authentic, representative of a region or were popular in the "good old days" bring customers back to their childhood, when they were poor but happy (Bardhi et al., 2010;Batcho, 2013). Through ruminating on their cherished past, nostalgic customers rediscover their own strength and feel refreshed and ready to face their future (Hepper et al., 2012;Wu et al., 2019). ...
... Finally, the presence of restaurant customers who long to share similar sentiments or social ethos with others over a meal may also function as stimuli for their fellow patrons' recollection (Hwang and Hyun, 2013;. Nostalgic stimuli attract a considerable number of adults, especially middle-aged and older customers, who are more likely to have nostalgic emotions (Batcho, 2013). However, since there are few scales measuring the function of nostalgia-evoking stimuli in restaurants, the present study develops an instrument based on the literature and in-depth interviews with nostalgia-seeking customers. ...
... From the social perspective, customers can extend their social connections at an establishment after alleviating their social estrangement through nostalgia stimuli and increasing their nostalgia-seeking benefits (Wildschut et al., 2010;Zhou et al., 2008). Nostalgia-triggering symbols offer diners spiritual comfort and protection, which is favorable for mental and physical health maintenance (Batcho, 2013;Lee et al., 2004). Therefore, nostalgia-evoking stimuli satisfy diners' need for nostalgia and enable them to attain ideal states and performance. ...
Article
This study focuses on nostalgia-evoking stimuli at nostalgic restaurants and their influence on customers’ consequent evaluation and post-purchase behavioral intention. Through in-depth interviews and a survey, the present study identified a factor structure of nostalgia stimuli that includes four dimensions and 18 items. Then, nostalgia stimuli, benefits, consumption value and post-purchase behavioral intention were incorporated into the model. Among the important results, the hypothesized relationships between nostalgia stimuli and epistemic, emotional and nostalgia-seeking benefits were partially supported. The benefits sought from dining in a nostalgic restaurant positively lead to consumption value, which further has a positive effect on post-purchase behavioral intention. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for capitalizing on nostalgia management in the hospitality industry.
... But is it a sickness? The concept, as mental disease, has been given little attention within psychiatry and has not been distinguished within depressive disorders (Batcho, 2013). One could easily regard nostalgia as a normative sociocultural phenomenon, but its peculiar mélange of psychic and somatic manifestations has again attracted attention both from psychiatry and the culture at large (Becker, 2018). ...
... Rosen (1975) noted that, although Hofer is credited with identifying the medical condition, it had been described in Europe earlier in the 17th century. Hofer's contribution was in his medicalizing nostalgia (Batcho, 2013), although his efforts to confine it have been widely criticized as stultifying (Boym, 2001). His anecdotal accounts attribute morbid nostalgia to a characteristic of the Swiss people (Schweizerkrankheit), creating an unjustified reputation for weakness (Batcho, 2013). ...
... Hofer's contribution was in his medicalizing nostalgia (Batcho, 2013), although his efforts to confine it have been widely criticized as stultifying (Boym, 2001). His anecdotal accounts attribute morbid nostalgia to a characteristic of the Swiss people (Schweizerkrankheit), creating an unjustified reputation for weakness (Batcho, 2013). Accounts of nostalgia in Bosnia, England, France, and Spain appeared in 19th century reports (Sanchez and Brown, 1994). ...
Article
Nostalgia and homesickness are not currently regarded as mental disorders. The psychic pain associated with longing to return home had been considered a mental disorder for centuries, especially in Europe, where it was a sign of moral weakness between nations. Nostalgia's effects on American Civil War soldiers-anxiety, depression, and sleep and appetite disturbances, for example-were described by clinicians and linked to significant morbidity and mortality. Since then, although these effects of combat have been of interest, focus has shifted to psychic trauma, relegating the concept of nostalgia to an unclassified but commonly encountered condition. Besides wartime trauma, symptomatic conditions related to nostalgia have been described among displaced persons and refugees living in the diaspora longing for their homelands (e.g., social displacement syndrome). More recently, nostalgia has pervaded culture as a benign pastime, with no implications for psychopathology. Finally, the longing for return to an idyllic or imagined lifestyle has returned amid worldwide quarantining and isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this new sense, nostalgia has become a remedy rather than a disease. We identify four major iterations of nostalgia: the medical condition of homesickness, the condition studied in wartime, the application to migration and social displacement, and as a remedy for existential anxiety. We conclude that nostalgia per se is neither pathological nor normative, but a consistent phenomenon in human existence that should not be overlooked in cultural assessment and psychotherapy.
... Furthermore, this study contributes to the new conceptualization of nostalgic experience, including memory, positive emotions and communitas. Previous research on nostalgic experiences focused mainly on memory and positive emotions (Batcho, 2013;Wildschut et al., 2006) but largely ignored the social aspect of nostalgia (i.e., communitas), which is prominent in collective societies such as China. Although nostalgia should be studied in relation to groups and should not be overlooked in today's economy, the existing literature has not researched the importance of communities in nostalgia. ...
... Nostalgia, defined as a desire to return to or relive the past (Holbrook, 1993), has been widely researched in disciplines such as marketing and psychology. Three main research streams identify triggers that elicit individuals' nostalgic feelings (Cho et al., 2017;Chou and Lien, 2010;Sedikides et al., 2015), examine the influence of nostalgia on individuals' attitudes and behavior Merchant et al., 2011;Sedikides and Wildschut, 2018;Ye et al., 2018), and research the concept and phenomenon of nostalgia (Batcho, 2013). ...
... First, this study developed and tested a conceptual model of nostalgia triggers, nostalgic experiences and revisit intention. The majority of nostalgia literature has examined the phenomenon of nostalgia (Batcho, 2013), the triggers (and drivers) of nostalgia (Hwang and Hyun, 2013) or nostalgic experiences (Triantafillidou and Siomkos, 2013). Given the potential linkage between nostalgia triggers and nostalgic experiences, surprisingly, none of the existing literature has linked these research themes simultaneously to build a conceptual structure to better understand nostalgia. ...
Article
With a long history and strong culinary heritage, time-honored restaurants are often associated with the phenomenon of nostalgia. However, research on nostalgia and nostalgic experiences in time-honored restaurants is largely absent. This study built a framework for nostalgic experiences to understand nostalgia triggers as antecedents and consumers’ revisit intention as the outcome. A survey of 366 residents in Beijing and Shanghai, China, revealed that nostalgia triggered by food and service staff significantly evoked consumers’ memories, and the food and restaurant environment stimulated the communitas component of nostalgic experiences. Memory had a positive effect on both communitas and positive emotions, while communitas had a positive effect on positive emotions. Finally, positive emotions resulted in significantly increased revisit intention.
... Nostalgia has its primary origin in medicine and psychology connoting homesickness (Hofer, 1934;Kline, 1898), lovesickness and grief (McCann, 1941), sentiments relating to place, person, or time (Ruml, 1933) i.e. largely suggesting a negative emotion. However, subsequent literature suggested nostalgia as a positive emotion for the past (Batcho, 2013;Davis, 1979;Sedikides et al., 2008;. For example, verbs used in tandem with nostalgia such as remembering, reminiscing, thinking, and reliving more reflect the positive emotions associated with a person, place, or time (Hepper et al., 2012;Sedikides et al., 2015). ...
... The study further suggested that nostalgia was a normal universal phenomenon that served some psychological or social purpose (strengthens patriotism, class stability, and family). While initial understandings suggested nostalgia as a negative effect or feeling (McCann, 1941homesickness, lovesickness, grief), subsequent literature has also suggested nostalgia as a positive longing for the past (Batcho, 2013). Verbs such as remembering, reminiscing, thinking, and reliving consistent with more positive emotions were related to nostalgia (Hepper et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Recently nostalgia has received attention from academic researchers for increasing destination attractiveness and tourist footfalls. Despite increasing interests in food tourism, little research exists regarding gastro-nostalgia to motivate tourists for visiting gastro-festivals. The current study identifies six potential dimensions of gastro-nostalgia through extant literature review viz., cuisine, gastro-experience, gastro-festive ambiance, socialization, personal identity, and cultural identity. Furthermore, it developed a robust instrument for measuring gastro-nostalgia as a reflective-reflective second-order construct using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The study collected perceptual responses from tourists and individuals having positive memories associated with two prime gastro-festivals in India: (a) Durga puja (221 responses) and (b) Onam (257 responses). The instrument is empirically validated through factorial validity, nomological validity, and measurement invariance. The study showed that gastro-nostalgia could positively influence tourists’ willingness to recommend intentions and revisit intentions. The study offers several implications for destination managers and event managers.
... Although it is generally recognized that experiencing nostalgia is associated with both positive and negative emotional responses, the extent to which the positive or negative is emphasized has depended on historical context and researcher definitions. Historically, nostalgic episodes have at times been conceptualized as symptoms of a mental disorder akin to clinical depression (Batcho, 2013;Sedikides et al., 2004) or as positive events that foster self-continuity and well-being (Sedikides et al., 2016). Definitions have reflected these shifts as nostalgia became less tied to longing for one's past and transitioned to bittersweet emotion (Batcho, 2013;Davis, 1979). ...
... Historically, nostalgic episodes have at times been conceptualized as symptoms of a mental disorder akin to clinical depression (Batcho, 2013;Sedikides et al., 2004) or as positive events that foster self-continuity and well-being (Sedikides et al., 2016). Definitions have reflected these shifts as nostalgia became less tied to longing for one's past and transitioned to bittersweet emotion (Batcho, 2013;Davis, 1979). Currently, more researchers prefer to highlight the associations between nostalgia and positive emotion in definitions (e.g., "reminiscing about a fond and personally meaningful memory from one's past"), while demonstrating that it is both positive and negative in practice ("the prototypical emotion is a blend of happiness and loss . . . ...
Article
Nostalgia, the fond remembrance of one's past, is a common experience hypothesized to increase across the life span. Yet data on the specific features of nostalgia, such as daily frequency and associated affect, are scarce. This study sought to address this limitation by assessing the daily experience of nostalgia using experience-sampling methods. A life-span sample of 108 participants (47 young, 31 middle-aged, and 30 older adults) completed a 2-week, twice-daily experience-sampling study that yielded data describing the frequency and emotions of everyday nostalgia. Multilevel logistic regression analyses supported increased nostalgia frequency at every life stage: Young adults were 60% less likely to report nostalgia compared with middle-aged adults (odds ratio [OR] = .40), whereas older adults were 3 times more likely than middle-aged adults to report nostalgia (OR = 3.05). Additionally, the experience of nostalgia was associated with significant heterogeneity in positive and negative affect. Approximately 72% of participants experienced an increase in positive affect, and 51% experienced an increase in negative affect. For young and middle-aged adults, a change in positive affect was associated with a 2-times-larger increase in nostalgia likelihood, whereas a change in negative affect was more strongly associated with a nostalgia experience in older adults. The current study provides increased evidence for the affectively mixed nature of nostalgia and how the affective pattern differs for adults of different ages. Greater nostalgia frequency may be instrumental during life review when individuals make meaning of their lives, fulfilling developmental goals of late adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... The process of remembering and reminiscing about past events, even those which are positively associated with sport and sporting events, can also generate negative or unpleasant emotions. Although reflecting on attending exciting matches and witnessing great victories with family and friends can be rewarding, it must be remembered that nostalgia is a bittersweet emotion (Batcho, 2013) which reminds participants that, though the past may have been wonderful, it is also irretrievably gone. The potential for participants to experience a sense of sadness should not be a barrier to creating and incorporating reminiscence programs, as the space and freedom to experience authentic emotions-even bittersweet ones-should be welcomed, and may potentially contribute to participants' sense of dignity and independence. ...
... As such, program coordinators may wish to emphasize that no prior knowledge is required to participate in sport-based RemT programs. Other participants suggested that recalling some memories were bittersweet, which is a common aspect of nostalgic memory (Batcho, 2013). Negative emotions and memories are possible in RemT programming, and negative memories about sporting experiences may be part of these types of RemT programs (Watson et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Reminiscence therapy (RemT) promotes maintenance of memories associated with a meaningful aspect of an in-dividual's life and is often used with individuals with de-mentia. For many people, attendance and participation in sports is a significant part of their life's narrative. This study evaluated a sport-based RemT program using collegiate football memories with residents with dementia in an assisted living facility in the immediate geographical area of a university football program (Clemson University , Clemson, South Carolina). Interviews, structured observations, and measures of cognition and quality of life were conducted to evaluate the program's impact. Statistically significant improvements in quality of life were measured; however, no changes in cognition were evident. Qualitative results indicated the program created opportunities for learning and sharing of social memories related to sport, establishment of group culture and traditions, and positive behavioral change. Recreational therapists can use this study as a basis to implement their own sport-based RemT program.
... Nostalgia has historically been conceptualized as a medical disease and psychiatric disorder (Batcho, 2013;Dodman, 2018;Sedikides et al., 2004). The term was coined by the Swiss physician Johannes Hofer (1688Hofer ( /1934, and derives from the Greek words nostos, meaning return to one's native land, and algos, meaning pain or suffering. ...
... By the beginning of the 20th century, the conceptualization of nostalgia had shifted from a neurological to a psychiatric disorder (Batcho, 2013;Sedikides et al., 2004). Proponents of the psychodynamic tradition regarded nostalgia as a form of melancholia or depression, and described it as an "immigrant psychosis" (Frost, 1938, p. 801), a "mentally repressive compulsive disorder" (Fodor, 1950, p. 25), and "a regressive manifestation closely related to the issue of loss, grief, incomplete mourning, and, finally, depression" (Castelnuovo-Tedesco, 1980, p. 110). ...
Article
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We provide a narrative review of the nascent literature on the psychological benefits of music-evoked nostalgia. Music is a prevalent and influential source of nostalgia. Music-evoked nostalgia confers approach-oriented psychological benefits in the social domain (by fostering social connectedness), self-oriented domain (by raising self-esteem, instilling a sense of youthfulness, elevating optimism, and enhancing inspiration), and existential domain (by strengthening meaning in life and augmenting self-continuity). Music-evoked nostalgia also confers psychological benefits indirectly. For example, it elevates optimisms by fostering sequentially social connectedness and self-esteem. Also, by fostering social connectedness, it enhances inspiration, strengthens meaning in life, and augments self-continuity. Furthermore, music-evoked nostalgia serves to buffer individuals against discomforting states, such as sadness. We conclude by discussing music-evoked nostalgia in people with dementia, contemplating the role of individual differences and context, considering the possibility that music-evoked nostalgia serves physiological functions, and asking whether familiarity with the music is necessary for the evocation of nostalgia and its ensuing benefits.
... However, the meaning of nostalgia has changed with time, and, in the modern era, it is regarded as a predominantly (though not exclusively) positive emotional experience that is described as a positive sentiment or bittersweet and wistful pleasure (Batcho, 2013;Davalos et al., 2015;Davis, 1979;Sedikides et al., 2008). Nostalgia is now commonly considered to have beneficial effects on mental health and to be useful in dementia care, as seen in its incorporation into reminiscence therapy (Yamagami et al., 2007), where people discuss memories and past experiences with others using triggers such as photographs or music (Woods et al., 2018). ...
... Thus, it seems reasonable to conclude that both memory and reward systems are involved in the nostalgia experience because nostalgia is an AM-related and predominantly positive emotional experience (Batcho, 2013;Sedikides et al., 2008). However, no neural framework has yet been defined that explains the different types of AM and that can integrate findings from all studies, such as those on episodic AM (Matsunaga et al., 2013) and semantic AM (Oba et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, has attracted attention in the fields of psychology and marketing in recent years. Although these studies have identified what nostalgia is, including its triggers and functions, the question of how nostalgia is induced remains unanswered. In this article, we review existing psychological models and recent neuroimaging studies that have investigated the neural correlates of nostalgia and propose a provisional framework of nostalgia induction. The multilevel memory-reward coactivation framework expects that different types of autobiographical memory (AM), such as episodic AM and semantic AM, activate the associated meso-limbic reward system. This framework also assumes a working self, a complex set of active goals, and associated self-images, which enables us to explain individual differences in nostalgia experience by influencing what is remembered and how the retrieved information is evaluated. This framework is advantageous in that it can integrate existing psychological models into one model and can explain individual differences in nostalgia that are important for the use of nostalgia, especially in clinical situations.
... This perception was softened near the end of that century when nostalgia came to be regarded as a form of depression. Taken together, although its conceptualization changed over time, nostalgia has consistently been seen as dysfunctional (for historical overviews, see Sedikides et al., 2004;Batcho, 2013). ...
... Furthermore, in stark contrast to historical views (Batcho, 2013;Sedikides et al., 2015), nostalgia can be implemented in interventions among older adults to maintain and improve emotional and memory functions (Yamagami et al., 2007), enrich psychological well-being (Bohlmeijer et al., 2007) and ameliorate depression (Chiang et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Nostalgia arises from tender and yearnful reflection on meaningful life events or important persons from one’s past. In the last two decades, the literature has documented a variety of ways in which nostalgia benefits psychological well-being. Only a handful of studies, however, have addressed the neural basis of the emotion. In this prospective review, we postulate a neural model of nostalgia. Self-reflection, autobiographical memory, regulatory capacity, and reward are core components of the emotion. Thus, nostalgia involves brain activities implicated in self-reflection processing (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus), autobiographical memory processing (hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus), emotion regulation processing (anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex), and reward processing (striatum, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Nostalgia’s potential to modulate activity in these core neural substrates has both theoretical and applied implications.
... In most cases, there were one or two categories more consistently endorsed across raters than others, although many other categories were still endorsed at lower levels. Nostalgia-inducing scenarios, for instance, appropriately exhibited strong concordance on nostalgia judgments but also seemed to capture a weighted blend of other emotional states that are both pleasant and unpleasant, similar to current empirical characterizations of nostalgia as an emotional state with mixed affect (Batcho, 2013;Sedikides & Wildschut, 2018). Rarely was a single category label agreed upon by all raters, with most scenarios eliciting significant variation in categorical judgments. ...
Article
One of the key unresolved issues in affective science is understanding how the subjective experience of emotion is structured. Semantic space theory has shed new light on this debate by applying computational methods to high-dimensional data sets containing self-report ratings of emotional responses to visual and auditory stimuli. We extend this approach here to the emotional experience induced by imagined scenarios. Participants chose at least one emotion category label among 34 options or provided ratings on 14 affective dimensions while imagining two-sentence hypothetical scenarios. A total of 883 scenarios were rated by at least 11 different raters on categorical or dimensional qualities, with a total of 796 participants contributing to the final normed stimulus set. Principal component analysis reduced the categorical data to 24 distinct varieties of reported experience, while cluster visualization indicated a blended, rather than discrete, distribution of the corresponding emotion space. Canonical correlation analysis between the categorical and dimensional data further indicated that category endorsement accounted for more variance in dimensional ratings than vice versa, with 10 canonical variates unifying change in category loadings with affective dimensions such as valence, arousal, safety, and commitment. These findings indicate that self-reported emotional responses to imaginative experiences exhibit a clustered structure, although clusters are separated by fuzzy boundaries, and variable dimensional properties associate with smooth gradients of change in categorical judgments. The resultant structure supports the tenets of semantic space theory and demonstrates some consistency with prior work using different emotional stimuli. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... A thorough review of research on diaspora tourism reveals that the motivational pull for such tourism varies. Relevant topics range from diaspora tourists' search for nostalgia (Batcho, 2013;Huang et al., 2016;Kim et al., 2019) to a feeling of connecting and reconnecting with one's roots (Huang et al., 2016;Kasinitz, Mollenkopf, Waters, & Holdaway, 2008;Savinovic, Kim, & Long, 2012) and emotional connectedness (Huang et al., 2016;Otoo, Badu-Baiden, & Kim, 2019;Savinovic et al., 2012;Weaver et al., 2017). Other drivers include the discovery of cultures, experiences, tourist moments, and self-identity (Corsale & Vuytsyk, 2016;Etemaddar, Duncan, & Tucker, 2016;Graf, 2017;Huang et al., 2016;Roberts, 2012;Stephenson, 2002), a sense of pride in visiting the land of one's ancestors (Lev Ari & Mittelberg, 2008;Louie, 2000;Shuval, 2000), experiencing the land of one's ancestors, gathering oral testimony from kin, visiting sites associated with one's ancestors, maintaining cultural identities, or attending festivals or celebrations and family reunions without intending to stay in the area (Huang et al., 2016;Iorio & Corsale, 2013;Marschall, 2015aMarschall, , 2015bMaruyama & Stronza, 2011;Weaver et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study adopts a mixed method to examine Chinese diaspora tourists' ancestral hometown emotional experiences. A qualitative approach was used to establish a conceptual framework of emotional experience, and quantitative research was performed to evaluate the effects of respondents' emotional experiences on their ancestral hometown attachment with diaspora tourism. Results show that diaspora tourists' emotional hometown experiences included nostalgic memory and affective arousal, which influenced diaspora tourists' hometown attachment. Specifically, nostalgic memory positively influenced place dependence, place identity and affective attachment; affective arousal positively influenced place identity and social bonding. Diaspora tourists' emotional experiences and hometown attachment also differed demographically. These findings provide practical implications for the construction of diaspora ancestral hometowns.
... Nostalgia, "a sentimental longing … for the past" (Pearsall, 1998(Pearsall, , p. 1266, is an ambivalent, albeit predominantly positive, and social emotion (Hepper et al., 2012a;; for historical overviews, see Batcho, 2013;De Diego and Ots, 2014). When people nostalgize, they feel connected with others in a way that enhances their perceptions of belongingness and acceptance Abakoumkin et al., 2019). ...
Article
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In two studies, we examined the association between nostalgia proneness (i.e., trait-level nostalgia) and importance of the collective self. In Study 1, we tested and supported the hypothesis that nostalgia proneness is positively correlated with relational collectivism, which entails an emphasis on one’s connections with close others and small social networks. In Study 2, we demonstrated that nostalgia proneness is also positively correlated with group collectivism, which emphasizes one’s membership in more abstract, larger social groups or categories, and was reflected in increased identification with a national ingroup. These findings offer insight into the nature of nostalgia proneness—a consequential and stable personality trait.
... -Dante Alighieri (Inferno, Canto V) Nostalgia has been defined as a sentimental longing for the past. Poets, novelists, and screenwriters have frequently incorporated this mixed emotion throughout storylines and plots for many years, but a scientific understanding of the nature of nostalgia has only begun to emerge in the past few decades (e.g., Batcho, 2013;Sedikides et al., 2015). This growing body of research has shown that many different situations and settings can trigger feelings of nostalgia, such as adverse weather (van Tilburg et al., 2018), social exclusion (Seehusen et al., 2013), loneliness (Zhou et al., 2008), boredom (van Tilburg et al., 2013), and music (Barrett et al., 2010). ...
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Research has suggested that nostalgia is a mixed, albeit predominantly positive emotion. One proposed function of nostalgia is to attenuate the negative consequences of loneliness. This restorative effect of nostalgia, however, has been demonstrated with cross sectional and experimental methods that lack ecological validity. In studies that have measured nostalgia in daily life, however, nostalgia has been negatively related to well-being. We propose an alternative theory that posits that the effect of nostalgia on well-being depends on the event or experience that elicits nostalgia. We tested this theory by measuring daily states of nostalgia, loneliness, and affect across five daily diary studies (N = 504; 6,004 daily reports) that lasted for 14 days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that nostalgia and loneliness were negatively related to positive affect and positively related to negative affect. The negative effects of nostalgia on affective well-being were significantly stronger on days when people felt more lonely as opposed to less lonely. Viewed alternatively, the negative effects of loneliness on affective well-being were stronger on days when people felt more vs. less nostalgic. Thus, in contrast to experimental findings, nostalgia did not attenuate, but rather exaggerated the negative effects of loneliness on affective well-being. These findings support a theoretical account that proposes that the effect of nostalgia on well-being depends on the natural context in which nostalgia is elicited.
... Historically, nostalgia has been regarded as a negative emotion, but recent views endorse the emotion's positive aspects (for historical reviews, see Batcho, 2013;Dodman, 2018;Sedikides et al., 2004). In nostalgic reverie, people generally reflect on positive events from their past that are particularly meaningful to The Hedonic Character of Nostalgia: An Integrative Data Analysis them (Abeyta et al., 2015;Routledge et al., 2011;Wildschut et al., 2006). ...
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We conducted an integrative data analysis to examine the hedonic character of nostalgia. We combined positive and negative affect measures from 41 experiments manipulating nostalgia (N = 4,659). Overall, nostalgia inductions increased positive and ambivalent affect, but did not significantly alter negative affect. The magnitude of nostalgia’s effects varied markedly across different experimental inductions of the emotion. The hedonic character of nostalgia, then, depends on how the emotion is elicited and the benchmark (i.e., control condition) to which it is compared. We discuss implications for theory and research on nostalgia and emotions in general.
... The concept of nostalgia, namely a state of emotional longing for one's idealized past, has changed over a period of about 300 years. First regarded as a mental disorder in immigrants and soldiers (Danek, 1988;Rosen, 1975), the phenomenon of nostalgia was later investigated from the psychiatric, psychoanalytical and, more recently, psychological points of view, and is now regarded as a psychological construct that serves to increase human resilience (Batcho, 2013). An individual is likely to feel nostalgia when exposed to a negative situation (Cavanagh et al., 2015). ...
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Nostalgic memories serve to increase human resilience. Here, we hypothesized that emotional impressions on a narrator's nostalgic memory change depending on the level of empathy in the listener's response. This independent-measures study was conducted in 120 healthy Japanese undergraduates (66 women, 54 men, M age 20.3 ± 1.9 years). Nostalgia was induced using a medley of Japanese pop songs from the years 2006-2010. Thirty minutes later each participant was randomly allocated to be interviewed by an experimenter who applied one of three listening conditions: empathy, non-empathy, or non-response. Output measures were participant's talking time, nostalgia ratings, and positive and negative emotion ratings. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by a multiple comparisons test. Empathy group participants had a significantly longer talking time than non-empathy or non-response participants, higher nostalgia scores than non-response participants, and higher positive emotion scores than non-empathy and non-response participants, but lower negative emotion scores than non-reponse participants. Participants were then divided into a less nostalgia-prone and a more nostalgia-prone group using the Southampton Nostalgia Rating Scale and the data were reanalyzed for each experimental condition. The results showed that a person more prone to nostalgia felt more nostalgic and more positive toward their autobiographical memory than those who are less nostalgia-prone. The present findings have implications for human interaction in everyday life and in therapeutic settings.
... Even though nostalgia was once considered a disease or mental illness (for a reviews, see Batcho, 2013), contemporary treatments of this construct are in agreement that nostalgia is an emotionally complex but mostly positive experience. Laypersons, for example, consider nostalgia to be a mostly positive experience with elements of loss, as well as a revisiting of fond and personally significant memories that are primarily focused on childhood and/or social relationships (Hepper et al., 2012(Hepper et al., , 2014. ...
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Loneliness is difficult to overcome, in part because it is associated with negative social cognitions and social motivations. We argue that nostalgia, a positive emotional experience that involves reflecting on cherished memories, is a psychological resource that regulates these maladaptive intrapsychic tendencies associated with loneliness. We tested this hypothesis across 4 studies. Study 1 examined whether nostalgia mitigates the inverse relation between loneliness and social confidence. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined nostalgia’s potential to mitigate the inverse relation between loneliness and approach-oriented social goals and intentions. The results provided support that nostalgia mitigates reduced social confidence and low approach-oriented social goals/intentions associated with loneliness. The associations between loneliness and reduced social confidence, and loneliness and less approach-oriented social goals/intentions, respectively, were found to be weaker as a function of nostalgia. This weakening appeared to be due to nostalgia’s positive effect on social confidence and approach-oriented social goals/intentions, respectively, particularly at high levels of loneliness.
... In fact, nostalgia has long been considered a bittersweet experience (Kaplan, 1987), comprised of pleasure and sometimes sadness. Its association with the latter began in nostalgia's earliest studies and emanates from one's realization that a previous time cannot ever be returned to (Batcho, 2013). ...
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The purpose of this study was to explore nostalgia’s effect on MiLB spectators’ psychological, emotional, and behavioral responses. Mobile encephalography (EEG) headsets were used to monitor attendees’ neurological responses that may be indicative of nostalgia, while an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) permitted the capturing of spectators’ self-reported nostalgic levels. This approach allowed participants’ mental scores to be analyzed in relationship to their nostalgic occurrences. Brainwave frequencies emblematic of inward attention and arousal were significantly related with the number of instances spectators reported feeling nostalgic, which denote mental dispositions prevalent among attendees more prone to nostalgia. Moreover, PROCESS macro regression highlighted nostalgia’s ability to influence spectators’ behavioral intentions. Results also revealed environmental stimuli originating from sight, sound, and sociability to be especially prominent in triggering nostalgia. Overall, the study’s findings reveal unique characteristics present in baseball that render both immediate and enduring effects.
... Although specific definitions of nostalgia vary, personal nostalgia is commonly understood to denote currently missing aspects of one's lived past (Batcho, 1995(Batcho, , 2013a. Definitions of nostalgia as "a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past" (Sedikides et al., 2015a, p. 52;Sedikides et al., 2015b, p. 195) and as "missing or longing for something in the past" (Batcho, 1995) share the common element of longing for the past. ...
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What helps consumers extract the greatest happiness from their experiences? The current investigation is the first to introduce to the consumer literature the construct of anticipatory nostalgia, defined as missing aspects of the present before they vanish in the future. While personal nostalgia involves fond memories and longing for what has already been lost, anticipatory nostalgia involves missing what has not yet been lost. In four studies, we show that marketing communications can elicit anticipatory nostalgia, and this emotion can either enhance or reduce consumer enjoyment of the experience, depending on the experience valence or the individual's level of life satisfaction. Specifically, mediated by anxiety, anticipatory nostalgia decreased enjoyment and positive affect in pleasant situations, but it enhanced enjoyment and affect in unpleasant circumstances. Study 4 extended the paradigm to a real-life setting and showed that the impact of anticipatory nostalgia on enjoyment and meaningfulness can last as long as 8 h after the manipulation.
... What is national nostalgia? Historically, nostalgia -from the Greek words 'nostos' (home) and 'algia' (pain) -was seen as a medical and psychiatric disease characterized by feelings of grief and mourning as a result of being distant from one's homeland (for a review see Batcho, 2013). In the late 19th century its understanding shifted: to be nostalgic was no longer thought of in medical or geographic terms but in terms of sadness and wistful regret for the past. ...
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Research indicates that national nostalgia thrives across the world and is harnessed by populist radical-right parties (PRRPs) to mobilize people for their exclusionary standpoints. While national nostalgia is a timely issue, the topic has only recently started to get attention in social psychology. In this chapter, I investigate the triggers, functions and consequences of national nostalgia for present day group dynamics by integrating social psychological theories on intergroup relations, group-based emotions, and identity motivation with sociological and anthropological work on collective nostalgia and political scientific research on PRRPs. I demonstrate that, on the one hand, national nostalgia can be seen as functional and constructive for native majority members, in the sense that it helps them protect to national identity continuity in times of uncertainty and change. On the other hand, national nostalgia can be seen as a destructive force, as it results in exclusionary understandings of national identity based on historical roots and in anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim sentiments. I demonstrate that the stronger endorsement of this nativist ideology forms an important explanation for why national nostalgia is related to a greater likelihood of PRRP voting in the Netherlands. * E-mail: a.n.smeekes@uu.nl.
... original understanding of the concept was often compared to homesickness (Batcho, 2013, 66 p. 166; Wildschut et al., 2006, p. 988). Both terms however started to drift apart in the 67 20 th century, as distances became less of an obstacle, and the term nostalgia was no longer 68 used exclusively in reference to a place but rather in reference to time (Batcho, 2013). 69 Since then, nostalgia is defined as "[a] preference (general liking, positive attitude, or 70 favorable affect) toward objects (people, places, or things) that were more common 71 (popular, fashionable, or widely circulated) when one was younger (in early adulthood, in 72 adolescence, in childhood, or even before birth)" (Holbrook & Schindler, 1991, p. 330). ...
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Listening to music can cause experiences of nostalgia and melancholia. Although both concepts are theoretically related, to date they have not been analyzed together. In this study, we identify their theoretical underpinnings and determine how they can be measured empirically. We analyze how listening to music causes nostalgia and melancholia, and whether both experiences are related to different behavioral intentions. To this end, we conducted an online experiment with 359 participants who listened to music they considered either nostalgic, melancholic, or neutral. Afterward, participants answered 122 items related to nostalgia and melancholia. Using Structural Equation Modeling, and more specifically Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes Modeling, we first developed two new scales, the Formative Nostalgia Scale and the Formative Melancholia Scale. Both scales consist of five items each. Results showed that listening to music indeed increased nostalgia and melancholia. Although considerably different, both concepts are related nonetheless: Listening to nostalgic music increases melancholia, whereas listening to melancholic music does not increase nostalgia. In addition, both experiences are related to different behavioral intentions: Whereas experiencing nostalgia was associated with a stronger intention to share the music and listen to it again, experiencing melancholia revealed the exact opposite relation.
... While retrieval of autobiographical memory of one's home is one kind of mental simulation, there are many other kinds that can take its place in nostalgic episodes. First, even when nostalgia includes autobiographical memories, they need not be about one's home; instead, they can be about one's childhood, family, or even something as general as "the way people were" (Batcho 2013;cited in De Brigard 2018, p. 159). Second, even when nostalgia includes memories of the past, the memories need not be episodic -that is, they need not be about specific events; instead, they can be about social relationships or one's childhood (Hepper et al. 2012(Hepper et al. , 2014cited in De Brigard 2018, p. 159). ...
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Nostalgia and food are intertwined universals in human experience. All of us have experienced nostalgia centered on food, and all of us have experienced food infused with nostalgia. To explore the links between nostalgia and food, I start with a rough taxonomy of nostalgic foods, and illustrate it with examples. I argue that there is a psychological commonality to experiencing nostalgic foods: imagination. On my account, imagination is the key to understanding the cognitive, conative, affective, and perceptual aspects of experiencing nostalgic foods. In turn, the recognition of imagination's centrality in experiencing nostalgic foods reveals how food can produce aesthetic experiences comparable to those produced by literature and painting.
... Nostalgia has long been associated with melancholy; it surfaces while longing for a desirable past (Smith and campbell 2017). Yet as both embody negative feelings towards home loss, nostalgia is a combination of sadness and pleasant reminiscing (Batcho 2013;Pickering and Emily Keightley 2006;Turner 1987). Both nostalgia and melancholy develop in the void between a desirable, often romanticized, past and a concerning future. ...
Article
Based on an anthropological analysis informed by emotional and social geography literature and by the theory of melancholia, this article proposes an original perspective on the question of long-term residents’ place attachment, tracing the effect of urban change on their emotional identification with their neighborhood. The concept of ‘place melancholy’ is suggested to describe the collective sense of sadness aroused when a place changes rapidly, leading long-term residents to lose their sense of belonging. It evokes melancholia by highlighting their marginalized social position as well as their personal family and health status. HaTikva neighborhood in south Tel Aviv-Jaffa provides the case study. Originally inhabited predominantly by lower-income Mizrahim, or Jews from Islamic countries, in recent years it has undergone a dramatic transformation with the influx of African asylum seekers and the veteran community’s contraction. Informed by ethnographic fieldwork, I argue that collective melancholia is felt among the HaTikva’s Mizrahi residents, related to their position at the margins of a global city and to their experience of place loss following the migration wave. Whereas the melancholia is shared by these residents across ethnoclass and gender lines, the older Mizrahi women whose narratives were developed in designated narrative focus group and are analyzed here experience an additional layer of melancholia associated with age; nevertheless, it may be alleviated by strong social ties and mutual community support. Such narratives indicate the theoretical importance and relevance of place melancholy when analyzing place belonging during urban change, particular among marginalized older long-term residents.
... and took more photos per day (Q118, r s = .18). Nostalgia would be a fruitful topic for further research on external memory; reviews of the concept and relevant research can be found in Batcho (2013) and Sedikides, Wildschut, Arndt, and Routledge (2008). ...
Article
Humans have access to both internal memory (information stored in the brain) and external memory (information stored in the environment). To what extent do we use each in everyday life? In two experiments, participants rated both internal and external memory for frequency of use, dependability, ease of use (Experiment 1), and likelihood of use (Experiment 2) across four purposes: episodic, semantic, procedural, and prospective. Experiment 1 showed that internal memory was favoured for episodic and procedural purposes, while external memory was favoured for semantic purposes. Experiment 2 further clarified that internal memory was favoured for episodic and common procedural purposes, while external memory was favoured for uncommon semantic, uncommon procedural, and far-term prospective purposes. This strategic division of labour plays to the strengths of both forms of memory. Participants also generally rated external memory as more dependable and easier to use. Results support the memory symbiosis framework.
... The novel aspects of our bittersweet variation model provide a useful theoretical framework that can help integrate and situate findings within the literature. As our model name suggests, nostalgia is a bittersweet emotion, a fact that has long been recognized by lay audiences and researchers alike (Batcho, 2013). Yet the implications of this fact have not received the attention it has deserved. ...
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Experimental manipulations of nostalgia that privilege positive aspects of the bittersweet emotion have led to the conclusion that nostalgia is a predominantly positive emotion, yet nostalgia covaries negatively with well-being in daily life. To reconcile this discrepancy, we developed and tested the bittersweet variation model of nostalgia that posits that (a) nostalgic feelings vary not only in intensity but also in valence (i.e., how bitter or sweet a nostalgic feeling is); (b) daily events influence the valence of nostalgic feelings; and (c) nostalgia's valence influences well-being. Across two daily diary studies (N = 151; 1,356 daily reports), we found that the valence of nostalgic feelings varied considerably within-persons. Daily positive events predicted more positively rated nostalgic feelings, whereas daily negative events predicted more negatively rated nostalgic feelings. Controlling for the effects of daily events on well-being, positive nostalgic feelings predicted greater well-being, whereas negative nostalgic feelings predicted lower well-being. To provide more robust causal evidence of the effect of nostalgia valence on well-being, we conducted two experiments (N = 445) in which we manipulated nostalgia valence by asking participants to write about positive nostalgic feelings (involving people they remain close to) or negative nostalgia feelings (involving people they no longer remain close to), mimicking typical nostalgic feelings in daily life. Positive nostalgic feelings improved well-being compared with negative nostalgic feelings. Thus, nostalgia is not inherently positive or negative. Rather, the effect of nostalgia on well-being depends on its valence, which is influenced by the eliciting event. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... One reason why the negative reputation of nostalgia persisted was its medicalization by Hofer (1688Hofer ( /1934) and subsequent generations of physicians and psychiatrists (Batcho, 2013;Nikelly, 2004). Another reason was its conceptual confusion with homesickness (Sedikides et al., 2004). ...
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, has been garnering keen empirical attention in the psychological literature over the last two decades. After providing a historical overview, we place the emotion in cross-cultural context. Laypeople in many cultures conceptualize nostalgia similarly: as a past-oriented, social, self-relevant, and bittersweet emotion, but more sweet (positively toned) than bitter (negatively toned). That is, the nostalgizer reflects on a fond and personally important event—often their childhood or valued relationships—relives the event through rose-colored glasses, yearns for that time or relationship, and may even wish to return briefly to the past. Also, triggers of nostalgia (e.g., adverts, food, cold temperatures, loneliness) are similar across cultures. Moreover, across cultures nostalgia serves three key functions: it elevates social connectedness (a sense of belongingness or acceptance), meaning in life (a sense that one's life is significant, purposeful, and coherent), and self-continuity (a sense of connection between one's past and present self). Further, nostalgia acts as a buffer against discomforting psychological states (e.g., loneliness) similarly in varied cultural contexts. For example, (1) loneliness is positively related to, or intensifies, nostalgia; (2) loneliness is related to, or intensifies, adverse outcomes such as unhappiness or perceived lack of social support; and (3) nostalgia suppresses the relation between loneliness and adverse outcomes. Additionally, nostalgia facilitates one's acculturation to a host culture. Specifically, (1) nostalgia (vs. control) elicits a positive acculturation orientation toward a host culture; (2) nostalgia (vs. control) amplifies bicultural identity integration; and (3) positive acculturation orientation mediates the effect of host-culture nostalgia on bicultural identity integration. We conclude by identifying lacunae in the literature and calling for follow-up research.
... In contrast to the early view of nostalgia as a psychological illness (for reviews, see Batcho, 2013;Sedikides et al., 2004), the construct is now largely rehabilitated and established as a psychological resource Sedikides et al., 2015;. Specifically, nostalgia fosters subjective well-being, which involves satisfaction with life (SWL) and experiencing more positive but less negative affect (Busseri & Sadava, 2011;Diener et al., 2002). ...
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Nostalgia, a bittersweet but predominantly positive emotion, arises from self-relevant and social memories. Evidence suggests that nostalgia is a potential source of happiness. Indeed, at the phenotypic level, this relation appears to be positive albeit tenuous. At the etiologic level, the relation is unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated the phenotypic and genetic association between nostalgia and satisfaction with life (SWL). We assessed nostalgia and SWL in 464 twin siblings, including 117 monozygotic twin pairs and 115 dizygotic twin pairs. By comparing monozygotic twins to dizygotic twins, we analyzed the genetic and environmental effects on nostalgia and SWL simultaneously. We observed a small positive association between nostalgia and SWL (rphenotypic = 0.12), with this association being strengthened after neuroticism was partialled out (rphenotypic = 0.17). More importantly, nostalgia and SWL shared some environmental (but not genetic) sources (rnon-shared environment = 0.21), which accounted for the majority (88%) of their phenotypic association. Taken together, the findings support a positive relation between nostalgia and SWL, and further uncover the bases underlying this relation. The study adds to the burgeoning literature on nostalgia and well-being.
... However, over the last decades, there has been much progress in research concerning the nature and role of nostalgia, which led to an alternative and improved conception of the construct (Cho et al., 2019d). Today, nostalgia is viewed as a bittersweet emotion that consists of both positive and negative emotions (Baker & Kennedy, 1994;Batcho, 2013), although the portion of positive aspects is disproportionately greater than the negative side (Cho et al., 2019d;Sedikides et al., 2004;Stephan et al., 2014). As such, nostalgia can be considered a predominantly positive emotion, which is derived from pleasant memories of past experiences (Cho et al., 2019d;Sedikides et al., 2004). ...
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While nostalgia has been explored in various contexts, no research has so far investigated how individuals’ nostalgia can be generated by volunteer experiences in compulsory settings and how nostalgic feelings extend their future behavior. To fill this research gap, this study explored how nostalgia regarding compulsory volunteering is related to positive memories, age, and past experiences and how such nostalgia translates to volunteer intention. A total of 605 responses were collected from university students who had completed compulsory volunteering at sporting events and analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that positive memories contributed to all five factors of volunteer nostalgia, while past experiences only predicted volunteer environment, volunteer socialization, and volunteer personal identity. Age was not a significant antecedent to any of the volunteer nostalgia factors. Nostalgia regarding volunteer experience and volunteer personal identity mediated the relationship between positive memories and volunteer intention. This study confirmed previous claims concerning the relationships among nostalgia, positive memories, age, and past experiences in the context of compulsory volunteering. Specifically, individuals can develop nostalgia for coerced experiences if they have fond memories of them. Also, past experiences are more essential to nostalgia than age but not as much as positive memories, and nostalgia can turn compulsory volunteers into continued volunteers.
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Introduction: New trend in virtue ethics focuses on personal trait and motivation to highlight the important role of perceptive and motivational aspect of emotions. Aim: The goal of present research was showed the line to facilitate moral virtues into personal identity by focusing on potentials of nostalgia. The question of the present study is that nostalgia as a non-moral emotion has which relation to the importance of moral virtues. Method: Method of research was correlational study and PhD and graduate students of Shiraz University were the statistical society of this research. 71 students participated in this research. Participants responded to event reflection manipulation (Wildschut et al., 2006), Moral identity scale (Aquino & Reed, 2002) and Nostalgia inventory (Batcho,1995). To analyze of data using SPSS 19, Amos and calculator of composite reliability depend on Raykov s formula (1997). Results: The result showed that nostalgia was significant positive predictor for internalizing and symbolizing. Conclusion: The results showed that nostalgia is a positive predictor for internalizing moral values in the individual's self-concept, and also predicting the representation and social pretense as a person who carries some values. Probability, Nostalgia is associated with a kind of emotional regulation and other importance in the person's life, which facilitates the strong moral identity by integration of self and openness to other.
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This article presents a systematic review of the nostalgia literature (205 articles) using PRISMA protocols. It dwells on three questions: What do we know about nostalgia? What do we need to know about nostalgia? and Where should we be heading? The article examines the evolution of nostalgia, analyzes the definitions of nostalgia (past–memory–yearning–ambivalent emotion), and extends the nostalgia typology of Havlena and Holak (1996 Havlena, W. J., and S. L. Holak. 1996. “Exploring Nostalgia Imagery through the Use of Consumer Collages.” ACR North American Advances 23 (1):35–42. [Google Scholar]). The article also delineates the nostalgic advertising literature; identifies antecedents, moderators, and consequences of nostalgic advertising; and highlights research gaps. Finally, this work offers propositions on nostalgic ad appeals (those that emphasize the attractiveness of and yearning for the past in a bittersweet way) based on four themes: self-restoration, continuity, social relationships, and culture. Specifically, the propositions offer new moderators, such as ads’ emotional flow, gender identity, purchase and consumption situation, perceived interactivity, and culture type, that could make some types of nostalgic appeals more effective than others. Our work contributes by being more comprehensive and broad based, extending the typology framework and delineating propositions that lay out a research roadmap for nostalgic advertising.
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As theme parks seek more opportunities in using intellectual properties to redesign their services, this study explores the potential impacts of such modifications on consumers’ attitudes towards the theme parks. More specifically, it investigates the joint effects of service redesign, nostalgia, and consumer expertise on consumers’ brand love for theme parks. The results suggest when theme parks undergo service redesign, nostalgia may play a negative role in predicting consumers’ brand love. Moreover, nostalgia and consumer expertise may have joint negative effects on brand love when theme parks undergo service redesign. This study contributes to the hospitality literature by contrasting past studies that display the positive effects of nostalgia in influencing consumer behaviors and suggests the potential drawbacks of nostalgia in the service industry. It also illustrates nostalgia is an intricate marketing tool for the industry.
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Nostalgia is an emotion which was ignored for a long time by researchers in the field of emotions, but has received a lot of recognition in the last decade. Nostalgia is an ambivalent emotion which is mostly positive and related to past events. In this short review paper, different nostalgia benefits are considered: regarding social, individual and existential context. Numerous research papers have shown a correlation between nostalgia and greater self-esteem and positive effect, which is then related to better social functioning and subjective well-being. The purpose of this paper is to offer a synthesis of the newest research regarding the positive effects of nostalgia. However, limitations and contrary findings are also discussed, as well as future implications of nostalgia.
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The initial waves of the coronavirus pandemic amplified feelings of depression, psychological fatigue and pessimism for the future. Past research suggests that nostalgia helps to repair negative moods by boosting current and future-oriented positive affect, thereby strengthening psychological resilience. Accordingly, the present study investigated whether nostalgia moderated the relationship between pandemic experience and individual differences in mood and optimism. Across two studies we assessed psychosocial self-report data from a total of 293 online participants (22-72 years old; mean age 38; 109 females, 184 males) during the first two waves of the pandemic. Participants completed comprehensive questionnaires that probed state and trait characteristics related to mood and memory, such as the Profile of Mood States, Nostalgia Inventory and State Optimism Measure. Our findings indicate that during the initial wave of coronavirus cases, higher levels of nostalgia buffered against deteriorating mood states associated with concern over the pandemic. Nostalgia also boosted optimism for participants experiencing negative mood, and optimism predicted subjective mood improvement one week later. This shielding effect of nostalgia on optimism was replicated during the second wave of coronavirus cases. The present findings support the role of nostalgia in promoting emotional homeostasis and resilience during periods of psychological distress.
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, can serve as a resource for individuals coping with discomforting experiences. The experience of bereavement poses psychological and physical risks. In a longitudinal study, we examined whether dispositional nostalgia predicted reductions in distress associated with the death of a loved one. Undergraduate students (N = 133) provided information regarding their loss (time elapsed since loss, expectedness) and levels of initial grief, nostalgia, and distress (hyperarousal, intrusion, avoidance) at three time points over a one-month period (Times 2 and 3 occurred one week and one month after the initial session, respectively). Individuals experiencing higher nostalgia reported a decrease in intrusive thoughts across time, whereas those experiencing lower nostalgia reported no change in intrusive thoughts across time. Hyperarousal (physical symptoms, negative feelings) decreased across time among individuals with higher initial grief who experienced greater nostalgia, but increased across time among those with higher initial grief who experienced lesser nostalgia. No changes occurred in avoidance. Nostalgia can palliate bereavement.
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As an attractive Gothic tale of Edgar Allan Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher creates a mysterious and violent fall, leaving multiple interpretations on why the house of Usher collapsed suddenly. From the perspective of Roderick, the last inheritor of aristocratic Usher, the fall of Usher is more like his shaky nostalgia mechanism in front of discontinued situation. In his seemingly stable nostalgia mechanism, Mansion Usher, the narrator and Lady Madeline play core roles in meeting the needs of avoidance, attachment and idealization to construct a seemingly stable nostalgia mechanism. With the weird fall of Usher, Poe probes into the irrational nature of human, permeating his attention to warn the significance of balancing comfortable dream and reality.
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Nostalgia is a sentimental longing for the past that can influence people's well-being. How this mixed emotion influences well-being may depend on current life circumstances. Nostalgia elicited in negative contexts could be particularly harmful to people's well-being, whereas nostalgia elicited in positive contexts may not be as detrimental. This hypothesis was tested at the level of individual differences with a nationally representative sample of Americans (N = 6,732) who completed measures of nostalgia proneness and several indicators of well-being. Income was measured as an objective indicator of current life circumstances. Results showed that nostalgia proneness was negatively related to well-being, and income was positively related to well-being. Importantly, these relationships were moderated such that the negative relationships between nostalgia and well-being were stronger among members of low income households than among members of high income households. Consistent with the hypothesis, nostalgia proneness was particularly detrimental to well-being under objectively less desirable circumstances. These findings support an emerging body of research that contends that the effect of nostalgia on well-being depends on the context in which nostalgia is elicited. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11482-022-10066-8.
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Volunteers’ nostalgia, which is a multifaceted concept, has not been fully explored, while the concept of nostalgia is receiving increased attention in many fields for its role and effect on individuals’ behaviour. In this study, the authors applied multigroup invariance tests to develop a volunteer nostalgia scale. This study consists of three phases. In the first phase, 180 participants with previous nostalgic volunteer experience were recruited in Singapore for the pilot study. In the second phase, data were collected from the United States (n = 201) and Singapore (n = 203) for the assessment of psychometric properties and cross-cultural validation of the scale. In the third phase, invariance tests were conducted to compare tourism event volunteers with volunteers for non-tourism sectors (n = 420). Results showed consistency between the data, indicating the robustness of the scale, which can be a useful tool in future research involving nostalgia.
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The current study examines how parasocial relationships with both original (i.e., newly created and unfamiliar) and unoriginal (i.e., previously existing and familiar) characters and nostalgia-proneness can influence audience selection and enjoyment of movie adaptations. In an experiment, participants were exposed to storyboards previewing movies that could potentially be adapted from cartoon television shows to become future movies. The storyboards were manipulated to have either original or unoriginal characters. Afterward, participants reported how much they enjoyed and felt nostalgic about the stimuli, their future viewing intentions, and their parasocial interactions with the characters. Results show that participants with stronger parasocial relationships with both original and unoriginal characters predicted greater parasocial interactions, enjoyment, and viewing intentions. Additional results partially demonstrated that those with stronger nostalgia-proneness expressed greater enjoyment and future viewing intentions for storyboards with unoriginal characters.
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The article examines the differences in the thematic content of nostalgic memories of townspeople in different age groups, as well as the imaginative content constituting nostalgic memories. The presented study is based on the assumption that the thematic content of significant nostalgic memories is associated with existential goals that need to be solved at a certain stage of life. Regardless of their thematic content, nostalgic memories of respondents of all age groups are constituted by images associated with nature. The data was collected through online survey (n=174). The Nostalgia Inventory questionnaire (K. Batcho) has been modified; the themes related to nature were included in the questionnaire and had shown its relevance especially for middle and older age. The results of the study showed that for youth nostalgic memories become a supportive and formative resource, for middle age people a source of critical self-reflection, a challenge to authenticity, for the elderly a way of "gathering" life together. Thus, memories become an experience – the work that provide life direction and meaningfulness. The assumption that, regardless of its thematic content, nostalgic memories of respondents of all age groups are constituted by images associated with nature has been confirmed. Our findings allow to conclude that the beneficial effect of nostalgic memories on the psychological well-being of a person is associated with the existence of the images of nature that constitute nostalgic memories.
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While the focus for many advertising academics and practitioners has been on nostalgia, there is a dearth of research on future-focused appeals. We introduce a new concept, forestalgia, or a consumer’s yearning for an idealized future. To understand the impact of nostalgia and forestalgia, qualitative background interviews were conducted with creative directors and other advertising creatives from numerous nationally recognized advertising agencies. Building on the insights from the interviews and using construal level theory as our foundation, we explore consumer response to hedonic and utilitarian products when appeals employ far-past, near-past, near-future, and far-future framing. Thus, we examine whether nostalgia or forestalgia is better suited for certain products. We find utilitarian products are better received with a temporal distance that is far from the present with hedonic products better suited for appeals framed in the far past and near future. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed, along with future research considerations.
Article
The 2016 election of President Donald Trump left over half of the United States' electorate reeling. This contributed to nostalgia for the days of Barack Obama (and his administration), even among some conservatives and Republicans. We hypothesized that individual differences in nostalgia for Barack Obama would predict outcomes in the political arena. Consistent with the hypothesis, in three studies (N = 904), Obama nostalgia predicted negative attitudes toward the Trump presidency, stronger political engagement intentions and voting intentions, and actual political engagement, above and beyond competing predictors (i.e., political ideology, prior support for Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election, voting behavior in 2016). The findings reinforce the role of nostalgia for a politician or political administration as an influential predictor of political outcomes. We discuss implications and future research directions.
Article
The vocabulary of anglophone psychology largely developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The creators of this vocabulary include such well-known names as William James, Joan Riviere, E. L. Thorndike, and James Strachey. Along with others, they invented many new words and word meanings for psychology. The more a psychologist responded to the need for new vocabulary the more likely were they to be mentioned in publications. Moreover, linguistically creative psychologists occurred together in publications to a greater extent than less linguistically creative psychologists, with William James having the most co-occurrences. A network is presented that links each member of a sample of 59 linguistically creative psychologists to the other member of the sample with whom they most frequently co-occur (e.g., E. L. Thorndike co-occurs most frequently with William James). For each pair, we provide brief descriptions of their similarities and/or differences. There is also a cluster of translators who created new English words and word meanings in order to capture the meanings of words in other languages that had no satisfactory equivalents in English. Generally speaking, the more success psychologists have had in filling the lacunae in psychology’s vocabulary, the more they have been recognized by others.
Article
Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, as a buffer against psychological threats has been well-established across various domains. However, whether nostalgia could alleviate cyberbullying's adverse effects has never been investigated. We have conducted two studies (N = 471) to examine nostalgia as a buffer against cyberbullying victimization on social media. We found that people who have been cyberbullied more frequently reported a lower level of psychological well-being. Notably, they also reported more proneness to feel nostalgic, which led to a higher level of psychological well-being (Study 1). We complemented these findings with an experiment in which we simultaneously manipulated cyberbullying victimization and nostalgia and assessed the psychological well-being associated with being cyberbullied (Study 2). Nostalgia induction increased psychological well-being in the wake of cyberbullying victimization. Therefore, nostalgia is a psychological resource that can be harnessed to buffer cyberbullying.
Article
Given the crucial importance of nostalgia in individuals’ behavioral and psychological responses, this study measured the effect of leisure nostalgia on work-leisure conflict and subjective well-being. A total of 489 responses were collected from primary and secondary school teachers in Singapore, and this study conducted confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to analyze the data. Results showed that leisure nostalgia positively affected work-to-leisure conflict and subjective well-being, and work-to-leisure conflict had a negative effect on subjective well-being. However, relationships related to leisure-to-work conflict were shown to be insignificant. The findings of this study advance the theoretical knowledge of nostalgia in the contexts of leisure and occupational health psychology and contribute to school management in developing strategies and approaches for the betterment of teachers’ well-being.
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Naming the mind: How psychology found its language, 1997. London: Sage. Summary Intelligence, motivation, personality, learning, stimulation, behaviour and attitude are just some of the categories that map the terrain of `psychological reality'. These are the concepts which, among others, underpin theoretical and empirical work in modern psychology - and yet these concepts have only recently taken on their contemporary meanings. In this fascinating work, Kurt Danziger goes beyond the taken-for-granted quality of psychological language to offer a profound and broad-ranging analysis of the recent evolution of the concepts and categories on which it depends. He explores this process and shows how its consequences depend on cultural contexts and the history of an emergent discipline. Danziger's internationally acclaimed Constructing the Subject examined the historical dependence of modern psychology on the social practices of psychological investigation. In Naming the Mind, he develops a complementary account that looks at the historically changing structure of psychological discourse. Naming the Mind is an elegant and persuasive explanation of how modern psychology found its language. It will be invaluable reading for students and academics throughout psychology, and for anyone with an interest in the history of the human sciences. Reviews “I wish I had it in my power to make this book by Kurt Danziger required reading for any psychologist who teaches or contemplates teaching a course in the history of the field. Why? Because it eloquently challenges the current view that the category language of the 20th-century American psychology reflects a natural and universal order of psychological phenomena. In Naming the Mind: How Psychology Found Its Language, Danziger shows very convincingly what is wrong with that picture” - Laurel Furumoto, Theory & Psychology “Naming the Mind consolidates a vast body of scholarship on psychological language and offers a persuasive model for appreciating the dynamic play and implications of this expert language....For those researchers concerned with psychology's language, Naming the Mind is a smart read" - Jill Morawski, Feminism & Psychology "Danziger is to be congratulated for his vision, his courage, and his articulate style in delivering his devastating message that today's psychology is not forever." - Michael Wertheimer, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences "...helps to reveal the socially constructive character of psychological categories that are often taken as 'natural' entities in a reality independent of sociocultural processes. His method for doing this, however, is not ethnographic, but historical, and his book demonstrates how historical analysis can make an important contribution to the ongoing development of psychology." Harry Heft, The Psychological Record "Kurt Danziger’s Naming the Mind: How Psychology Found Its Language, published in 1997, has already been highly valued as a must-read book in the domain of history of psychology, theoretical psychology, and critical psychology ... This review will evaluate the book from the viewpoint of the philosophy of mind and its relevant domains in philosophy. My conclusion is that this book is also a must-read for philosophers." - Tetsuya Kono, Philosophy of the Social Sciences Details • Publisher: Sage • Hardcover Edition: May 6, 1997 (ISBN-10: 080397762X; ISBN-13: 978-0803977624) • Paperback Edition: May 6, 1997 (ISBN-10: 0803977638; ISBN-13: 978-0803977631)
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This contribution argues that the dominant understanding of genocide as mass killing is sociologically inadequate and at odds with the ideas of the author of the concept, Raphael Lemkin. To date sociological approaches to genocide have failed to appreciate the importance of culture and social death to the concept of genocide. There is insufficient serious discussion of culturally destructive processes, which do not involve direct physical killing or violence, through the analytical lens of genocide. This is especially true when it comes to the experiences of indigenous peoples in the world today. When they invoke the term genocide to describe their present day experiences it is often derided. In the second half of this contribution, however, I argue that indigenous peoples' use of the concept is often more accurate and precise than that espoused by many academics and call for more research into seemingly benign processes of indigenous ‘cultural diffusion’ but through the analytical lens of genocide.
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Discusses a nostalgic use of history that reflects arrested mourning of the early transformational mother. The past is recalled in foraging and collecting of "vintage retro" items. Resistance to mourning ties the flea-market junkie to an endless search for keepsakes from the past that will complete the collection and provide the self with the fantasy of transformational experience and capacity. In the analytic transference, it ties the patient to a bittersweet process of reenacting and becoming. The legacy of transformational capacities from the early mother are tied and wistfully sought in an array of historical objects of affection and desire. This nostalgic relation to memory prevents a true identification with the transformational aspects of maternal practice. In contrast, mature memorial activity represents the acceptance of loss and the potential for an animated and dynamic use of memory in the creation of a generative maternal self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study used the mortality salience paradigm to test experimentally the discontinuity hypothesis that nostalgia emerges in response to threats to the continuity of identity. Forty-seven university students were primed to think about their own death, taking a difficult exam, or watching television. Following a delay, participants completed two measures of nostalgia. Participants in the mortality salience condition did not differ from participants in the other conditions in their ratings of the present, future, or past state of the world. Participants in the mortality salience condition choose to write about the future instead of the past more often than did participants in the other two conditions. The results failed to support the discontinuity hypothesis. The goal of the present paper was to experimentally test the discontinuity hypothesis that nostalgia is elicited in response to identity threats that occurs during times of uncertainty. The extant literature offers little support for a relation between uncertainty and nostalgia but this research has been exclusively correlational in nature. The mortality salience paradigm used in research on Terror Management Theory (TMT; Solomon, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 1991) offers an experimental approach for assessing the hypothesis that nostalgia emerges in response to anxiety about uncertainty. A large body of research using the mortality salience (MS) paradigm indicates that reminding people of their mortality leads to defensive responses involving identity consolidation (Solomon, Greenberg, & Pyszczynski, 2004). If nostalgia is elicited by threats to identity continuity, then mortality salience ought to be a powerful elicitor of nostalgia because death represents the ultimate threat to identity.
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Previous research has demonstrated that nostalgia for the past can have positive consequences for individuals' psychological well-being and their perceived ability to cope with challenges in the present (Wildschut, Sedikides, Arndt, & Routledge, 2006). We propose that this effect is limited to circumstances in which individuals have maintained identity continuity between the past and the present. Support for this moderation hypothesis is obtained in a longitudinal survey (Study 1) and two experiments (Studies 2 and 3) among students entering university. Whereas previously observed positive effects of nostalgia were confirmed when identity continuity had been maintained, feeling nostalgic about the past in the context of lower identity continuity had negative consequences for well-being (Studies 1 and 3), perceived ability to cope with challenges (Studies 1 and 2), and interest in new opportunities (Studies 2 and 3) rather than focusing on familiar experiences (Study 3). Taken together, results indicate that the extent to which individuals view the present as linked to the past has important implications for the outcome of their nostalgia.
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Participants listened to randomly selected excerpts of popular music and rated how nostalgic each song made them feel. Nostalgia was stronger to the extent that a song was autobiographically salient, arousing, familiar, and elicited a greater number of positive, negative, and mixed emotions. These effects were moderated by individual differences (nostalgia proneness, mood state, dimensions of the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scale, and factors of the Big Five Inventory). Nostalgia proneness predicted stronger nostalgic experiences, even after controlling for other individual difference measures. Nostalgia proneness was predicted by the Sadness dimension of the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scale and Neuroticism of the Big Five Inventory. Nostalgia was associated with both joy and sadness, whereas nonnostalgic and nonautobiographical experiences were associated with irritation.
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Individuals who are low (compared with high) in attachment-related avoidance rely on social bonds to regulate distress, and the authors hypothesized that nostalgia can be a repository of such social connectedness. Studies 1-3 showed a positive association between loneliness and nostalgia when attachment-related avoidance was low, but not when it was high. Study 4 revealed that low-avoidance individuals derived more social connectedness from nostalgia than did high-avoidance individuals. Study 5 extended these findings and demonstrated that, in addition to being a source of social connectedness, nostalgia increased participants' perceived capacity to provide emotional support to others. As in the case of social connectedness, this beneficial effect of nostalgia was significantly stronger when attachment-related avoidance was low (compared with high).
Article
Psychology is a relatively recent and rapidly developing discipline. Perhaps the most significant changes have taken place over the last decade. This text gives historical perspective to key issues in contemporary psychology such as psychology and women, and psychology and race, as well as more traditional topics like behaviourism and Gestalt psychology. It is aimed specially at undergraduate students but will also appeal to postgraduates and academics interested in gaining a broad-based, issue-led historical perspective to their discipline.
This article describes the phenomenon of nostalgia, which in some cases may lead to severe psychosomatic symptoms, agitated depression, psychotic and dissociative episodes. The author suggests that these symptoms are associated with loss of Home, being understood as a transitional space between people the environment. Nostalgia, even at the risk of losing one's sanity, recreates the flow with the past; prevents unknown environment from intruding and jeopardizing a sense of self; and precludes unwanted and intolerable knowledge about oneself from occurring in the absence of cultural points of references.
Article
In this article, it is argued that a major but neglected topic in the study of everyday memory aging is the role of emotions. Previous work on this topic is noted, and speculative reasons for why the research ended are proposed. Input from personality research, psychoanalytic theory, and metamemory are suggested as places to start. Nostalgia, one emotional outcome of reminiscence, is proposed as the best topic for investigation.
Article
This paper uses literary criticism as the basis for stimulus-side analysis of nostalgia in advertising text. It provides a historical context for modern nostalgia by discussing the phenomenon as a fin de siècle or “end of century” cultural effect. It presents a nostalgia taxonomy by distinguishing between two types of nostalgia — historical and personal — that determine advertising elements of plot, setting, characters, and values inherited from literary antecedents. It analyzes each type in commercial communications, using advertisements, periodicals, and direct mail catalogues as examples. Personal and historical nostalgia advertisements are linked to consumer effects of, respectively, empathy and idealization of the self. Eight propositions are developed for additional research in three areas: content analysis, different gender responses, and effects on consumer values.
Article
Using a theory-driven approach, this study investigates whether and/or to what extent consumers' information-processing tendencies and ad-based responses are differentially influenced by the introduction of nostalgic cues (either "personal" or "historical" in nature) embedded in an advertisement. The results support hypothesized expectations that personal nostalgia (a yearning for one's past) generally outperforms both historical and non-nostalgic advertising when measures of self-directed thoughts, positive affect, and attitude toward the ad are considered. However, when cognitive measures (i.e., brand/message-related cognitive responses and message recall) are considered, a personally nostalgic ad is shown to be comparable to a historical nostalgic ad, but inferior to a non-nostalgic ad. Regression results utilizing cognitive response data further indicate that individuals' brand attitudes are differentially influenced by the type of nostalgia evoked. Practical and theoretical implications for the study's findings are discussed, and future research directions are presented.
Article
American Imago 59.3 (2002) 253-276 —Aharon Appelfeld, "Buried Homeland" —Paul Celan, "The No-One's Rose" We dedicate this paper to the memory of Rosa Roth Zuckermann, whose lessons about courage and survival have deeply enriched our lives. Her hospitality, along with that of Felix and Marina Zuckermann and Matthias Zwilling, during our 1998 visit to Chernivtsi embodied its continuity with the lost Czernowitz. We would also like to thank Lotte, Carl, and Lilly Hirsch for their helpful and intense conversations about a painful past. On our first walk through the city once called Czernowitz, a woman stopped us on the street. In a mixture of Russian and Yiddish, she asked Marianne's mother, Lotte: "Where are you from?" With our cameras and maps, we were obvious tourists, and she no doubt wondered whether we were coming from Germany, Israel, or the United States. In response, Lotte pointed, emphatically, to the ground: "From here, Czernowitzer." It was the first time in our memory that this simple question, "Where are you from?" evoked such a brief, clear-cut response. Three words. "From here, Czernowitzer." Usually, it has required a long-winded, complicated narrative, if not an entire history and geography lesson. At the present time, of course, Czernowitz is nowhere—a place that cannot be found in any contemporary atlas. It ceased to exist as a political entity long ago, in 1918 (the year Lotte Hirsch was born), with the collapse of the Austro- Hungarian Habsburg Empire. Nowadays, its name is Chernivtsi, and it is located in the southwestern region of Ukraine, on the river Prut, some fifty kilometers north of the Romanian border. After the First World War, when it fell under the rule of Greater Romania, it was called Cern(breve)au¸ti; and subsequently, under Soviet rule after the Second World War, Chernovtsy. For Lotte and Carl Hirsch, however, and for all the surviving Jews of their generation who were born there but who are now dispersed throughout the world, the place has forever remained Czernowitz—the "Vienna of the East" and capital of Bukowina, an outlying province of the Habsburg Empire. It is a city in which (in the words of its most famous poet, Paul Celan) "human beings and books used to live" (2001, 395). The long imperial connection of Czernowitz with Vienna and their own whole-hearted embrace of the German language, its literature, and the social and cultural standards of the Austro-Germanic world are for the Hirschs and their fellow refugees intimately intertwined—a core constituent of their identity. They, like their parents and grandparents, had accepted the premise inherent in the century-long process of Jewish emancipation and acculturation to Germanic culture that had taken place in lands once ruled by the Habsburgs. Its basis was that one could remain a Jew in religious belief while also becoming culturally, economically, and politically integrated within the dominant social order. Karl-Emil Franzos, Bukowina's first internationally famed German-language writer, best characterizes the complicated cultural identity of most assimilated Czernowitz Jews at the end of the nineteenth century: "I wasn't yet three feet tall when my father told me: 'Your nationality is neither Polish, nor Ruthenian [i.e., Ukrainian], nor Jewish—you are German.' But equally often he said, even then: 'According to your faith you are a Jew'" (cited in Wichner and Wiesner 1993, 3). Indeed, even after the annexation of Bukowina by greater Romania in 1918 and the institution of a policy of "Romanianization," a predominant segment of the Jewish population of the city and region remained devoted to the German...
Article
"So Lonesome I Could Die" seeks to historicize the emotional effects of war by analysing debates over how to manage and treat nostalgia in the Civil War North. At this time, both physicians and laypeople viewed nostalgia (or homesickness) as a deadly disease that might kill a man outright, but more frequently precipitated or exacerbated other illnesses. Focusing on the emotional distress caused by soldiers' detachment from homes and families, this diagnosis stands in contrast to modern conceptions of war trauma, which emphasize the impact of participating in or witnessing horrific violence. Whereas the diagnosis of nostalgia generated little controversy in the mid-nineteenth century, there was no such consensus over the proper treatment of homesick troops. According to certain physicians and military leaders, the best curative lay in turning soldiers' thoughts away from home through harsh discipline and active combat. Yet, there were also many in the North who believed in the medical, military, and political value of promoting, rather than repressing, strong domestic feeling in the Union ranks. Wartime debates over the treatment of nostalgic men suggest that even as some held up the detached warrior as a model, others continued to emphasize the primary importance of domestic ties in creating ideal soldiers and virtuous citizens.
Article
a b s t r a c t Three studies tested and supported the proposition that nostalgia buffers existential threat. All studies measured nostalgia proneness and manipulated death awareness (mortality salience; MS). In Study 1, at low, but not high, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition responded less pos-itively to an identity threat than participants in the control condition. In Study 2, at low, but not high, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition evidenced greater levels of death anxiety than participants in the control condition. In Study 3, at high, but not low, levels of nostalgia proneness, participants in the MS condition indicated greater feelings of state nostalgia than participants in the con-trol condition.
Article
a b s t r a c t Two functions of nostalgia are consistently documented in the literature: self-positivity and social con-nectedness. These reflect agency and communion, respectively. Such dimensions are polarized no more than in narcissists, who are high in agency and low in communion. In three studies we tested whether high and low narcissists differ in the content of nostalgic recollections, whether they become nostalgic about different objects, and whether nostalgia serves different functions for them. High (versus low) nar-cissists made more agentic references in their narratives and manifested nostalgic proclivity toward agentic objects. Furthermore, nostalgia served a self-positivity function, but not a social connectedness function, for high (versus low) narcissists. Findings highlight the relevance of personality—narcissism, in particular—for the experience of nostalgia.
Article
Review of book: Putting Psychology in its Place: An Introduction from a Critical Historical Perspective by Graham Richards, Routledge, 1996, x + 197 pp. Reviewed by Raymond E. Francher. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The literature on nostalgia is summarized under the headings: (1) symptoms, (2) susceptibility (as related to race and nationality, age, temperament, intelligence, education, rural and urban backgrounds), (3) conditions precipitating nostaligia, (4) theories (physiological, anatomical, and psychological), and (5) prevention and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this book Graham Richards provides a new and controversial analysis of the nature of psychological language. He argues that psychological concepts of all kinds are ultimately derived from concepts about the external world, so that 'human nature' is nothing more than 'internalized Nature.' This view challenges orthodox notions of primitive anthropomorphism across many academic fields, such as anthropology, linguistic philosophy, mythology, the history of psychology, and human evolution. In the course of his argument, Graham Richards draws attention to hitherto unacknowledged problems regarding the nature of linguistic reference. He also provides a route for considering human psychological evolution, and raises questions about the nature of psychology as a discipline, and its relationship with the physical sciences. The 'physiomorphic' theory he advocates undermines many implicit assumptions about the nature of psychological knowledge and the logic of psychological enquiry. It constitutes a radical challenge to current ways of thinking about psychological language, offering a means by which productive interdisciplinary exploration of 'human nature' and its origins can be enhanced. Cross-disciplinary in its approach, "On Psychological Language" will appeal to students across a wide range of academic subjects, including psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and linguistics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The content of original song lyrics was manipulated to explore the relationship of nostalgia to identity and social connectedness. A sample of 96 undergraduates rated six attributes of four sets of lyrics and completed measures of identity exploration, styles of maintaining identity, nostalgia for their past, and nostalgia for a general historical past. Lyrical nostalgia was not a function of how happy, sad, meaningful or liked the lyrics were, but was characterized by the irretrievability of the past. More active identity exploration was associated with higher ratings of lyrical nostalgia. The more actively participants were exploring their identity, the more closely they related to and found meaningful lyrics that emphasize the influence of the past on identity. Consistent with the greater social connectedness of individuals prone to personal nostalgia, nostalgia for one's past was related to reliance on the standards of others in defining identity, and higher ratings of liking, meaning, and relevance for other-directed lyrics. By contrast, participants more nostalgic for an historical past rely less heavily on others to define their identity, and they related more closely to the solitary identity lyrics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Having, in the chapters of the first volume (see record 2004-20102-000) considered physical growth and the mental and moral perversions incident to adolescence, and given an anthology of descriptions of various phases of this transitional stage of life as conceived or experienced by men and women of historic or literary eminence, the author has, in the chapters that follow, to consider its normal genetic psychology, beginning with sensation and proceeding to feei- ings, will, and intellect. The material for what follows is newer, more difficult, and more incomplete, but although many data are already at hand, there has never been any attempt, within my knowledge, to bring them together or to draw the scientific and practical inferences they suggest. After examining physical changes, like changes in the senses and voice, the author examines the evolution and feelings/instincts characteristic of normal adolescence. The education of the heart is described in chapters XI, XV, and XII. Chapter XII also is devoted to that of nature and the sciences most commonly taught. Chapter XIII examines pubic initiations by indigenous cultures, classical ideals and customs, and church confirmation. The adolescent psychology of conversion is examined in Chapter XIV. The last part of Chapter XV and Chapter XVI treats of the pedagogy of the English literature and language, history, drawing, normal and high schools, colleges and universities, and philosophy. Social and religious training have each a chapter (XV and XIV, respectively). The education of girls has Chapter XVII. The final chapter examines ethnic psychology and pedagogy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested a hypothesis based on F. Davis's (1979) argument that nostalgia helps individuals construct identity continuity. Davis predicted that people whose lives feature discontinuity will be more likely to become nostalgic—in particular, that males will be more nostalgic than females. The present study developed analogous hypotheses for race and geographic and occupational mobility and tested them through a secondary analysis of 4 national sample surveys: The National Senior Citizens Survey (1968), a National Council on Aging study (1974), a mental health survey (1976), and the General Social Survey (1980). Results do not support the discontinuity hypothesis. Nonwhites were more nostalgic than Whites, but otherwise discontinuity did not have the predicted effects. It is concluded that while analysis of survey results cannot provide a conclusive test of Davis's hypothesis, it calls the argument into question. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study introduces a balanced survey of a range of behavioral and emotional experiences to assess impressions of a person’s childhood. Ninety-one undergraduates and 70 of their parents rated exposure to positive and negative social and solitary experiences. The survey demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and 4-week test–retest reliability, and scores correlated with Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory of temporally based beliefs and values, Batcho’s inventory of personal nostalgia, and Holbrook’s measure of historical nostalgia. Correlations with time perspective and nostalgia inventories suggest that favorable impressions of childhood are associated with benefits such as social connectedness, personal continuity, and health-promoting behaviors and adverse impressions with less adaptive impacts such as unsatisfactory relationships, discontinuity, and distress. Ratings of social experiences were correlated more closely with childhood happiness than were solitary experiences. The Childhood Survey shows promise as a tool to expand the exploration of childhood experiences beyond adverse events to encompass components that comprise a happy childhood. KeywordsHappy childhood–Nostalgia–Time perspective
Article
According to terror management theory, people turn to meaning-providing structures to cope with the knowledge of inevitable mortality. Recent theory and research suggest that nostalgia is a meaning-providing resource and thus may serve such an existential function. The current research tests and supports this idea. In Experiments 1 and 2, nostalgia proneness was measured and mortality salience manipulated. In Experiment 1, when mortality was salient, the more prone to nostalgia participants were, the more they perceived life to be meaningful. In Experiment 2, when mortality was salient, the more prone to nostalgia participants were, the less death thoughts were accessible. In Experiment 3, nostalgia and mortality salience were manipulated. It was found that nostalgia buffered the effects of mortality salience on death-thought accessibility.
Article
In a chapter from his Echoes of the Civil War As I Hear Them (1905), entitled “The Humor of Field and Camp,” Wisconsin officer Michael Hendrick Fitch recalled an amusing caper involving William Cumback, a representative from Indiana, who “told a good joke on himself as well as his wife, regarding this word, ‘Nostalgia.’” While visiting regiments from his home state, an officer informed Cumback that several soldiers were afflicted with a sometime-deadly disease known as nostalgia. Entirely mystified by this seemingly pervasive ailment, Cumback sought counsel from a regimental surgeon who clued-in the baffled politician as to medical terminology. Spotting an opportunity ripe for mischief-making, Cumback wrote his wife to note that “a great many” Indiana soldiers were “suffering with nostalgia,” adding that he too had “a touch of it” but doubted its severity. Panicked by her husband’s admission, Mrs. Cumback rushed the unwelcome news to the family doctor, whereupon he informed her that her husband was suffering from a simple case of homesickness.1 Astride the story’s wider allusions to the nature and extent of illness and the efficacy of medical care during the Civil War, there rests, of course, Fitch’s juxtaposition of homesickness and nostalgia. Conceived originally as a type of homesickness that plagued seventeenth-century Swiss mercenaries while they warred abroad, nostalgia (from the Greek nostos, a yearning to return home, and algos, pain) became all-too-familiar to doctors and surgeons during the Civil War, and they readily acknowledged the condition as a bona fide disease. As scholars from many diverse disciplines continue to reflect upon nostalgia’s myriad guises and significances, a discussion of nostalgia’s relationship to homesickness suggests itself.2 To be sure, Fitch’s humorous aside raises a number of important questions for historians of the Civil War. What predicated the nostalgia of the average soldier during the conflict? Were there any marked differences between the sufferings of Union soldiers and those of their Confederate adversaries? What were the symptoms? Was there a remedy? Why did ideas and images of home become the poignant focus for so many adolescent men? Did notions of home (and its associations) have any kind of cultural resonance with these young Americans? Were soldiers the only ones who suffered from the affliction? Given the recent explosion of interest in the social history of the era and current attention afforded to the history of medicine and the history of disability, these questions are significant and timely ones and they have excited some interest among historians of the Civil War, especially in a plethora of soldier studies to have emerged within Civil War historiography since the 1980s.3 In 1984 Donald Lee Anderson and Godfrey Tryggve Anderson, in their largely forgotten study, “Nostalgia and Malingering in the Military during the Civil War,” set out parameters for future debate with their examination of homesickness and indolence among Union combatants, but did little to suggest any relationship between the two. For Eric T. Dean Jr., writing in the 1990s, nostalgia appeared among Civil War soldiers as a depression borne of disorientation, a stress anxiety induced by the trauma of combat and an antecedent to twentieth-century shell-shock, combat fatigue, and post-traumatic stress disorder. More recently, Frances Clarke has offered a revision of this hypothesis, suggesting the emphasis that recent war trauma scholarship has placed upon the horrors of combat and on observing its devastation is misplaced; rather, the nostalgia of Union combatants, the focus of her study, underscored their dislocation from familiar surroundings and spoke compellingly to the fracturing of family ties as the “most distressing trials that a soldier could undergo.”4 Regrettably, each study largely ignores homesickness among Confederate soldiers and bypasses any extended discussion of homesickness in wider historical contexts. Thinking through the vexing problem of homesickness among Civil War combatants alongside earlier European deliberations on the subject prompts us to recognize the remarkable consistency of nostalgia to strike at potentially any soldier displaced from home. Although these studies offer important and thoughtful insights into homesickness among Union soldiers during the Civil War, they only marginally address the idea of home itself. For the purposes of this study, a...
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Clark University, 1898. Typewritten manuscript. Includes bibliographical references.